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I itnrn'i Poems 

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Author of the Regimental Companion ; Comprehensive View ; Poems, dedicated, by 
Permission, to His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, &c. &c. 

Malheur anx apprentifs dont les sens egares 
Veulent, sans s'appliquer, franchir tous les degres : 
Temeraires, craignez le sort qui vous menace ! 
Phaeton pent seul par sa funeste audace : 
Si vous guidez trop tot le Char brillant de Mars, 
Songez que tout l'Etat doit courir vos hasards. 

King of Prussia's Art of Wak. 



Printed for 









Je n'ai point le sot amour-propre de voir mieux qu'un autre ; si chacun avoit 
la meme franchise, il vous tiendroit le meme langage. 

Precis de la ViePubliquedu Due D'Otrante.— p. 65. 


I continue to inscribe this Work to your Royal Highness, 
because, under your auspices, the British army has arrived at a state of 
discipline and regulation, by which success abroad has been obtained, 
and tranquillity at home secured. 

The Army stands indebted to you for the confirmation and im- 
provement of that system which Frederick the Great of Prussia first 
reduced to practice, and which has been ably carried into execution 
by the united efforts of those officers who have acted under your 

Victories gained in the field may reflect the greatest honour upon 
men that have gallantly fought the battles of their Country ; but 
victories, after all, are little more than the fruits and consummation 
of those well digested principles by which the arduous science of 
war is managed, and without which no army can be well conducted, 
or finally triumphant. Even he, # who but lately astonished every 
quarter of the civilized globe by his military exploits and political 
daring, might still have stood at the head of a great nation, had he 
been governed by something less intoxicating than mere success. 

That soldiers are necessary in every state, the wildest theorist must 
acknowledge ; and the good or bad direction of their energies alone 
makes them a curse or a blessingr to community. 

Five and twenty years hard experience in a neighbouring country 
must have convinced mankind, that mere abstract reasoning is not 
sufficient to cope with the vices and frailties of human nature. The 
dissolution of one frame of government may be effected by arms, but 
unless arms be resorted to for the support of another, anarchy must 

* Bonaparte. 



follow until the old system be restored, or a better one substituted 
in its room : so that whether we have recourse to Alfred's antiquated 
plan of national defence, to a militia as it now exists, or to a regular 
army, the consequences must be the same. The whole reasoning, in 
fact, is neither more nor less than a distinction without a difference. 
The same may indeed be said of Party, which has been truly called, 
the madness of many for the gain of a few. 

These are truths as unquestionable, as that the necessity for criminal 
jurisprudence is rendered indispensible by the depravity of human 
nature. In the hands of a wicked despot, an army becomes a devour- 
ing locust, and a creature of ruin and desolation ; in those of a 
man whose highest object is the welfare of his country, it is the 
palladium of the best rights and interests of a nation; and it is not 
flattery to say, that you have studiously endeavoured to render it so. 
Even the honour and honesty of its component parts have been kept 
in sight; and every species of fraud on the industrious tradesman has 
been discountenanced by the restrictive vigilance of your rules.* 

Under circumstances by no means encouraging to any writer, I 
have attempted to add my mite to the general stock of military know- 
ledge. That 1 have, in some degree, succeeded, is shewn by the wide 
circulation of the work, and most especially by the gratifying man- 
ner in which you have done me the honour to receive it.f The path 
I have been doomed to tread has been lowly, but not wholly destitute 
of merit, or unfruitful to the service ; and although thousands may 
have eclipsed me by the brilliancy of their career in arms, I have 
the hardihood to assert, that few have done more, in zeal and assi- 
duity, to second those views which have reflected so much honour upon 

* In order to secure the profession of arms from the contaminating touch of 
fraud, and to convince officers of every rank and description, that the slightest de- 
viation from honesty will be noticed at Head-Quarters, it is an admitted prin- 
ciple with His Royal Highness the Commander in Chief, the Right Honourable 
the Secretary at War, and the Right Honourable the Master-General of the Ord- 
nance, to receive remonstrances from the lowest tradesman, and to put defaulters 
under suspension and stoppage of pay until the debt be discharged. In very 
gross cases dismissal from the service may take place. This is as it ought to 
be; for why should a man, with honour on his lips, indulge dishonest views in his 
heart, under the cloak of professional impunity ? 

t Extract from an Official Letter sent to the Author on his presenting the 

second edition : 

Horse- Guards, 2lst January, 1804. 
' I am also directed to inform you, that His Royal Highness very much applauds 
viiir zeal, which has induced you to allot so much of your time to the study of 
military subjects; and he considers the several treatises which you have presented 
to the public, to have been very beneficial to the service.' 

Addressed, (Signed) W. H. CLINTON. 

Charles James, Esq. 

Albany, Piccadilly. 

X See Hints to Lord Rawdon, now the Earl of Moira, published by Faulder, in 
1700; Comprehensive View, in 1796; and the 7th edition of the Regimental 
Companion; and Military Dictionary, originally, published in ISO'.', by T. Egerton, 



Daring your administration of the Forces, not only the officer, but 
the private soldier, has been raised from a comparative state of indi- 
gence and degradation into one of comfort and respectability among 
his fellow citizens ; their wives, widows, and children have been 
relieved ;* and even the higher orders of the profession have been 
placed in a condition of honourable independence. Emulation has 
received an additional incentive by honorary marks of distinction, and 
the unavoidable calls of life have been answered by a fair appeal to 
national justice and liberality. The soldier of fortune and the unpro- 
tected officer, with grey hairs and crippled limbs, are no longer left to 
vegetate upon a miserable half-pay with nominal rank ;*f and although 
they may remain without regiments, they are still above the want of 
those means which are required for the support of their respective 
stations. And this has been done upon the best of all good princi- 
ples, that of justice to the individual and economy to the public ; for 
as regiments become vacant they are filled up according to seniority,^ 
and are given to such meritorious officers as have distinguished them- 
selves on actual service. In the distribution of military pensions the 
same regard has been paid to the public purse; for as officers recover, 
and become enabled to return to the full exercise of their functions, 
they are examined by the Medical Board, and the allowance drops. 
The Date obohtm JBetisario is no longer a matter of reproach to 
Englishmen ; while a profligate expenditure of their means for the 
exclusive benefit of the army, ceases to be a just object of com- 
plaint. The interior economy of corps has been equally benefited 
by the wisdom of your arrangements. Troops and companies 
have obtained effective officers by the abolition of nominal captains 
in the several field officers. The Colonel's company, instead of 
being left, as it formerly was, to the sole direction of an ensign, (for the 
adjutant was usually its lieutenant,) is now under the immediate com- 
mand of a captain and two subalterns ; and the gay and thoughtless gre- 
nadier or light-infantry paymaster has been replaced by an unassuming 
man of conduct and calculation. Nor have the superior departments 
or the army been less fortunate under your influence and personal di- 
rection. Not only the General Staff has been improved and new-mo- 
delled by you, but all its minor branches have been made to corre- 
spond with the exigencies of real service. You have destroyed that 
system of plurality which once prevailed in the army, and which is so 
destructive in every well-regulated state, civil, military or ecclesiastical. 
We no longer see vested in the same person the contradictory duties of 
captain-lieutenant, adjutant, paymaster, quarter-master, and chaplain by 

* See the Regulations respecting the provision for the widows and children, 
and the security of the effects of deceased officers and soldiers. 

t For particulars respecting the melancholy situation of a General Officer of 
this description, before the allowance took place, see the Preface to the last edi- 
tion of the Regimental Companion. — Ab uno disce oinnes. 

I The Royal Branches are, of course, an exception to the rule; and this excep- 
tion is no more than one of the scarce feathers in the prerogative. 

a a 


proxy,* for the shameless purpose of throwing into one pocket the 
accumulated pay and allowances of those situations without the possi- 
bility of lining justice to any. In a moral point of view, the condition 
of the British army has been such as to cause it to be respected abroad, 
and esteemed at home. Even the French, under the severe mortifica- 
tion of defeat, do not refuse their tribute to the general good beha- 
viour of our men and officers. 

With practical knowledge of the field and undaunted assiduity in 
office, Your Royal Highness has done that for the Army which the 
late Mr. 1*111, at his outset in life, and every wise man besides, has 
endeavoured to do for the state at large ; you have not only reformed 
its abuses, but you have raised the long tried valour of its soldiers 
into acknowledged skill and reputation ; you have wisely dismissed 
all parade and imposing grandeur, to receive officers and common 
citizens — for your situation embraces the concerns of both classes — 
as one honest man would receive another; you have not done, as 
many, most unfortunately for the country, sometimes do — you have 
not heard through the ears, or seen through the eyes of others ; you 
have personally listened to, and patiently considered, the different 
statements that have been laid before you; and thereby enabled every 
man of zeal and ability to offer his contribution to the public service. 

It is well known, that one of the boldest and the wisest manoeuvres 
in naval, or military, tactics, was first suggested by a civilian, and 
afterwards successfully practised by Lord Rodney in 1 782, and by 
Lord Nelson during the late war. It was also imitated by Bonaparte; 
— I mean that of cutting the enemy's line asunder. f Let it not then 
be said that books and writings are useless to the service, or that no 
notice ought to be taken of those men who devote their time and 
health to Theory and Research. 

Animal courage most unquestionably deserves its eulogy ; but 
something also is due to genius, skill and conduct, especially in a 
nation where courage springs from the cradle, and accompanies every 
true-born Briton to the grave. 

W hen the army was first placed in your hands, you found it little 
better than an Augaean stable, choked by undue promotions, and 
reeking with the Sale, Exchange and Purchase of Commissions ; you 
found Colonels, with their schoolboy habits still about them, standing 
nt the head of battalions, and Ensigns emerging from the Nursery into 
troops and companies. These evils were obviated by your judicious 
regulations, in which, while seniority was duly respected, the path to 
promotion was not closed against superior merit. You have happily 
steered between the two extremes of an overweening adherence to 
mere rule and regulation, and an indiscriminate deviation from all sys- 
tem ;| and after having borne the attacks of Calumny in its grossest 

* See a Desultory Sketch of the Abuses in the Militia, addressed to the Earl of 
Moira in t794 ; published by John Bell, Oxford-street. 
t See Clerk's Naval Tactics. 
t See the Seventeenth Report of the Commissioners of Military Inquiry. 


sense, and been vindicated by Recantation in its purest spirit, you re- 
main in your dignified station under the best of all pretensions, that 
of doing reell. 

This, Sir, is the unaltered language, and these are the uninvited sen- 
timents of a plain individual-, whose emoluments from the service have 
always been little, and whose rank is less ; who is not bribed to flatter 
you, or any other distinguished personage, either by a sense of past, or a 
hope of future, favour ; and who thus adds his slender testimony to 
that of the army at large, in acknowledging, that from the General 
Officer down to the widow and orphan child inclusive, the happy 
effects of your interference continue to be felt. 

totamijue diffusa per artus 

Mens agitat niolem, et magno se corpore miscet. — A r inoiL. 

I have the honour to be, 
Your Royal Highness's 

Very obedient, humble Servant, 

London, November, 18l6. 


Although this Edition has considerably exceeded the proposed limits 
of the Author's plan, and contains more technical terms than are to be 
found in the original undertaking, it is nevertheless so far reduced as to 
be rendered more portable, and so far abridged as to be less elaborate in 
its explanation, and more copious in its terms. 

Many words have been added in this impression which are not to be 
found in any work extant; and it is no small gratification to the Author 
to see the utility of his original introduction of foreign phrases sanc- 
tioned by events, in continental warfare, that have raised the character of 
the British army to the highest pinnacle of glory. More than fourteen 
years have elapsed, since he first ventured to give the explanation of 
military terms in general, with the admixture of French words. The 
propriety of this introduction is now unquestionable. 

Without pretending to know more than his neighbours, or to be endowed 
with deeper sagacity than others, the Author was well aware, from an early 
view of the French Revolution, and a mature consideration of its course, 
that the military spirit of France would either over-run Furope, and lodge 
some of her moveable legions in Great Britain and Ireland, or be forced 
back by the awakened energies of the Continent upon her own distracted 
bosom ; in either of which unavoidable consequences, a knowledge of the 
French language must be useful, and indeed necessary, to the British 
officer. One of these consequences has taken place : and Great Britain 
possesses the exclusive glory of seeing that power by which her very 
existence, as an independent nation, had been repeatedly menaced, 
placed under the guardian wing of a British Chief, whose skill, courage, 
and good fortune are unexampled in history.* 

Of the execution of the Work itself, either in its original state, subse- 
quent augmentation, or present abridgement, the Author can only say, 
that far from being satisfied himself, he has done his best to satisfy 
others. He has endeavoured to reduce the subject matter of two 
volumes into a more portable impression, without losing the smallest 
portion of its military cast and tenour; and by discharging a redundancy 
of explanation, he has obtained room for several fresh words. Some 
entire new matter has also been admitted ; particularly that connected 
with the most important sieges which have occurred since the invention 
of gunpowder; and likewise the consequences that have ensued from 
those operations. The list of battles, which has appeared in former 
editions, is now given with additional matter, and fresh illustration. The 
Author is free to confess, that after having discovered many contradictory 
dates in recent publications, he has been enabled to correct them by a 
reference to that well executed and invaluable collection of mint-medals 
in which the principal events of the reign of Bonaparte, or Napoleon the 
1st, are minutely described ; and in imitation of which a series is in pro- 
gress here to preserve the memory of the several contests in which the 
Duke of Wellington has proved victorious. Not that any metal, or com- 

* To shew that the Author's opinion of the energy and stability of Great Britain 
has been uniformly the same, see the Dedication to the 4th edition of his Poems, 
originally written in 1792. 


position, can be sufficiently lasting to vie with the living record of his 
transactions, which must pass down from the lips of one generation to 
those of another ; for he may indeed exclaim, in the words of the Roman 
Pott, Exegi mommentum are peramuu! 

Although in the prosecution of this volume, the Author has been left 
to his own labour and researches, and that too during a period of ex- 
traneous occupation, he is, nevertheless, called upon by his own feelings 
to say, that were he permitted to indulge his sense of the prompt and 
friendly manner in which he has been assisted through the list of Sieges, 
by an intelligent officer of Engineers, an unreserved acknowledgement 
would be truly gratifying. This tribute must, therefore, remain with no 
other direction to its object than may be found in the following French 
inscription : A cehii qui s'y reconnoitra ! 

The Author can only repeat here what he has said in the last edition, 
that to render this work (what it ought to be) a national Military Encyclo- 
paedia, the Professors at Woolwich and Sandhurst should not only afford 
their theoretical contribution, but officers of known ability and experience, 
who are provided for in the several departments, should add their practical 

An office, or circumscribed department, at a moderate expense to the 
public, might, indeed, be established for the purpose of receiving com- 
munications, of translating foreign military works, and of digesting the 
different Acts of Parliament which relate to the army. This Office, or 
Literary Board, would be subordinate to the Commander in Chief and to 
the Secretary at War; under whose immediate sanction and direction 
works of a military tendency, as well as official rules and regulations, 
could be arranged in a short and conspicuous manner. Long subsequent 
to the publication of the Regimental Companion, a collection of Official 
Rules and Regulations was given by authority ; but this collection con- 
tains no more than the bare existing rule without suggestion or illustration ; 
and it is published so seldom,* that innumerable alterations occur between 
the appearance of one edition and the promulgation of another; so that 
the officer is frequently at a loss through the want of official reference. 
I shall not, 1 trust, be accused of egotism, when I have the presumption to 
arrogate to myself some slight merit in having struggled through many 
difficulties to bring the Companion and the present work into notice. The 
former, for a fair and candid reason,f was not sanctioned by the Com- 
mander in Chief, but it had, and still has, the distinguished countenance 
of His Royal Highness the Prince Regent. 

To those persons whose chief study, and perhaps whose chief delight, 
consists in a malignant pursuit after errors only, the Author must ob- 
serve, that " // cannot be expected that he should please others, since he has 
not been able to please himself." 

Si quid novisti rectius istis, 

Candid us imperti : si iion, his utcre mecum. 

London, 2£)th November, 1 8 1 6". 

6 For the correctness of this remark, I appeal to the Comptrollers of Army 

t When the Author first requested permission to dedicate the Regimental 
Companion CO Hit Royal Highness the Commander in Chief, Colonel (now Lieut. 
General) Brownrigg, who was then Military Secretary, told him, that as the work 
would contain desultory observations which might be misconstrued into Rules 
and Regulations, the sanction of Head-Quarters could not be given. This ob- 
jection, however, was waved with respect to the Military Dictionary. 




A BAB, a sort of militia among the 
^*- Turks. 

ABACOT, IV. a cap of state. 
ABACUS, (abaque, Fr.) in architec- 
ture, the upper member of the capital 
of a column, serving as a kind of crown- 
ing, both to the capital and the whole 
column. It is usually square in the 
Tuscan, Doric, and Ionic orders; and 
sloping, on the sides, or faces, in the 
Corinthian and Composite capitals. Vi- 
truvius, and others after him, who give 
the history of the orders, say that the 
abacus was originally intended to repre- 
sent a square tile laid over an urn, or 
rather a basket. See Acanthus. 

ABAJOUR, Fr. a sky light; also a 
*mall sloping aperture which is made in 
walls for the purpose of receiving light 
from above, such as is seen in prisons 
and subterraneous buildings. 

To ABANDON, (abandonner, Fr.) to I 
leave a place to the mercy of an enemy, 
by suddenly retiring from it. Hence to j 
abandon a fortress, &c. 

ABATE, in horsemanship. A horse 
is said to abate, or take down, his cur- 
tets, when, working upon curvets, he | 
puts his 'two hind legs to the ground j 
both at once, and observes the same 
exactness in all his times. 

ABATIS, Fr. trees cut down, and so 
laid with their branches, &c. turned to- 
wards the enemy, as to form a defence 
for troops stationed behind them. They 
are made either before redoubts, or 
other works, to render the attacks diffi- 
cult, or sometimes along the skirts of a 
wood, to prevent the enemy from getting 
possession of it. In this case the trunks 
serve as a breast-work, behind which the 
troops arc posted, and for that reason 


! should be so disposed, that the parts 
may, if possible, flank each other. 

ABBUTTALS, the buttings and 
boundings of a piece of land expressing 
on what other lands, streets, highways, 
&c. the several extremes thereof abutt 
or terminate. 

To ABDICATE, (abdiquer, Fr.) to 
give up voluntarily any place of trust, as 
to abdicate the crown. The French use 
the word abdiquer in the same manner 
that we do to resign; hence abdiquer le 
commandement dtune armce, d'une com- 
pagnie, to resign the command of an 
army, of a company. 

ABLECTI, in military antiquity, a 
choice or select part of the soldiery in 
the Roman armies, picked out of those 
cal led ext raor dinar ii. 

ABOARD, (abord, Fr.) in the ship. 
On hoard is frequently used to signify 
the same; but the term is evidently a 
corruption of its original import and 
etymology. A signifies in. Thus, aloft 
is derived from a, in, and luft, air, in the 
air; along, in the same track. So that 
instead of saying, the troops are on 
board, it should be, the troops are 

ABOIS, IV. a term used among the 
French to signify extreme distress. 
Thus an army which is hemmed in on all 
sides in a fortress or camp, and is in 
want of provisions, &c. is said to be aux 
abois. The word comes from aboi/er, to 
bark; perhaps the term at bay is de- 
rived from it, as the stag at bay. 

ABOI-VENTS, Fr. in fortification, 
small lodgments constructed in acovered 
way, or in any other part of a fortified 
place, to protect soldiers from the in- 
clemency of the weather. 

A R R 

( 2 ) 

A B S 

A DOLL A, in military antiquity, a 
warm kind of garment, generally lined 
or doubled, used both by the Greeks 
and Romans, chiefly out of the city, in 
following the camp* 

ABONNEMENT, Fr. an engage- 
ment entered into by a country, town, 
corporation, &c. tor the purpose of sup- 
plying the exigencies of the state in 
time of war, or of granting provisions, 
&c. to an army. 

ABORD, Fr. attack, onset. 
D'ABORD, Fr. at first; in the be- 

S'ABOUCHER, Fr. to parley. 
ABOUT, a technical word to express 
the movement, by which a body of 
troops changes its front or aspect, by 
facing according to any given word of 

Right-Avovr, is when the soldier, by 
placing the toe of the right foot on a 
line in contact with the heel of the left, 
makes a pivot of the latter, and com- 
pletely changes the situation of his per- 
son, by a semi-circular movement to the 

Left-AhovT, is when the soldier, by 
placing the heel of his right foot on a 
line with the great toe of the left, 
changes the situation of his person, by a 
semi-circular movement to the left. 
When troops are under arms, they are 
sometimes put to the left-about, in order 
to prevent the clashing of the pouches, 
which frequently occurs in the semi-cir- 
cular movement to the right. • 

ABOUT, Fr. in carpentry, that part 
of a piece of wood which is between one 
of the ends of the piece and a mortoise. 

ABREAST, a term formerly used to 
express any number of men in front. 
At present they are determined by files. 
ABREUVOIR, Fr. a watering place; 
any spot dug for the purpose of retain- 
ing water. This must always be at- 
tended to when a regular camp is first 

Abreivotr, Fr. in masonry, the 
joint, or juncture, of two stones; or the 
interstice, or space, which is left be- 
tween, to be filled up with mortar or 

Abreuvoir also signifies small 
trenches which are made in stone quar- 
ries to carry off the water. 

ABRI, Fr. shelter, cover. Fire, a 
Vabri, to be under cover, as of a wood, 
hillock, &c. 

ABRIS, Fr. places of shelter. 

ABSCISSA, in military mathematics, 
signifies any part of the diameter or 
axis of a curve, contained between its 
vertex or some other fixed point, and 
the intersection of the ordinate. 

In the parabola, the abscissais a third 
proportional to the parameter and the 

In the ellipsis, the square of the ordi- 
nate is equal to the rectangle under the 
parameter and abscissa, lessened by an- 
other rectangle under the said abscissa, 
and a fourth proportional to the axis, 
the parameter, and the abscissa. 

In the hyperbola, the squares of the 
ordinates are as the rectangles of the 
abscissa by another line, compounded of 
the abscissa and the transverse axis. 

But it must be remembered, that the 
two proportions relating to the ellipsis 
and hyperbola, the origin of the abscissa, 
or point from whence they began to be 
reckoned, is supposed to be the vertex 
of the curve, or, which amounts to the 
same thing, the point where the axis 
meets it; for if the origin of the abscissa 
be taken from the centre, as is often 
done, the above proportions will not be 

ABSENT, a term used in the British 
army. It forms a part of the regimental 
reports and general returns, to account 
for the deficiency of any given number 
of officers or soldiers; and is usually 
distinguished under two principal heads, 
| viz. 

Absent with leave, (avoir conge, ou 
itre permis d'a/ler en semestre, Fr.) offi- 
cers with permission, or non-commission- 
ed officers and soldiers on furlough; 
excused parade or field duty. 

Absent without leave, (itre absent, 
ou s'ubscntcr sans permission, Fr.) Men 
who desert are frequently returned ab- 
sent without leave, for the specific pur- 
pose of bringing their crime under regi- 
mental cognizance, and to prevent them 
from being tried capitally for desertion, 
according to the Mutiny Act. 

ABSOLUTE Gravity, in philosophy, 
is the whole force by which a body, 
shell, or shot, is impelled towards the 
centre. See Gravity. 

Absolute Number, in Algebra, is the 
known quantity which possesses entirely 
one side of the equation. Thu», in the 
equation, .r.r -f- lOr, — 64, the number 
64, possessing entirely one side of the 
equation, is called the absolute number, 
and is equal to the square of the un- 

A C A 

( * ) 

A C C 

known root x, added to 10 x, or to 10 
times .r. 

ABUTMENT, that which abuts or 
supports the ends of any thing. 

ACADEMY, in antiquity, the name 
of a villa situated about a mile from the 
city of Athens, where Plato and his fol- 
lowers assembled for conversing on phi- 
losophical subjects; and hence they ac- 
quired the name of Academics. 

The term Academy is frequently used 
among the moderns for a regular society, 
or company, of learned persons, insti- 
tuted under the protection of a prince, 
for the cultivation and improvement of 
arts or sciences. Some authors con- 
found ucademy with university ; but, 
though much the same in Latin, they 
are very different things in English. An 
university is, properly, a body composed 
of graduates in the several faculties; of 
professors, who teach in the public 
schools; of regents or tutors, and stu- 
dents who learn under them, and aspire 
likewise to degrees : whereas an academy 
was originally not intended for teaching, 
or to profess any art, but to improve it ; 
it was not for novices to be instructed 
in, but for those who were more know- 
ing, for persons of distinguished abilities 
to confer in, and communicate their 
lights and discoveries to each other, for 
their mutual benefit and improvement. 
The first ucademy we read of, was esta- 
blished by Charlemagne, at the motion 
of Alcuin ; it was composed of the chief 
wits of the court, the emperor himself 
being a member. 

Royal Military Academy. We have 
in England two royal academies, one at 
Woolwich, and one at Portsmouth. 
The first was established by his late 
Majesty King George II. by warrants 
bearing date the 30th day of April, and 
the 18th day of November, 1711, en- 
dowed and supported for, the instructing 
of the people belonging to the military 
branch of the ordnance, in the several 
parts of mathematics necessary to qualify 
them for the service of the artillery, and 
the business of engineers. The lectures 
of the masters in theory were then duly 
attended by the practitioner-engineers, 
officers, serjeants, corporals, private men, 
and cadets. At present the gentlemen 
educated at this academy are the sons of 
the nobility and military officers. They 
are called gentlemen cadets, and are not 
admitted under 14, and not above 16 
years of age. They are taught writing. 

arithmetic, algebra, Latin, French, ma- 
thematics, mechanics, surveying, level- 
ling, and fortification, together with the 
attack and defence; gunnery, mining, 
laboratory-works, geography, perspec- 
tive, fencing, dancing, &c. The master- 
general of the ordnance is always cap- 
tain of the company qf gentlemen cadets. 
One second captain and two subalterns 
constantly do duty with the cadets, on 
the common; and there is the sam« 
number with those in the arsenal. 

The academy at Portsmouth was 
founded by George I. in 172'2, for teach- 
ing the branches of the mathematics, 
which more immediately relate to navi- 

ACANTHUS, in architecture, an or- 
nament in the Corinthian and Compo- 
site orders, being the representation of 
the leaves of the plant in the capitals of 
them. Acanthus is the name of a thorn, 
or thistle, which is called, in English, 
bear's breech, and goat's horn. 

ACANZI ? in military history, thq 
name of the Turkish light horse, that 
form the van-guard of the Grand Si"- 
nior s army on a march. 

ACCELERATED Motion on oblique 
or inclined planes. See Motion. 

Accelerated Motion of Pendulums. 
See Pendulums. 

Accelerated Motion of Projectiles. 
See Projectiles. 

ACCELERER, Fr. to hasten on; t» 
press forward. 

Accelerer tin siege, Fr. to carry 
the trench under the main body of a 
fortified place, in order to take it by a 
prompt assault. 

Accelerer une marcke, Fr. to mak* 
extraordinary exertions in advancing a- 
gainst an enemy with rapidity; to make 
a forced march. 

ACCENDONES, in military anti- 
quity, a kind of gladiators, or supernu- 
meraries, whose office was to excite and 
animate the combatants during the en- 

ACCENSI, in antiquity, were officers 
attending the Roman magistrates; their 
business was to summon the people to 
the public games, and to assist the pra> 
tor when he sat on the bench. 

Accensi, in military antiquity, was 
also an appellation given to a kind of ad- 
jutants appointed by the tribune to as- 
sist each centurion and decurion. Ac- 
cording to Festus, they were supernu- 
merary soldiers, whose duty it was to 

A C C 

t * ) 

A C T 

•Mend their leaders, and supply the 
places or those who were either killed 
or wounded. Livy mentions them us 
■{regular troops, hut little esteemed. — 
Nilmasius tells us, they were taken out 
of' the fifth class of the poor citizens of 

ACCESSIBLE, ( 'accessible, Fr.) that 
which may be approached. We say, in 
a military style, that place, or that for- 
tress, is accessible from the sea, or land, 
i. e. it may be entered on those sides. 

ACCLAMATIONS, Fr. shouts of 
joy, &c. usually given by troops under 
arms, amidst the discharge of cannon, 
&c. on the surrender of a place: or in 
testimony of some great event: we use 
the term cheers. 

ACCLIVITY, in a military sense, is 
the steepness or slope of any work, in- 
clined to the horizon, reckoned upwards. 
Some writers on fortification use accli- 
vity as 6ynonimous to talus; though 
talus is commonly used to denote all 
manner of slopes. 

ACCOMPANIMENT, something at- 
tetrdant on, or added to, another by 
way of ornament, or for the sake of 

ACCONTIUM, in ancient military 
writers, a kind of Grecian dart or jave- 
lin, somewhat resembling the Roman 

ACCOTEMENT, Fr. an upsetting; 
among paviors, a space of ground which 
is between the border of a road and the 
ditch; a sort of footpath by which the 
road is widened. Dcs-Accotement sig- 
nifies the reverse, or having both sides 
uncovered, or not upset. 

Put; or Personal ACCOUNT, an ac- 
count which is kept by army agents, spe- 
cifyiug the several sums of money which 
have been received or disbursed for an 
officer under the heads of subsistence 
and allowances. 

Clothing Account, an account which 
is kept by army agents, stating the sums 
of money which have been received or 
disbursed for a colonel on account of 
die clothing of his regiment. 

ACCOUNTANT (Public). Every 
officer, be his rank and situation ever so 
high or low, becomes a public account- 
ant the instant he is entrusted with 
the receipt and distribution of public 
property; and until he receive his 
quietus, he and his heirs remain amena- 
ble to the crown — nullum tempus oc- 
•uriit Jle^i. 

ACCOUTREMENTS, in a military 
sense, signify habits, equipage, or furni- 
ture, of a soldier, such as buffs, belts, 
pouches, cartridge boxes, &c. Accou- 
trements should be made of stout, 
smooth buff, as well for the service to he 
expected from them, as for their supe- 
rior look above the spongy kind, which 
is always stretching, and difficult to 
clean. The" bull belts are about 2 J 
inches broad, with two buckles to fix 
them to the pouch. Pouches are mad* 
of the stoutest blackened calf-skin, 
especially the outside Haps, which are 
of such a substance as to turn the se- 
verest rain. Cartridge-boxes are made 
as light as possible, with 3ti holes in 
each, to hold so many cartridges. The 
bayonet-belt is also 2\ inches broad, 
and better worn over the shoulder than 
about the waist. 

ACCULER une armie, une troupe, 
Fr. to drive an army or body of men 
into such a situation that they must 
either fight or surrender; also to come 
to close action. 

ACEREIt, Fr. to mix steel with iron; 
thus the point, or edge, of a tool is said 
to be bien act re, well steeled, when the 
mixture of steel is pure. 

ACIIARNEMENT, IV. the rage and 
frenzy to which soldiers are subjected 
in the heat of an engagement; a thirst 
for blood and carnage. 

ACLIDES, in Roman antiquity, a 
kind of missive weapon, with a thong 
fixed to it, whereby it might be drawn 
hack again. Most authors describe the 
aclides as a dart or javelin ; but Scaliger- 
makes it somewhat of a round and glo- 
bular shape, with a wooden stein to poise 
it by. 

ACOLUTIII, in military antiquity, 
was a title in the Grecian empire given 
to the captain or commander of the 7"«- 
rangi, or body guards, appointed for the 
security of the emperor's palace. 

ACKOTERIA, (acrolircs, Fr.) in 
architecture, small pedestals, usually 
without bases, placed on pediments, 
and serving to support statues. 

Sometimes acroteria is used to signify 
those sharp pinnacles, or spiral battle- 
ments, which stand in ranges about fiat 
buildings, with rails and balustrades. 

ACTIAN games, in antiquity, were 
games instituted, or at least restored, 
by Augustus, in memory of the famous 
victory, at Actiuui, over Mark Au« 

A D J 

( 5 ) 


Actian years, in chronology, a series 
of years, commencing with the epocha 
of the battle of Actium, otherwise called 
the aera of Augustus. 

ACTION, {action, Fr.)in the military 
art, is an engagement between two ar- 
mies, or any smaller^ body of troops, or 
between different bodies belonging there- 
to. The word is likewise used to signify 
some memorable act done by an officer, 
soldier, detachment, or party. 

Action of the mouth, in a horse, the 
agitation of the tongue and the mandi- 
ble of a horse, which, by champing upon 
the bridle, keeps his mouth fresh. 

ACTIVITE, Fr. See Activity. 

Eire en Activite, Fr. to be in force, 
or have existence, as a law, rule, or 
order ; also to be on service. 

ACTIVITY, in a military sense, de- 
notes laboriousness, attention, labour, 
diligence, and study. 

ACTS of hostility, (actes d'hostilite, 
Fr.) certain overt acts by sea or land, 
which tend to a declaration of war be- 
tween two countries; or to a renewal of 
it, after a truce had been agreed upon. 

ACULER, from the French, signifies, 
in the manege, that a horse, working 
upon volts, does not go far enough for- 
wards, at every motion, so that his 
shoulders embrace, or take in, too little 
ground, and his croupe comes too near 
the center of the volt. A horse is said 
to have petite, when the horseman does 
not turn his hand, and put him on with 
the calf of the inner leg. 

ACUTE angle. See Angle. 

ADACTED, applies to stakes, or 
piles, driven into the earth with large 
malls shod with iron, as in securing 
ramparts or ponloens. 

ADAPTER, Fr. in architecture, to 
fit an ornament to any particular ob- 

ADDICE, a sort of axe which cuts 
horizontally. It is commonly, or cor- 
ruptly, called an adze. 

ADDOSSER, Fr. .fieeADOssER. 

AQ^jkthe shaft, or entrance into a 
mine^ap^ssage underground, by which 
miners approach the part they intend to 
sap. §ee Gallery. 

of distinction, who aids and assists the 
general in his laborious duty: he forms 
tb^" several details of duty of the army, 
with the brigade majors, and keeps an 
exact state of each brigade and regi- 
ment, with a roll of the lieutenant-ge- 

nerals, major-generals, colonels, lieute- 
nant-colonels, and majors. He every 
day at head quarters receives orders 
from the general officer of the day, and 
distributes them to the majors of bri- 
gades, from whom he receives the num- 
ber of men they are to furnish for the 
duty of the army, and informs them of 
any detail which may concern them. 
On marching days he accompanies the 
general to the ground of the camp. He 
makes a daily report of the situation of 
all the posts placed for the safety of the 
army, and of any changes made in their 
posts. In a day of battle the adjutant- 
general sees the infantry drawn up, 
after which he places himself by the 
general to receive orders. In a siege he 
visits the several posts and guards of the 
trenches, and reports their situation, 
and how circumstanced; he gives and 
signs all orders for skirmishing parties, 
(if time permit,) and has a serjeaut from 
each brigade to carry any orders which 
he may have to send. 

ADJUTANT, an officer who eases 
the major of part of the burthen of his 
duty, and performs it in his absence. 
He receives orders from the brigade ma- 
jor, if in camp ; and when in garrison, 
from the town major. After he has car- 
ried them to his colonel or officer com- 
manding the regiment, he then assembles 
the serjeant-major, drum-major, and rite- 
major, with a serjeant and corporal of 
each company, who write the orders to 
shew to their respective officers. If con- 
voys, parties, detachments, or guards, are 
to be furnished, he gives the number 
which each company is to furnish, and 
hour and place for the assembling : he 
must keep an exact roster and roll of 
duties, and have a perfect knowledge of 
all manoeuvres, &c. 

ADMINISTRATION interieure des 
Corps, Fr. the interior economy or in- 
ternal management of regiments; such 
as the clothing, capping, accoutring, pay- 
ing the men their allowances, &c. 

ADMINISTRER, Fr. to furnish; to 

Administrer des munitions, Fr. to 
supply a town or army with the neces- 
sary means of attack and defence. 

ADMIRAL, the commander in chief 
of a tleet, squadron, &c. When on shore, 
he is entitled to receive military ho- 
nours, and ranks with generals in the 

ADOS, Fr. a bank of earth which 

A F F 

( 6 ) 


is raised against a wall that is much 

\ DOSSER, Fr. to place one thing 
behind anotlu p. 

ADOUBER, l Fr. to stop up 

li \DOUBER, S chasms or holes in 
a fountain, machine, &c. 

ADOUCIS8EMENT, in architec- 
ture, the junction of one body with 
another; also tlie reducing two bodies 
to the same surface, or making them 

ADVANCE. See Pay in Advance. 

ADVANCED signifies some part of 
an army in front of the rest, as in ad- 
vanced guards, which always precede the 
line of march or operations of a body of 
troops; again, as when a battalion, or 
guns of a second line are brought up in 
front and before the first line. This 
term also applies to the promotions of 
officers and soldiers. 

t Fosse \ See Fortifi- 

Advanced % Ditch \ cation. 
(Guard. See Guard. 

ADVANCEMENT, in a military 
sense, signifies honour, promotion, or 
preferment, in an army, regiment, or 

ADVANTAGE G round, a ground 
that gives superiority, or an opportunity 
of annoyance or resistance. 

ADVICE Boat, a vessel employed for 

ADVOCATE General. See Judge 

I \ EATORES, in military antiquity, 
the musicians in an army; including 
those who sounded the trumpets, horns, 
li/ui, bueeitUBf ike. 

AFFAIR, in the military acceptation 
of the word, means any action or engage- 

Affair of Honour, a duel. 

AFFAIRE de poste, Fr. any engage- 
ment fought hy an army for the purpose 
of securing some object of importance ; 
as the key of a country, &c. 

AFFAISSEMENT d'un outrage de 
fortification, Fr. the sinking or lowering 
of any part of a fortification, either 
through time, or by pressure, &c. 

Ah'h'AyiERunc armcc, Fr. to prevent 
an army from receiving provisions, &c. 
and thereby starve it out. une place, Fr. to besiege a 
place so closely as to starve the garrison 
and inhabitants. See Blockade. 

AFFIDAVIT, in military law, signi- 
fies an oath taken before some person 

who is properly authorized to administer 
it; as first, when a soldier is enlisted, 
when it is styled an attestation ; second- 
ly, by all officers appointed for a court- 
martial; thirdly, by the commissaries, or 
muster-masters, Ike. 

AFFIDE, Fr. a man that is trusted; 
one in the confidence of another. 

AFFLEURER, Fr. to place two 
things upon the same level. 

AFFOIBLIR, Fr. to weaken; hence 
aff'oiblir un ennemi, to weaken an 

AFFRONTER les perils, Fr. to face 
all dangers; not to be intimidated by the 
sword, ball, or even death itself. 

S'AFFRONTER, Fr. to engage one 
another rudely. Lcs deux armies s'af- 
fronte rent, the two armies came to close 
action, and fought hand to hand. 

Affronter, Fr. to encounter or at- 
tack boldly. 

AFFUT, the French name for a gun- 
carriage, and for which we have no pro- 
per name; the only distinction from all 
other carriages is, that it belongs to a 
gun. See Carriage. 

AGA, in the Turkish army, is the 
same as a general with us. 

AGE. A young man must he 14 
years old before he can become an officer 
in the line, or be entered as a cadet at 

Persons may be enlisted for soldiers 
from 17 to 45. After the latter age, 
every inhabitant is exempted from serv- 
ing in the British militia. 

By a late regulation, growing boys 
may be enlisted under 16 years of age. 
These recruits are chiefly intended for 
the East-India service. 

The Romans were obliged to enter 
themselves in the army at the age of 17 
years; at 45 they might demand their 
dismission. Amongst the Lombards, the 
age of entry was between 18 and 19; 
among the Saxons, at 13. 

AGE of a horse. The age of a horse 
is discovered by several outward cha- 
racters, but principally by his teeth; 
which see. We also refer the curious 
to Af. de SolleyseVs Complete Horseman, 
for particular remarks on this important 

AGEMA, in the ancient military art, 
a kind of soldiery chiefly in the Macedo- 
nian artryes. The word is Greek, and li- 
terally denotes vehemence, to express 
the strength and eagerness of this corps. 
Some authors will have agema to denote 


( 7 ) 

A G G 

a certain number of picked men, an- 
swering to a legion among the Romans. 

AGENCY, a certain proportion of 
money which is ordered to be subtract- 
ed from all the pay and allowances of 
the British army, for transacting the busi- 
ness of the several regiments compos- 
ing it. 

AGENDA, Fr. a term used among 
the French, signifying a minute detail of 
every thing that is required in the inte- 
rior economy of a regiment, troop, or 

AGENT, a person in the civil depart- 
ment of the army, between the,paymas- 
ter-general and the paymaster of the 
regiment, through whom every regimen- 
tal concern of a pecuniary nature must 
be transacted. He gives security to go- 
vernment, or to the colonels of regi- 
ments, who are responsible to govern- 
ment, for all monies which may pass 
through his hands in the capacity of an 
Agent — and by the Mutiny Act it is 
provided, That if an agent shall with- 
hold the Pay of Officers or Soldiers for 
the space of one Month, he shall be dis- 
missed from his Office, and forfeit 100^. 
(39th Geo. III. Sect. 69.) 

Half-pay Agent, a person named or 
appointed by an officer on half-pay, to 
receive his allowances. He does not 
give any security. 

AGENT, Fr. the person who is en- 
trusted with the interior economy of a 
regiment, troop, or company. 

AGGER, in ancient military writers, 
denotes the middle part of a military 
road, raised into a ridge, with a gentle 
slope on each side, to make a drain for 
the water, and keep the way dry. 

Agger is also used for the whole 
road or military way. Where highways 
were to be made in low grounds, as 
between two hills, the Romans used to 
raise them above the adjacent land, so 
as to make them of a level with the 
hills. These banks they called aggeres. 
Bergier mentions several in the Gallia 
Belgica, which were thus raised 10, 15, 
or '^0 feet above ground, and 5 or 6 
leagues long. They are sometimes call- 
ed aggeres calceati, or causeways, as 
with us. 

Agger also denotes a work of for- 
tification, used both for the defence and 
the attack of towns, camps, &c. in which 
sense agger is the same with what was 
otherwise called vallum, and in later 
times, agestum ; and among the mo- 

derns, lines; sometimes, cavaliers, fer* 
r asses, &c. 

The agger was usually a bank, or ele- 
vation of earth, or other matter, bound 
and supported with timber; having some- 
times turrets on the top, wherein the 
workmen, engineers, and soldiery, were 
placed. It was also accompanied with a 
ditch, which served as its chief defence. 
The height of the agger was frequently 
equal to that of the wall of the place. 
Csesar tells us of one he made, which 
was 30 feet high, and 330 feet broad. 
Besides the use of aggers before towns, 
they generally used to fortify their 
camps with the same, for want of which 
precaution, divers armies have been sur- 
prised and ruined. 

There were vast aggers made in towns 
and places on the sea-side, fortified with 
towers, castles, &c. Those made by 
Caesar and Pompey, at Brundusium, are 
famous. Sometimes aggers were even 
built across arms of the sea, lakes, and 
morasses; as was done by Alexander 
before Tyre, and by M. Anthony and 

The wall of Severus, in the north of 
England, may be considered as a grand 
agger, to which belong several lesser 
ones. Besides the principal agger, or 
vallum, on the brink of the ditch, Mr. 
Horsley describes another on the south 
side of the former, about 5 paces distant 
from it, which he calls the south agger ; 
and another larger one, on the north 
side of the ditch, called the north agger. 
This latter he conjectures to have served 
as a military way ; the former, probably, 
was made for the inner defence, in case 
the enemy should beat them from any 
part of the principal vallum, or to pro- 
tect the soldiers against any sudden at- 
tack from the provincial Britons. 

Agger Tarquinii was a famous fence 
built by TarquiniusSuperbus, on the east 
side of Rome, to stop the incursions of 
the Latins and other enemies, whereby 
the city might be invested. 

Agger is also used for the earth dug 
out of a ditch or trench, and thrown up 
on the brink of it : in which sense, the 
Chevalier Folard thinks the word to be 
understood, when used in the plural 
number, since we can hardly suppose 
they would raise a number of cavaliers 
or terrasses. 

Agger is also used for a bank or wall, 
erected against the sea, or some great 
river, to confine or keep it within bounds; 

A I G 

( 5 ) 

A I R 

tn which sense, agger amounts to the 
same Willi what the ancients called tu- 
mulus and moles; the Dutch, dyke; 
and we, dam, sca-ica//, \c. 

AGIADES, in the Turkish armies, 
are a kind of pioneers, or rather field 
engineers, employed in fortifying the 
camp, &c. 

AGIR, Fr. to act; hence agir en 
offensive ; agir en defensive ; to act of- 
fensively; to act defensively, or on the 

AGITATOR, (Affid't, Fr.) a person in 
the confidence of a superior, who mixes 
with his fellow subjects or comrades, and 
discusses various matters for the pur- 
pose of discovering their views and prin- 
ciples. This character was first created 
by Oliver Cromwell; and a similar one 
was much employed among the French, 
in order to preserve the military ascend- 
ancy of Bonaparte. 

AGUERRI, Fr. an officer or soldier 
experienced in war; a veteran. 

AID, in horsemanship. To aid, as- 
sist, or succour a horse, is to help him 
to work true. This is done by the gen- 
tle and moderate exercise of the bridle, 
the spur, the caveson, the poinson, the 
rod, the action of the legs, the mo- 
tion of the thighs, and the sound of the 

AIDE-DE-CAMP, an officer ap- 
pointed to attend a general officer, in the 
field, in winter quarters, and in garrison ; 
he receives and carries the orders, as 
occasion requires. He is seldom under 
the degree of a captain, and all aides-de- 
camp have 10s. a day allowed for their 
duty. This employment is of greater im- 
portance than is generally believed : it is, 
however, often entrusted to young offi- 
cers of little experience, and of as little 
capacity; but in most foreign services 
the v give great attention to this article. 
Marshal de Puysegur mentions the loss 
of a battle through the incapacity of an 
aide-de-camp. The king may appoint 
for himself as many as he pleases, which 
appointment gives the rank of colonel in 
the army. Generals, being field mar- 
shals, have four, lieutenant generals tico, 
major generals one, and brigadier gene- 
rals one brigade major. 

AIDE du Pare des Vivrcs, Fr. an of- 
ficer in France, acting immediately un- 
der the commissary of stores and provi- 

AID-MAJOR. See Adjutant. 

AIGREMORE, a term used by the 

artificers in the laboratory, to express 
the charcoal m a state fitted for the 
making of powder. 

AIGUILLE, an instrument used by 
engineers to pierce a rock lor the lodg- 
ment ot powder, as in a mine; or to 
mine a rock, so as to excavate and make 

Aiguille de chariot, Fr. the 
draught tree of a chariot. 

AIGUILLES, Fr, in carpentry, short 
upright pieces of wood used in the roofs 
or houses. 

Aiguilles, in hydraulics, round or 
square pieces of wood which serve to 
lift up, or let down, a llood-gate. 

AIGUILLETTE9, Fr. tagged points, 
such as hang from the shoulders in mili- 
tary uniforms, particularly among the 
Russians, Prussians, &c. 

AILE, Fr. a wing or flank of an army 
or fortification. 

A ills de moulin a vent, Fr. the sails 
of a windmill. 

AILERONS, Fr. the short boards 
which arc set into the outside of a wa- 
ter-mill's wheel; we call them ladles, 
or aveboards. slubes, Fr. signify the 

AiLERONsalsosignify small buttresses, 
or starlings, which are laid along the 
sides of rivers, or water courses, in or- 
der to prevent them from undermining 
any particular building. According to 
Belidor, the word epis is more appro- 

AIM, the act of bringing the mus- 
quet, piece of ordnance, or any other 
missive weapon, to its proper line of di- 
rection with the object intended to be 

AIM-FRONTLET, a piece of wood 
hollowed out to fit the muzzle of a gun, 
to make it of an equal height with the 
breech, formerly made use of by the 
gunners, to level and direct their pieces. 
It is not used at present. 

AIR, (air, Fr.) in a horse, a ca- 
dence and liberty of motion, suited to 
the natural disposition of the horse, 
which makes him work in the manege, 
and rise correctly. 

Am, Fr. air, manner, way, &c. also 
look, countenance, &c. 

Air de service, Fr. a look of hardship, 
or of war ; weather-beaten. 

AIR-GUN, a pneumatic machine for 
exploding bullets, &c. with great vio- 

The common air-gun is. made of brass, 

A I R 

( 9 ) 

A L C 

3nc] has two barrels : the inside barrel is 
of a small bore, from whence the bullets 
are exploded; and a large barrel on the 
outside of it. There is likewise a sy- 
ringe fixed in the stock of the gun, by 
which the air is injected into the cavity 
between the two barrels through a valve. 
The ball is put down into its place in 
the small barrel with the rammer, as in 
any other gun. Another valve, being 
opened by the trigger, permits the air 
to come behind the bullet, so as to drive 
it out with great force. It this valve be 
opened and shut suddenly, one charge 
of condensed air may be sufficient for 
several discharges of bullets; but if tire 
whole air be discharged on one single 
bullet, it will drive it out with uncom- 
mon force. This discharge is effected by 
means of a lock placed here, as usual 
in other guns; for the trigger being 
pulled, the cock will go down and drive 
the lever, which will open tl £ valve, and 
let in the air upon the bullet s but as the 
expansive power of the condensed air 
diminishes at each discharge, its force is 
not determined with sufficient precision 
for the purposes of war. Hence it has 
been Ion" out of use among military 

In the air-gun, and all other cases 
where the air is required to be condensed 
to a very great degree, it will be neces- 
sary to have the syringe of a small bore, 
viz. not exceeding half an inch in dia- 
meter ; because the pressure against every 
square inch is about 15 pounds, and 
therefore against every circular inch 
about 12 pound?. If therefore the sy- 
ringe he one inch in diameter, when one 
atmosphere is injected, there will be a 
resistance of 12 pounds against the pis- 
ton ; and when ten are injected, there 
will be a force of 120 pounds to be over- 
come; whereas ten atmospheres act 
against the circular half-inch piston 
(whose area is only \ Dart so bi^j with 
only a force equal to 30 pounds; or 40 
atmospheres may be injected with such 
a syringe, as well as 10 with the other. 
In short, the facility of working will be 
inversely as the squares of the diameter 
of the syringe. 

AIR-SHAFTS, in mining. See 

AIRE, Fr. any smooth or even spot 
of ground upon which one treads. 

Aire, Fr. in geometry, the area or 
inside of any geometrical figure. 

Aire, Fr. in architecture, the space 
between the walls in a building. 
AIKEE, Fr. a barn-floor; 
A I tt I E R, IV. to fumigate. 

A IS, Fr. board, plank. 

Afs d'entrevouj:, Fr. boards or planks 
which cover the space between the raft- 
ers, or beams, in a building. 

AISCEAU, Fr. a chip-axe, or one 
handed plane axe, with which carpenters 
hew their limber smooth. 

ATSCETTE, Fr. a small planing axe. 

AISSE, Fr. a linch pin. 

AISSIEU, IV. axle-tree, axis. It is 
also called fi/mpan or (tuubour, round 
which a rope may be wound for the pur- 
pose of drawing up any load affixed to 

AJUTAGE, (ajutage, FrJ in hy- 
draulics, part of the apparatus of an ar- 
tificial fountain ; being a sort of jet cPeait, 
or kind of tube fitted to the mouth or 
aperture of a vessel, through which the 
water is to lie played, and thrown into a 
particular form or figure. 

AJUTAGES, Fr. pipes for water- 

ALAISE, Fr.- in carpentry, a thin 
piece of wood which is used to linish the 
wooden pannels of a door. It is also 

ALARM is a sudden apprehension 
upon some report, which makes men run 
to their arms to stand upon their guard; 
it implies either the apprehension of be- 
ing suddenly attacked, or the notice given 
of such an attack being actually made ; 
generally signified by the firing of a can- 
non, the beat of a drum, &c. 

Alarm-I-W, in the field, is the 
ground appointed by the quarter-master 
general for each regiment to march to, 
in case of an alarm. 

Alar m- Post, in a garrison, is the 
place allotted by the governor for the 
troops to draw up in, on any sudden 

J'a/se-ALARMS, are stratagems of war, 
frequently made use of to harass an 
enemv, by keeping them perpetually un- 
der arms. They are often conveyed by 
false reports, occasioned by a fearful or 
negligent sentinel. A vigilant officer will makS a false alarm, to try if 
his guards are strict upon duty. 

A i ARM-i'.W/, the bell rung upon any 
sudden emergency, as a lire, mutiny, ap- 
proach of an enemv, or the like, called 
i>v the French, Tocsin. 


( to ) 


ALCANTARA, kuightsof, a Spanish 
military order, who gained great honour 
during the wars villi the Moors. 

ALDER, an aquatic tree well known; 
still much esteemed for such parts ot 
works as lie continually under water. 

Vitruvius tells us, that the morasses 

about Ravenna, in Italy, were piled 

with alder timber, in order to build upon. 

The Rialto at Venice is built upon 

piles of this wood. 

ALERT, originally derived from the 
French word alerte, which is formed of 
a and airte. The French formerly said 
airte for air; so that alerte means some- 
thing continually in the air, and always 
ready to be put in action. A general is 
said to be alert when he is particularly 

To be kept upon the Alert is to be in 
continual apprehension of being sur- 
prized. Alerte, among the French, is an 
expression which is used to put soldiers 
upon their guard. It is likewise used by 
a post that may be attacked in the night, 
to give notice to the one that is destin- 
ed to support it; and by a sentry to give 
warning when any part of the enemy is 

ALETTE, Fr. in architecture, the 
side of a pier between two arcades : 
alettes also signify jaumbs, or piedroits. 
ALGARIE, Fr. a catheter which sur- 
geons use to draw off the urine. 

ALGEBRA, the science of numbers 
in general, in which, by general marks 
for numbers, and others for operations 
with them, the properties of numbers 
are demonstrated, and questions relative 
to them are solved in an easy and concise 
manner. This science has been rendered 
obscure by an affectation of mystery, 
and the supposition, that numbers 
might be less than nothing, and impos- 
sible. But as number is delinite in it- 
self, and one of the clearest ideas, when- 
ever such a mysterious expression oc- 
curs, it must be owing to the negligence 
of the person using it, not to any fault 
in the science. The study of this easy 
branch of knowledge might he recom- 
mended to officers in genera!, from the 
example set them by Descartes, the great 
philosopher of France, who when a young 
man, and encamped neai an university, 
solved a difficult problem, which est r- 
cised the ulents of their deepest stu- 
dents. To officers in the ordnance de- 
partment the knowledge of Algebra is 
indispeusably necessary. See Mr. 

Fiend's very able publication on this 

ALIDADE, Fr. a small instrument 
which is used in making the grooves of 
a rillc barrel equal; a cross-staff; also 
the index of a nocturnal or sea qua- 

ALIEN", in law, implies a person 
born in a foreign country, not within 
the king's dominions, in contradistinc- 
tion to a denizen, or natural-born sub- 

Alien-Office. See Office. 
ALIGN EMENT implies any thing 
straight: for instance, the alignement of a 
battalion means the situation of a body 
of men when drawn up in line. The 
alignement of n camp signifies the rela- 
tive position of the tents, &c. so as to 
form a straight line from given points. 

ALiE, in the ancient military art, the 
two wings or extremes of an army ranged 
in order of little. 

ALIQUANT, (aliquante, Fr.) parts 
of a number, which, however repeated, 
will never make up the number exactly; 
as, 3 is an aliquant of 10, thrice 3 being 
9, four times 3 making 12. 

ALIQUOT, ( aliquot cs, Fr.) aliquot 
parts of any number or quantity, such as 
will exactly measure it without any re- 
mainder; as three is an aliquot part of 
12, because being taken four times, it 
will just measure it. Thus also, the 
aliquot parts of 18 are 2, 3, 6, 9. 

ALLEGIANCE, in law, implies the 
obedience which every subject ought to 
pay to his lawful sovereign. 

Oath of Ar.LEGfANCE is that taken 
by the subject, by which he acknow- 
ledges the king his lawful sovereign. It 
is also applied to the oath taken hy o(li- 
cers, non-commissioned officers, and sol- 
diers in pledge of their fidelity to the 
monarch, prince, or state, under which 
they ser\e. 
ALLEG1ANT, loyal. 
ALLER a I'ennemi, Fr. to meet the 
enemy; to march against him. 

ALLEZER, Fr. to cleanse the mouth 
of a cannon or other piece of ordnance, 
and to increase the bore, so as to pro- 
duce its determined calibre. 

ALLEZOIR, Fr. a frame of timber 
firmly suspended in the air with strong 
cordage, on which is placed a piece of 
ordnance with the muzzle downwards. 
In this situation the bore is rounded and 
enlarged by means of, an instrument 
which has a very sharp and strong 

A L M 

( 11 ) 

A M A 

edge made to traverse the bore by men 
or horses, and in an horizontal direc- 

ALLEZURES, Fr. the metal taken 
from the cannon by boring. 

ALLIAGE, a term used by the 
French, to denote the composition of 
metals used for the fabrication of can- 
non and mortars, &c. 

ALLIANCE, Fr. in a military sense, 
signifies a treaty entered into by sove- 
reign princes and states, for their i j- 
tual safety and defence. In this sense 
alliances may be divided into such as 
are offensive, where the contracting 
parties oblige themselves jointly to at- 
tack some other power; and into such 
as are defensive, whereby the contract- 
ing powers bind theinse ves to stand by, 
and defend one another, in case of being 
attacked by any other power. 

Alliances are variously distinguished 
according to their object, the parties in 
them, &c. Hence we read of equal, un- 
equal, triple, quadruple, grand, offensive, 
defensive alliances, ccc. 

ALLODIAL, independent; not feu- 
dal. The Allodu of the Romans were 
bodies of men embodied on any emer- 
gency, in a manner similar to our volun- 
teer associations. 

ALLOGNE, the cordage used with 
floating bridges, by which they are 
guided from one side of a river to the 

ALLONGE, Fr. a pass or thrust with 
a rapier or small sword; also a long rein 
used in the exercising of horses. 

ALLONGER, Fr. to lengthen. 

ALLOWANCE, a sum paid monthly 
or otherwise, as the case may be, for 
services rendered, &c. The French use 
the word truitement in this sense. They 
also say Allouunce, from Allouer, to 

ALLOY is the mixture of metals 
that enter into the composition of 
the metal proper for cannon and mor- 

ALLY, ia a military sense, implies 
any nation united to another, under a 
treaty, either offensive or defensive, or 

ALMADIE, a kind of military canoe, 
or small vessel, about 24 feet long, 
made of the bark of a tree, and used by 
the negroes of Africa. 

Almadie is also the name of a long- 
boat used at Calcutta, near 30 feet long, 
and generally six or seven broad. 

ALTIMETRY, the taking or mea- 
suring altitude, or heights. 

ALTITUDE, height or distance from 
the ground measured upwards, and may 
be either accessible rii inaccessible. 

ALTrTmr. qfjigure is the distance of 
ir* vertex from its base, ox the length of 
u perpendicular let fall from the vertex 
to the base. 

Altitude of a shot or shell is the 

. pendicular height of the vertex of the 
cuive in which it moves above the hori- 
zon. See Gunnery and Projectiles. 

Aititude, in optics, r9 Usually consi- 
dered as the angle subtended between a 
Ime drawn through the eye, parallel to 
the horizon, and a visual ray emitted 
from an object of the eye. 

Altitude, in cosmography, is the 
perpendicular height of an object, or its 
distance from the horizon upwards. 

Altitudes are divided into accessible 
and inane-txible. 

Accessible Altitude of an object is 

: hat whose base you can have access to, 

. e. measure the nearest distance be- 

weeu your station and the foot of the 

object on the ground. 

Inaccessible Altitude nf an object is 
that when the foot or but torn of it can- 
iot be approached, by reason of some 
impediment; such as water, or the like. 
The instruments chiefly used in measur- 
ing altitudes, are the quadrant, theo- 
dolite, geometric quadrant, or line of 
shadows, ike. 

Altitude of the eye, in perspective, 
is a right line let full from the eye, per- 
pendicular to the geometrical plane. 

Altitude of motion, a term used by 
some writers, to express the measure of 
any motion, computed according to the 
line of direction of the moving force. 

AMARRER sur la culasse d'un canon, 
Fr. to tie or lash to the breech of a gun, 
in order to inflict bodily chastisement, 
or to answer any other put pose. 

A MAS, Fr. stores. 

AMAZON, one of those women who 
inhabited the country so called. They 
ire said to have composed a nation of 
themselves, exclusive of males, and to 
have derived their name from their cut- 
ting off one of their breasts, that it might 
not hinder or impede the exercise of 
their arms. This term has often by 
modern writers been used to signify a 
bold daring woman, whom the delicacy 
of her sex does not hinder from engag- 
ing in the most hazardous attempts. 

A M M 

( a ) 

A M O 

Tlic last and former wars with France 
have furnished us with several instances 
of females who have uudergone the fa- 
tigue of a campaign with alacrity, and 
run the hazards of a battle with the 
greatest intrepidity. 

AMBIT, the compass or circuit of 
any work or place, as of a fortification 
or encampment, &c. 

AMBJ 1 [ON, in a military sense, sig- 
nifies a desire or greater posts, or pre- 
ferment. Every gentleman in the army 
or oavy ought to have a spirit of ainbi- 
tion to arrive at tlie very summit of the 

.A.MIjI.EE OU emblee, Fr. main force, 
or assault. 

AMBLING, a motion in a horse 
between the gallop and trot. 

AMBULANT, Fr. changing situa- 
tion according to circumstances; hence 
Hopital ambulant, i\\\ hospital which fol- 
lows the army; Chirurgien ambulant, a 
surgeon who follows the line of action. 

AMBUSCADE, a snare set for the 
enemy, either to surprize him when 
marching without precaution; or by 
posting yourself advantageously, and 
drawing hmi on by different stratagems, 
to attack himvtith superior force. 

AMBUSH, a place of concealment 
for soldiers to surprize an enemy, by 
falling suddenly upon him. 

AME, a French term, similar in its 
import to the word chamber, as applied 
to cannon, i\:c. 

AMENDE Honorable, among the 
Trench, signifies an apology for some 
injury done to another, or satisfaction 
given for an offence committed against 
the rules of honour or military etiquette; 
and was also applied to an infamous 
kind of punishment inflicted upon trai- 
tors, parricides, or sacrilegious persons, 
in the following manner: the offender 
being delivered into the hands of the 
hangman, his shirt is stripped off, a rope 
put about his neck, and a taper in his 
Land; then he is led into court, where 
he must beg pardon of Cod, the king, 
the court, and his country. Sometimes 
the punishment ends here; but at other 
times it is only a prelude to death, or 
banishmeut to the gullies. 

AMMUNITION implies all sorts of 
powder and ball, shells, bullets, car- 
tridges, grape-shot, tin and case-shot, 
carcasses, grenades, &c. 

Ammunition, fixed and unfixed. — 
The fixed comprises loaded shells, car- 

casses, and cartridges, filled with pow- 
der; also shot, fixed to powder, for the 
convenience of loading qaick, and pre- 
venting mistakes in using the. charges of 
powder for filing the different natures of 
round and case-shot, for held service; 
but this latter practice has of late years 
been discontinued, owing to the great 
danger there is in mixing the powder 
with the shot, when travelling, and from 
the ammunition fixed ill this manner not 
being proper to deposit in magazines. 
Ball and blank cartridges for the troops, 
of different descriptions, to suit the na- 
tures of arms, are also termed fixed am- 

Unfixed ammunition means round] 
case, and grape-shot, or shells, not tilled 
with powder. 

Ammunition for the navy is all un- 
fixed, at the time it is sent on board 
shift, except it may be the hantlgrenades; 
and when on board, the gunner receives 
directions to keep a certain number of 
cartridges, filled with powder, for im- 
mediate service. 

Ammunition, or gun-ponder, may 
be prohibited to be exported, at the 
king's pleasure, by Car. II. cap. 4. sect. 


Arms, utensils of war, or gun-powder, 
imported without licence from his ma- 
jesty, are to be forfeited with treble the 

value. Such licence obtained, except 
for the furnishing his majesty's public 
stores, is to be void, and the offender to 
incur a premunire, and be disabled to. 
bold any office from the crown. 

Am. mi mi ion bread, such as is con- 
tracted for by government, and served 
in camp, garrison, and barracks. 

Ammunition shoes, stockings, shirts, 
storks, 6ic. such of those articles as are 
served out to the private soldiers by go- 
vernment. See Half Mountings. 

Ammunition-?^ <,'(>« is generally a 
four-wheel carriage with shafts; the sides 
are railed in with staves and raves, and 
lined with wicker work, so as to carry 
bread and all sorts of tools. It is drawn 
by four horses, and loaded with 1200 
pounds weight. See Wagon. 

AMMUNITlON-carf, a two-wheel car- 
riage with shafts; the sides of which, as 
well as the fore and hind parts, are in- 

AMNESTY, (umnistic, Fr.) an act of 
oblivion; a general pardon. 

AMOISE, Fr. in carpentry, a piece 
of wood which is laid between two half- 

A N B 

( is ) 


beams of timber to support the rafters 
in a roof. 

AMORCE, an old military word for 
fine-grained powder, such as is some- 
times used for the priming of great 
guns, mortars, or howitzers; as also for 
small arms, on account of its rapid 
inflammation : a port fire, or quick 

AMORCES, Fr. in masonry, bricks 
or stones which serve to unite a wall of 
some extent, but which is not com- 
pleted all together. 

AMDRTIR, Fr. to deaden; as 
Amortir un coup de feu, to deaden a 
shot from a fire-arm. 

AMORTISSEMENT, ou eouronne 

ment, Fr. a piece of architecture, or or- an army 

ANCHOR, (ancre, Fr.) a heavy iron 
composed of a long shank, having a 
ring at one end, to which the cable is 
fastened, and at the other branching out 
into two arms or flukes, tending up- 
wards with barbs or edges on each side: 
its use is to hold the ship, by being fixed 
to the ground. There are ten parts be- 
longing to an anchor, viz. the shank, the 
eye, the ring, the nuts, the crown, the 
arms, the palms, the flukes, the bill, and 
the stock. 

ANCHORS, in architecture, a sort of 
carving which resembles an anchor, or 
arrow head. 

ANCIENT, a term used formerly to 
express the grand ensign or standard of 

nament of sculpture, which diminishes 
as it rises, to terminate some decora- 

AMPLITUDE de parabole, Fr. in 
artillery, the horizontal range of a shell, 
from its departure out of a mortar to 
the spot on which it drops. 

AMPLITUDE of the range of a pro- 
jectile. See Projectile. 

AMPOULETTE,an old military term 
used by the French to express the stock 
of a musket, &c. 

AMUSETTE, a species of offensive 
weapon which was invented by the cele- 
brated Marshal Saxe. It is fired oft* in 
the same manner as a musquet, but is 
mounted nearly like a canon. It was 
found of considerable use during the 
late war, especially among th? French, 
who armed their horse artillery with it ; 
and found it superior to the one adopted 
by the Prussians. The ball with which 
it is loaded is from one pound and a 
half to two pounds weight of lead. 

ANABASII, in antiquity, were expe- 
ditious couriers, who carried dispatches 
of great importance, in the Roman 

ANACLETICUM, in the ancient art 
of war, a particular blast of the trum- 
pet, whereby the fearful and flying sol- 
diers were rallied and recalled to the 

ANALOGY, in geometry, ike. the 
comparison of several ratios together; 
and is the same as proportion. 

ANALYSIS, (ana/i/se, Fr.) a separa- 
tion of a compound body into the seve- 
ral parts of which it consists. 

ANBURY is a kind of wen, or 

ANCILE, in antiquity, a kind of 
shield, which fell, as was pretended, 
from heaven, in the reign of Numa 
Pompilius; at which time, likewise, a 
voice was heard, declaring, that Rome 
would be mistress of the world as long 
as she should preserve this holy buckler. 

Authors are much divided about its 
shape: however, it was kept with great 
care in the temple of Mars, under the 
direction of twelve priests; and lest any 
should attempt to steal it, eleven others 
were made so like it, as not to be dis- 
tinguished from the sacred one. These 
Ancilia were carried in procession every 
year round the citv of Rome. 

AN CONES are the corners, or coins 
of walls, crossbeams, or rafters. Vi- 
tmvius calls the consols, ancones. 

ANCRE, Fr. an iron brace. 

ANDABATjE, in military antiquity, 
a kind of gladiators, who fought hood- 
winked, having a sort of helmet that 
covered the eyes and face. They fought 
mounted on horseback, or out of cha- 

St. ANDREW, or the Thistle, a mi- 
litary order of knighthood in Scotland; 
the motto is, Nemo vie impune lucessit. 
The occasion of instituting this order is 
variously related by different authors 
John Lesley, bishop of Ross, reports, 
that the night before the battle betwixt 
Atheistane, king of England, or rather 
Northumberland, and Hungus, king of 
the Picts, a bright cross, in the fashion 
of that whereon St. Andrew suffered 
martyrdom, appeared in the air to Hun- 
gus; he having gained the victory, bore 
the figure of that cross at all times after 

spungy wart, growing upon any part of in bis ensigns and banners; from which 
2 horse's body, full of blood. 

time all succeeding kings of Scotland 


( U ) 

A N G 

liavc religiously observed the same bear- 
ing. Others assert, that this extraordi- 
nary appearance was nc^t to Hungus, but 
to the Scots, whom Achaius, king of 
Scotland, sent to his assistance. This 
victory is said to have been obtained in 
the year 819, (though, according to 
Buchanan, Achaius died nine years be- 
forehand that Hungus and Achaius went 
bare-footed in solemn procession to the 
kirk of St. Andrew, to return thanks to 
God and his apostle, promising, that 
they and their posterity would ever use 
in their ensigns the cross of St. Andrew, 
which custom prevailed among the Picts, 
and continues among the Scots unto 
this day; and that both these kings in- 
stituted an order, which they named the 
order of St. Andrew. 

Others, who allow that Achaius in- 
stituted this order, give the following 
account of its origin: Achaius having 
formed that famous league, offensive 
and defensive, with Charlemagne, against 
all other princes, found himself thereby 
so strong, that lie took for his device 
the Thistle and the Rue. which he com- 
posed into a collar of his order, and for 
his motto, Pour inn defense, intimating 
thereby, that he feared not the powers 
of foreign princes, seeing he leaned on 
the succour and alliance of the French. 
And though from hence may be inferred, 
that these two plants, the Thistle and 
the Rue, were the united symbols of one 
order of knighthood, yet Menenius di- 
vides them into two, making one whose 
badge was the thistle, whence the knijjhts 
were so called, and the motto, Nemo me 
impune htcessit ; another vulgarly called 
Sertumruto; or the Garland of Rue; the 
collar of which was composed of two 
branches or sprigs thereof, or else ol 
several of its leaves: at both these col- 
lars hung one and the same jewel, to 
wit, the figure of St. Andrew, bearing 
before him the cross of his martyrdom. 
But though the thistle has been ac- 
knowledged for the badge and symbol 
of the kingdom of Scotland, even from 
the reign of Achaius, as the rose was of 
England, and the lily of France, the 
pomegranate of Spain, &c. yet there are 
some who refer the order of the thistle 
to later times, in the reign of Charles 
VII. of France, when the league of 
amity was renewed between that king- 
dom and Scotland, by which the former 
received great succour from the latter, 
at a period of extraordinary distress. 

Others again place the foundation still 
later, even as low as the year 1500; but 
without any degree of certainty. 

The chief and principal ensign of this 
order is a gold collar, composed of 
thistles, interlinked with annulets of 
gold, having pendent thereto the image 
of St. Andrew, with his cross, and this 
motto, Nemo me impune lucessit. 

Knights of St. Andrew is also an 
order instituted by Peter the Great, of 
Muscovy, in 1698; the badge of which 
is a golden medal, on one side whereof 
is represented St. Andrew's cross; and 
on the other are these words, Czar Pierre, 
monurque de toute la Russie. This medal, 
being fastened to a blue ribbon, is sus- 
pended from the right shoulder. 

ANGARIA, in ancient military wri- 
ters, means a guard of soldiers posted 
in any place for the security of it. Vide 
Vegetius, lib. i. c. 3. lib. ii. c. 19. lib. 
iii. c. 8. 

Angaria, in civil law, implies a ser- 
vice by compulsion, as furnishing horses 
and carriages for conveying corn or 
other stores for the army. 

ANGE, a term used by the French to 
express chain shot. 

ANGEL SHot. See Chain Shot. 
Angel Bed, an open bed without 
bed-posts, such as may be seen in the 
wards of gaols, hospitals, &c. 

ANGELOT, a gold coin, which was 
struck at Paris when that capital was in 
the hands of the English; and so called 
from its representing the figure of an 
angel, supporting the arms of England 
and France; also a musical instrument 
resembling a lute. 

ANGLE, in geometry, is the incli- 
nation of two lines meeting one another 
in a point. 

The measure of an angle is the arch 
of a circle whose center is the angular 
point, and radius any distance in ilie 
lines forming the angle, and by which 
the arc is intercepted. As many degrees, 
tSx. as are contained in that arch, so 
many degrees, &c. the angle is said to 
consist of. 

Angles are either right, acute, or 

A right Angle is that formed by a 
line falling perpendicularly on another; 
or that which subtends an arc of 90 de- 
grees. All right angles are equal to each 

An acute Angle is that which is 
less than a right angle, or 90°. 

A N G ( is ) A N G 

An obtuse Angle is that which is i the diameter of a circle makes with the 
greater than a right angle ; or whose circumference, 
measure exceeds 90°. Angle of incidence is that which the 

Adjacent Angles are such as have the] line of direction of a ray of light, &c, 

same vertex, and one common side. The 
sum of the adjacent angles is always 
equal to two right angles (13 Eucl. 1), 
and therefore, if one of them be acute, 
the other will be obtuse ; and the con- 
trary: whence, if either of them be 
given, the other is also given, it being 
the complement of the former to 180°. 

Homologous or like Angles, in similar 
figures, are such as retain the same order, 
reckoning from the first in both figures. 

Vertical Angles are the opposite 
angles made by two lines cutting or 
crossing each other. When two lines 
cut or cross each other, the vertical an- 
gles are equal. (15 Eucl. 1.) 

Alternate Angles are the angles 
formed by a straight line falling on two 
parallel straight lines, so that each angle 
shall have a common leg, but the other 
legs are on opposite sides of this com- 
mon leg. These alternate angles are 
always equal. (29 Eucl 1.) 

A rectilinear or right-lined Angle 
is made by straight lines, to distinguish 
it from the spherical or curvilinear angle. 

Angles of contact are angles formed 
by a curve with its tangent, which may 
be considered as true angles, and should 
be compared with one another, though 
not with right-lined angles, as being in- 
finitely smaller. 

Angle of elevation, in gunnery, is 
that which the axis of the hollow cylin- 
der, or barrel of the gun, makes with a 
horizontal line. See Elevation. 

Angles oblique are those which are 
greater than right angles. 

Sp/tericul Angle is an angle formed 
by the intersection of two great circles 
of the sphere. A spherical angle is 
measured by the arc of a great circle, 
intercepted between the legs, or the legs 
produced, whose pole is in the vertex of 
the angle. 

Angle lunular is an angle formed by 
the intersection of two curves, the ont 
concave and the other convex. 

Mixed-line Angle is that compre- 
hended between a light line and a curv- 
ed line. 

Curved-line Angle is that inter- 
cepted between two curved lines meet- 
ing each other in one point, in the same 

Angle of a semi-circle is that which 

makes at the point where it first touches 
the body it strikes against, with a line 
erected perpendicular to the surface of 
that body. 

Angle of incidence, in projectiles, is 
the angle which the line of direction of 
the projectile makes with the surface of 
the obstacle on which it impinges. The 
force or effect of a shot striking a wall, 
or other obstacle, in an oblique direc- 
tion, is to its force, if it had struck the 
same obstacle in a perpendicular direc- 
tion, as the angle of incidence is to the 
radius. Hence the impulsive forces of 
the same shot, fired in different direc- 
tions, are to each other, as the respec- 
tive angles of incidence of these direc- 
Angle of interval, between two places, 
is that formed by two lines directed 
from the eye to those places. 

Angle of reflection is the angle inter- 
cepted between the line of direction of 
a body rebounding after it has struck 
against another body, and a perpendicu- 
lar erected at the point of contact. 

Angle at the center, in fortification, 
is the angle formed at the middle of the 
polygon, by lines drawn from thence to 
the points of the two adjacent bastions. 

Angle of the curtain, ) that which is 

Angle of the flank, j made by, and 
contained between the curtain and the 

Angle of the polygon, that which is 
made by the meeting of the two sides of 
the polygon, or figure in the center of 
the bastion. 

Angle of the triangle is half the an- 
gle of the polygon. 

Angle of the bastion, or | that which 

Flanked Angle, ) is made by 

the two faces, being the utmost part of 
the bastion most exposed to the enemy's 
batteries, frequently called the point of 
the bastion. 

Diminished Angle, only used by 
some foreign engineers, and more espe- 
cially the Dutch, is composed of the face 
of the bastion, and the exterior side of 
the polygon. 

Angle of the shoulder, i is formed by 

Angle of the epaule, $ one face, and 
one flank of the bastion. 

Angle of the tenaille, } is made by 

Angle rentrant, J two lines fi- 

A X G 

( 10 ) 

A N I 

chant, that is, the laces of the two bas- 
tions extended till they meet in an an- 
gle towards the curtain, and is thai 
which always carries its point towards 
the out-works. 

AngLI of the flunk exterior is that 
which i» before the cent< r of the curtain, 
formed by the prolongation of the laces 
of the bastion, or by both the fichant 
lines of defence, intersecting each other 
on planning a fortification. 

A NCI E <if tin flunk hilt rior is formed 
by tlu flanked line of dt fence and the 
curtain ; being that point where the line 
of di t'ence falls upon the curtain. 

Angle of the line <>f defence is that 
angle made by the flank and the line of 

Angle of the face is formed by the 
angle of the face and the line of de- 
fence produced till they intersect each 

Angle of the base interior is the half 
of the angle of the figure, which the in- 
terior polygon makes with the radius, 
when they join each other in the cen- 
ter; intersecting the center of the gorges 
of each bastion. 

Angle of the base exterior is an angle 
formed by lines drawn from the center 
of the figure to the angle of the exterior 
polygon, cutting the center of the gorges 
of each bastion. 

Angle of the gorge is that angle 
formed by the prolongation of the cur- 
tains intersecting each other, in the cen- 
ter of the gorge, through which the ca- 
pital line passes. 

ANGLE of the ditch is formed before 
the center of the curtain, by the out- 
ward line of the ditch. 

Angle of the mole is that which is 
made before the curtain where it is in- 
t( rsected. 

Flanked Angle. Sec Angle of the 

Salient Angle, ) is that angle which 

Angle tortant, S points outwards, or 
towards the country; such is the angle 
of the counterscarp before the point of 
a bastion. 

.Entering - Angle, or ; an angle point- 

Angle rentrant, S ing inwards, as 
the salient angle points outwards; such 
is the angle of the counterscarp before 
the curtain. 

Angle of the counterscarp, made by 
two sides of the counterscarp meeting 
before the center of the curtain. 

Angle at the circumference of a cir- 

cle, is an angle formed by two chords in 
the circumference of a circle. 

Angle of /.'/< circumference is the 
mixed angle formed by an arch, drawn 
from one gorge to another. 

He-entering Angle. See Entering 
Am. i.e. 

Angle qf the complement of the line 
of defence is the angle formed by the 
intersection of the two complements 
with each other. 

ANGLES of a lalta/ion a;e made by 
the last men at the extremity of the 
ranks and tile-. 

Front Angles, the two last men of 
the front rank. . 

Rear Angles, the two last men of 
the rear rank. 

Dead Angle is a re-entering angle, 
consequently nut defended. 

Flank-forming Angle. When the 
flank, as in Ozanaih's method, passes 
when produced through the center of 
the polygon, the angle formed l>v that 
line and the oblique, or great radio?, a 
called by him the flank-forming angle. 
In the Dutch construction, it is the 
angle formed by a di mi-gorge and a 
ri^ht line drawn to the adjacent epaule 
from that extremity thereof, which is in 
the angle of the gorge or center of the 

ANGLET, l'r. an anklet, a corner; 
also a small right-angled cavity; a term 
in architecture. 

ANGON, in ancient military history, 
was a kind of dart of a moderate length, 
having an iron bearded head and cheeks; 
in use about the fifth century. This sort 
of javelin was much used by the French. 
The iron head of it resembles a fleur- 
de-lis; and it is the opinion of some 
writers, that the arms of France arc not 
fleurs-de-lis, but the iron point of the 
angon or javelin of the ancient French. 

ANGULAR, in a general sense, de- 
notes something relating to, or that has 

lb ANIMATE, in a military sense, 
is to encourage, to incite, to add fresh 
impulse to any body of men who are ad- 
vancing against an enemy, or to prevent 
them from shamefully abandouing their 
colours in critical situations. Soldiers 
may be encouraged and incited to gal- 
lant actions not only by words, but by 
the looks and gestures of the oflicers, 
particularly of their commanding one. 
ft is by the latter alone, indeed, that 
any of these artificial means should be 


( n ) 

A P O 

irsorted to; for silence, steadiness, and 
calmness are the peculiar requisites in 
tlte character of subordinate oti':cers. 

ANIMOSITY, (animosite, Fr.) ha- 
tred, grudge, quarrel, contention. 

AN LACE, a falchion or sword, shaped 
like a scythe. 

ANNA, Ind. the sixteenth of a rupee; 
the lowest nominal coin in India, equal 
to about 2d. English. 

ANNALS, a species of military his- 
tory, wherein events are related in the 
chronological order they happened. They 
differ from a perfect history, in being only 
a mere relation of what passes every year, 
as a journal is of what passes every day. 

ANNELET, } fcr/irce/e/,Fr.)fromara- 

ANNULET, S nulus, a ring, a small 
square member of the Doric capital, un- 
der the quarter-round, &c. 

Annulets are used in architecture to 
signify narrow fiat mouldings. An an- 
nulet is the same member which M. 
Mauclerc, from Vitruvius, calls a fillet; 
and Pulladio a listel or cincture; and 
M. Brown, from Scamozzi, a supercili- 
um, tinea, eye-brow, square and rabbit. 

ANNUNCIADA, an order of mili- 
tary knighthood in Savoy, first insti- 
tuted by Amadeus I. in the year 1409; 
their collar was of 15 links, interwoven 
one with another, and the motto F. E. 
R. T. signifying Fortitude ejus Rhodum 
tenuit. Amadeus VIII. changed the 
image of St. Maurice, patron of Savoy, 
which hung at the collar, for that of the 
Virgin Mary; and instead of the motto 
above mentioned, substituted the words 
of the angel's salutation. 

ANOLYMPIADES. See Olympiad. 

ANOMALOUS, irregular, unequal, 
out of rank. 

ANSE des pieces, Fr. the handles 
of cannon. Those of brass have two — 
those of iron seldom any — these handles 
serve to pass cords, handspikes, or levers, 
the more easily to move so heavy a 
body, and are made to represent dol- 
phins, serpents, &c. 


ANTA, (antes, Fr.) in architecture, 
is used by M. Le Clerc, for a kind of 
shaft of a pilaster, without base or capi- 
tal, and even without any moulding. 
Belidor calls them angular pilasters, 
which are placed in the corners of build- 
ings adorned with orders of architec- 


ANTvE, pilasters adjoining to a wall. 
ANTEMURAILLE, Fr. in the an- 

cient military art, denoted what now thft 
moderns generally call the out-works. 

ANTES, square pilasters, which the 
ancients placed at the corners of their 

To ANTEDATE, (antidater, Fr.) to 
date a letter, &c. before the time. Hence 
to antedate a commission. 

ANTESTATURE, in ancient fortifi- 
cation, signifies an intrenchment of pa- 
lisades or sacks of earth thrown up in 
order to dispute the remainder of a piece 
of ground. 

ANTHONY, or Knights of St. An- 
thony, a militarv order instituted by 
Albert, duke of Bavaria, Holland, and 
Zealand, when he designed to make war 
against the Turks in 1382. The knights 
wore a collar of gold made in the form 
of a hermit's girdle, from which hung a 
stick like a crutch, with a little bell, as 
they are represented in St. Anthony's 

ANTICIIAMBER, ( antichumbre, Fr.) 
an apartment in a house before the 
principal chamber; a lobby or outer 
room of a large or noble house, where 
servants, strangers, or petitioners wait 
till the lord or master of the house is at 
leisure to he spoken to. The French 
say Chauffer Vantichambre, to dance at- 

ANTIPAGMENTS, ornaments, or 
garnishings in carved work set upon the 

ANTIQUO-OTraterH, a term used iu 
speaking of old Gothic churches, to dis- 
tinguish them from those of the Greeks 
and Romans. 

APERTURE, the opening of any 
thing; or a hole, cleft, or vacant place 
in some solid or continuous substance. 
In architecture, doors, windows, stair- 
cases, chimnies, outlets and inlets for 
light, smoke, Sec. are termed aper- 

Aperture, in geometry, is used for 
the space left between two lines, which, 
mutually incline towards each other, to 
form an angle. 

APOPHYGE, in architecture, that 
part of a column where it begins to 
spring out of its base, and shoot upwards. 
| The French call it ichappe, conge. 

The apopbyge, in its original, was no 
more than the ring or ferril, heretofore 
fastened at the extremities of wooden 
pillars, to keep them from splitting, 
which was afterwards imitated in stone- 

A P P 

( i» )' 

A P P 

APPANAGE, Fr. train, retinue. 

APPAREIL, Fr. height or thickness 
of a stone in the quarry; also, in archi- 
tecture, the method of cutting stones 
and laving them. 

Pierre A PP A RELLLEE, Fr. a stone 
eat to the measure given. 

APPAREILLES,Fr. are those slopes 
: liit lead to the platform of the bastion. 
See FoOTIFIC vi ion. 

W'PARKILLEUR, Fr. an architect 
who superintends the workmen in the 
construction of fortifications, sluices, &C. 
a marker of stones to be cut. 

APPEAL might formerly have been 
made, by the prosecutor or prisoner, 
from the sentence or jurisdiction of a 
regimental to a general court-martial. — 
At present no soldier has a right to ap- 
peal, except in cases where his immedi- 
ate subsistence is concerned. 

APPEL, Fr. a roll call, a beat of 
drum for assembling; a challenge. 

Appel, in fencing, a smart beat with 
your blade on that of your antagonist 
on the contrary side to that you have 
engaged, generally accompanied with a 
stamp of the foot, and used for the pur- 
pose of procuring an opening. 

APPENTIS, Fr. in carpentry, a shed. 
See Hangar. 

APPOINTE. This word was appli- 
cable to French soldiers only, during the 
monarchy of France, and meant a man 
who, for his long service and extraordi- 
nary bravery, received more than com- 
mon pay. There were likewise instances 
in which officers were distinguished by 
being styled officios appoint is. They were 
usually rewarded by the king. 

The word appoint c was originally de- 
rived from its being said that a soldier 
was appointed among those who were 
to do some singular act of courage, as by 
going upon a forlorn hope, &c. ike. 

APPOINTMENT,^ a military sense, 
is the pay of the army; it likewise ap- 
plies to warlike habiliments, accoutre- 
ments, &c. 

APPREHEND, in a military sense, 
implies the seizing or confining of any 
person. According to the Articles of 
War, every person who apprehends a de- 
serter, and attests the fact duly before a 
magistrate, is entitled to receive twenty 

APPROACHES. All the works are 
generally so called that are carried on to- 
wards a place which is besieged ; such as 
the first, second, and third parallels, the 

trenches, epaulements with and without 
trenches, redoubts, places of arms, saps, 
galleries, and lodgments. See these words 
more particularly under the head FOR- 

This is the most difficult part of a 
siege, and where most lives are lost. The 
ground is disputed inch by inch, and 
neither gained nor maintained without 
the loss of men. It is of the utmost 
importance to make your approaches 
with great caution, and to secure them 
as much as possible, that you may not 
throw away the lives of your soldiers. 
The besieged neglect nothing to hinder 
the approaches; the besiegers do every 
thing to carry them on; and on this 
depends the taking or defending the place. 

The trenches being carried to their 
glacis, you attack and make yourself 
master of their covered-way, establish a 
lodgment on their counterscarp, and ef- 
fect a breach by the sap, or by mines 
with several chambers, which blow up 
their intrenchments and fougades, or 
small mines, if they have any. 

You cover yourselves with gabions, 
fascines, barrels, or sacks; and if these 
are wanting, you sink a trench. 

You open the counterscarp by saps to 
make yourself master of it; but, before 
you open it, you must mine the flanks 
that defend it. The best attack of the 
place is the face of the bastion, when by 
its regularity it permits regular ap- 
proaches and attacks according to art. 
If the place be irregular, you must not 
observe regular approaches, but proceed 
according to the irregularity of it; ob- 
serving to humour the ground, which 
permits you to attack it in such a man- 
ner at one place, as would be useless or 
dangerous at another; so that the engi- 
neer who directs the attack ought exactly 
to know the part he would attack, its 
proportions, its force and solidity, in 
the most geometrical manner. 

Approaches, in a more confined 
sense, signify attacks. 

Counter Approaches are such trench- 
es as are carried on by the besieged, 
against those of the besiegers. 

APPRENTI, Fr. apprentice. 

In France they had apprentices or 
soldiers among the artillery, who served 
for less pay than the regular artillery- 
men, until they became perfect in their 
profession, when they were admitted to 
such vacancies as occurred in their re- 
spective branches. 

A R A 

( 19 ) 


APPROXIMATION, (approxima ■ 
tion, Fr.) in arithmetic or algebra, is a 
continued approaching still nearer and 
nearer to the root or quantity sought, 
without ever expecting to have it exactly. 

APPUI, with horsemen, the stay up- 
on the horseman's hand, or the recipro- 
cal sense between the horse's mouth 
and the bridle hand ; or the horse's 
sense of the action of the bridle in the 
horseman's hand. Horses for the army 
ought to have a full appui, or firm stay 
upon the hand. 

A full Appui, in horsemanship, a 
firm stay without resting very heavy, 
and without bearing upon the horse- 
man's hand. 

A more than full Appui, upon the 
hand, is when the horse is stopped with 
some force; but still so that he does 
not force the hand. This appui is good 
for such riders as depend upon the bri- 
dle, instead of their thighs. 

Appui, (point d'appui, Fr.) any par- 
ticular given point or body, upon which 
troops are formed, or by which they are 
marched in line or column. 

Alter a /'Appui, Fr. to go to the as- 
sistance of any body ; to second, to back. 

Hauteur (/'Appui, Fr. breast-height. 

APPUYER, Fr. to sustain, to "sup- 
port. Hence, une urmee appuyte d'un 
hois, d'un marais; an army which has a 
wood or a marsh on either of its flanks. 

Appuyer also signifies to force any 
thing into an object ; as, appuyer I'eperon 
(i uncheval, to drive the spurinto ahorse. 

APPRELLE, Fr. horse-tail. 

APRON, in gunnery, a square plate 
of lead that covers the vent of a cannon, 
to keep the charge dry, and the vent 
clean and open. 

AQUEDUCT, a channel to convey 
water from one place to another. Aque- 
ducts, in military architecture, are ge- 
nerally made to bring water from a 
spring or river to a fortress, Ike. ; they 
are likewise used to carry canals over 
low grounds, and over brooks or small 
rivers : they are built with arches like a 
bridge, only not so wide, and are cover- 
ed above by an arch, to prevent dust or 
dirt from being thrown into the water. 
See Muller's Practical Fortification. 

The Romans had aqueducts which ex- 
tended 100 miles. That of Louis XIV. 
near Maintenon, which carries the river 
Bute to Versailles, is 7000 toises long. 
. ARAIGNEE, Fr. in fortification. See 

something done af- 
ter the manner of 


the Arabians. 

Arabesk, grotesque, and moresqve, are 
terms applied to such paintings, orna- 
ments of friezes, &c. on which there are 
no human or animal figures; but which 
consist wholly of imaginary foliages, 
plants, stalks, &c. 

The terms are derived from the Arabs, 
Moors, and other Mahometans, who 
use these kinds of ornaments, because 
their religion forbids them to make any 
images or figures of men, or of other 

ARABIAN horse, a horse supposed 
to be of high value, but not so useful as 
the common English breed. 

ABASEMENT, Fr. in masonry, the 
last course of stone or brick upon a wall 
of an equal height. 

ARASER, Fr. to carry the different 
courses of stone or brick to an equal 

ARASES, Fr. stones or bricks which 
are larger or smaller than those of the 
other courses, and are used to make any 
given height. 

ARBALET, in the ancient art of war, 
a cross-bow, made of steel, set in a shaft 
of wood, with a string and trigger, bent 
with a piece of iron fitted for that pur- 
pose, and used to throw bullets, large 
arrows, darts, &c. Also a mathemati- 
cal instrument called a Jacob's Staff, to 
measure the height of the stars upon the 

ARBALETE a jalet. Fr. a stone bow. 

ARBALETRIER, Fr. a cross-bow- 

Arbaletrier d'une galiere, Fr. 
that part of a galley where the cross- 
bowmen were placed during an engage- 

ARBORER, Fr. to plant, to hoist. 
Arborer I'etendart, to plant the stand- 

ARBRE, Fr. tree; in mechanics, the 
thickest piece of timber upon which all 
other pieces turn, that it supports. 

ARC, Fr. a bow; anarch in building. 

Arc en plein ceintre, Fr. in architec- 
ture, an arch which is formed of a per- 
fect half-circle. 

Arc en anse de punier, Fr. an elliptic 
arch drawn upon three centers. 

Arc biuis, ou de cute, Fr. an arch 
whose piedroits are not even with then 

Arc rampant, Fr. that which in an 

A R C 

( to ) 

A R C 

upright wall issomcwhatinclined towards 
a gentle slope. 

Arc en (nlut, Fr. that which is made 
to ease a platband or an architrave, and 
whose declivities bear upon the sum- 
mers. An arch is also so called when il 
is made in a wall that slopes. 

Anc en tiers-point, on Gothique, Fr. 
that which is made of two portions of a 
circle, which intersect each other, at the 
point of the angle at top. 

Anc ile cloitrc, Fr. See Voute en arc 
dc cloitre. 

Anc a renters, Fr. an inverse arch 
that is made to support the piles of a 
bridge, between the arches, and to pre- 
vent their falling against each other, 
which often happens in loose ground. 

ARCADE, (arcade, Fr.) a continued 
arch ; a walk arched over. 

ARCBOUTANT, (from the French 
arc and boater, to abut,) a flat arch, or 
part of an arch abutting against the 
reins of a vault, to support and prevent 
its giving way. 

Arcboutant, Fr. in carpentry, any 
piece of timber which is used as a but- 
tress or support in scaffolds. 

ARCBOUTER, ou contrcboutcr, Fr. 
to restrain or keep in the bellying of an 
arch, or of a platband, by means of a pile 
or buttress. 

ARCEAU, Fr. an arch. This term, 
however, is chiefly applied to the small 
arch of a bridge. Arceau also means a 

ARCH, in military architecture, is a 
vault or concave building, in form of a 
curve, erected to support some heavy 
structure, or passage. 

Triumphal Arch, in military history, 
is a stately erection generally of a semi- 
circular form, adorned with sculpture, 
inscriptions, &c. in honour of those he- 
roes who have deserved a triumph. For 
a very able Treatise on Arches, see Mr. 
Atwood's late publication; and under 
Parabola see Parabolic arches. 

ARC I IE en plein ccintrc, Fr. an arch 
formed by a perfect semi-circle. 

Arche elliptique, Fr. that which is 
formed by a half-oval. 

Arche surbaissie, Fr. that which is of 
the lowest proportion; called also en 
tnae de punier, from its resemblance to 
the handle of a basket. 

Arche en portion de cercle, Fr. that 
which contains less than a semi-circle. 

Arcue cxtradossiie, Fr. is that, all the 

hendings of which are equal in length 
and parallel to the cintrv. 

Anc he d' assemblage, Fr. When a 
wooden bridge is made of one arch, the 
arch is so called. 

ARCHED. A horse is said to have 
arched legs, when his knees are bent 
arch-wise. This relates to the fore- 
quarters, and the infirmity is generally 
occasioned by hard riding. 

There are horses, however, which the 
French call brassicourts, or short fore-' 
thighs, that have their knees naturally 

ARCHERS, in military history, a 
kind of militia or soldiery, armed with 
bows and arrows. They were much used 
in former times, but are now laid aside, 
excepting in Turkey, and in some of the 
eastern countries. 

ARCHERY, (I'art de tirer de I'are, 
Fr.) the art of shooting with a bow and 
arrow. Our ancestors were famous for 
being the best archers in Europe, and 
most of our victories in Fiance were 
gained by the long-bow. The statutes 
made in 33 Hen. VIII. relative to this 
exercise, are worth perusal. It is for- 
bidden, by statute, to shoot at a stand- 
ing mark, unless it be for a rover, where 
the archer is to change his mark at every 
shot. Any person above 24 years old is 
also forbidden to shoot with any prick- 
shaft, or flight, at a mark of eleven score 
yards or under. 33 Hen. YI1I. chap. 9. 
The former was a provision for making 
good marksmen at sight; the latter for 
giving strength and sinews. 

ARCHIPELAGO, (archipel, archi- 
pelage, archipelague, Fr.) a certain ex- 
tent of the ocean, which is intersected 
by several islands; that part which was 
anciently called the /Egean Sea, having 
Romania, Macedonia, and Greece, on 
the N. and W., Natolia on the E., and 
the Ionian Sea on the S. It con- 
tains a vast quantity of large and small 

Archipelago, (Northern,) situated 
between Kamschatka and the N. W. 
parts of America. 

ARCHITECTURE, in a military 
sense, is the art of erecting all kinds of 
military edifices or buildings, whether 
for habitation or defence. 

Military Architecture instructs us 
in the method of fortifying cities, sea- 
ports, camps, building powder maga- 
zines, barracks, &c. Military architcc- 

A R G 

( 21 ) 


*ure is divided into regular and irregu- 
lar fortification. 

Naval Architecture, the art of 
building the hull or body of a ship, dis- 
tinct from her machinery and furniture 
for sailing, and may properly be compre- 
hended in three principal articles. l.To 
give the ship such a figure, or outward 
form, as may be most suitable to the 
service for which she is intended. 2. To 
find the exact shape of the pieces of 
timber necessary to compose such a fa- 
bric. 3. To make convenient apart- 
ments for the artillery, ammunition, 
provisions, and cargo, together with 
suitable accommodation for the officers 
and men. 

ARCHITRAVE, the master-beam, 
or chief supporter, in any part of a sub- 
terraneous fortification. 

ARCH I VAULT, (archivolte, Fr.) 
the inner contour of an arch, adorned 
with mouldings, which goes round the 
faces of the arch stones, and bears upon 
the imposts. This contour differs ac- 
cording to the different orders in archi- 

Faire vuider les ARCONS, Fr. to 
throw out of the saddle. 

Perdre les Arcons, Fr. to lose one's 
seat in riding. 

AREA, the superficial content of aay 
rampart, or other work of fortification. 

ARENER, Fr. to sink under. This 
is said of a beam or plank, which gives 
way on account of the weight upon it. 

AREOMETER, (arcomltre, Fr.) an 
instrument usually made of fine thin 
glass, which, having had as much running 
quicksilver put into it, as will serve to 
keep it upright, is sealed up at the top; 
so that the stem or neck being divided 
into degrees, the heaviness or lightness 
of any liquor may be found, by the ves- 
sel's sinking more or less into it. 

ARESTIER, Fr. the corner side of a 
building. Also the back part of the 
blade of a sword. 

Arestier de plomb, Fr. the end of a 
piece of lead, which lies under the top 
of a roof that is slated. 

ARESTIERES, Fr. the beds or lays 
of plaster which tile-coveiers, or slaters, 
put at the angles of the top of a roof 
that is tiled. 

ARCANE AU, Fr. the ring of an 

ARGYRASPIDES, a part of the old 
Macedonian phalanx, which served un- 
der Alexander the Great, and was dis- 

tinguished from the rest of the men who 
composed that body, by carrying silver 

ARIGOT, Fr. a fife or flute. 

ARM, in geography, denotes a branch 
of the sea, or of a river. 

Arm is also used figuratively to denote, 

Arm signifies also any particular de- 
scription or class of troops. 

To Arm, to take arms, to be provided 
against an enemy. 

ARMADA, a Spanish term, signi- 
fying a fleet of men of war, applied par- 
ticularly to that great one fitted out by 
the Spaniards, with an intention to con- 
quer this island, in 1588, and which was 
defeated by the English fleet, under ad- 
mirals Lord Howard and Sir Francis 

ARMADILLA, a Spanish term, sig- 
nifying a small squadron. 

ARMATEUR, Fr. a privateer. 

ARMATURA, in ancient military his- 
tory, signifies the fixed and established 
military exercise of the Romans, nearly 
in the sense we use the word exercise. — 
Under this word is understood the 
throwing of the spear, javelin, shooting 
with bows and arrows, &c. 

Armattjra is also an appellation 
given to the soldiers who were light- 
armed. Aquinus seems, without reason, 
to restrain armatura to the ty rones, or 
young soldiers. 

Armatura is also a denomination 
given to the soldiers in the emperor's 

ARMATURE, Fr. In architecture, 
this word comprehends the bars, iron 
pins, stirrups, and all other iron hold- 
fasts which are used in a large assem- 
blage of carpentry. 

ARME, Fr. This word is used among 
the French to express any distinct body 
of armed men. 

ARME-a-feu, Fr. a fire-arm; a gun ; 
a musket. 

Arme de trait, Fr. a bow, a cross-bow. 

Arme blanche, Fr. This term is used 
among the French to signify sword or 

Attaquer a /'Arme blanche, Fr. to at- 
tack sword in hand, or with tixed bay- 

ARMED, in a general sense, denotes 
something provided with, or carrying 

An Armed body of men denotes a 
military detachment, provided with arms 


( 22 ) 

A R M 

and animunition, ready for an engage- 

Armed, in tlie sea language. A cross- 
bar-shot is said to be armed, when some 
rope-yarn, or the like, is rolled about 
the end of the iron bar which runs 
through the shot. 

Armed ship is a vessel taken into the 
government's service, and equipped, in 
time of war, with artillery, ammunition, 
and warlike instruments : it is command- 
ed by an officer who has the rank of 
master and commander in the navy, and 
upon the same establishment with sloops 
of war, having a lieutenant, master, 
purser, surgeon, &c. 

Passer par Ics Armes, Fr. to be shot. 

Faire les Armes, Fr. to fence. 

Aux Armes! Fr. to arms ! 

ARMET, Fr. a casque or helmet. 
This term is grown obsolete, and is only 
found in old stories concerning the 
knights errant. 

Amain ARMEE, Fr. with open force. 
Fntrer unpays a main Armee; to enter 
a country with open force. 

ARMEE, Fr. See Army. 

Armze navale, Fr. the naval forces. 

Armee de terre, Fr. the land forces. 

ARMEMENT, Fr. a levy of troops, 
equipage of war, either by land or sea. 

AR.MER un J'ourneau de mine, Fr. 
to close up a mine, after it has been pro- 
perly charged. 

ARMES a I'epreuve, a French term 
for armour of polished steel, which was 
proof against the sword or small arms; 
but its weight so encumbered the wearer, 
that modern tacticians have wholly re- 
jected its use. 

Armes <i la ligtre, Fr. light-armed 
troops, who were employed to attack in 
small bodies, as opportunity occurred. 
See Riflemen, &c. 

Armes des pieces de canon, the 
French term for the tools used in prac- 
tical gunnery, as the scoop, rammer, 
sponge, &c. 

Armes au pied, Fr. ground arms ! 

Faire les premieres Armes, Fr. to be- 
pin the military profession, or to enter 
the service. 

ARMIGER, an esquire or armour- 
bearer, who formerly attended his 
knight or chieftain in war, combat, or 
tournament, and who carried his lance, 
shield, or other weapons with which he 

ARMILUSTRIUM, in Roman anti- 
quity, a feast observed among the Ro- 

man generals, in which they sacrificed, 
armed, to the sound of trumpets, and 
other warlike instruments. 

ARMISTICE, a temporary truce, or 
cessation of arms for a very short space 
of time only. 

ARMORY, a warehouse of arms, or 
a place where the military habiliments 
are kept, to be ready for use. 

ARMOUR denotes all such habili- 
ments as serve to defend the body from 
wounds, especially darts, a sword, a 
lance, &c. A complete suit of armour 
formerly consisted of a helmet, a shield, 
a cuirasse, a coat of mail, a gantlet, &c. 
now almost universally laid aside. 

ARMOUR-BEARER, he that carries 
the armour of another. 

ARMOURER, a person who makes 
or deals in armour or arms; also a per- 
son who keeps them clean. 

ARMS, (armes, Fr.) in a general sense, 
signify all kinds of weapons, whether 
used for offence or defence. 

Arms may properly be classed under 
two specific heads — 

Arms of offence, which include mus- 
ket, bayonet, sword, pistol, &c. 

Arms of % defence, which are shields, 
helmets, coats of mail, or any species of 
repulsive or impenetrable covering, by 
which the body of a man is protected. 

In a legal sense, arms may extend to 
any thing that a man wears for his own 
defence, or takes in his hand, and uses 
in anger, to strike, throw at, or wound 
another. It is supposed, that the first 
artificial arms were of wood, and only 
employed against beasts; and that Belus, 
the son of Nitnrod, was the first that 
waged war: whence, according to some, 
came the appellation bellum. Diodorus 
Siculus takes Belus to be the same with 
Mars, who first trained soldiers up to 
battle. Arms of stone, and even of 
brass, appear to have been used before 
they came to iron and steel. Josephus 
assures us that the patriarch Joseph 
first taught the use of iron arms in 
Egypt, arming the troops of Pharaoh 
with a casque and buckler. 

The principal arms of the ancient 
Britons were hatchets, scythes, lances, 
swords, and bucklers: the Saxons, &c. 
brought in the halberd, bow, arrows, 
cross-bows, &c. By the ancient laws of 
England, every man was obliged to bear 
arms, except the judges and clergy. 
Under Henry VIII. it was expressly 
enjoined on all persons to be regularly 

A R M 

( S3 ) 


instructed, even from their tender years, 
in the exercise of the arms then in use, 
viz. the long bow and arrows, and to be 
provided with a certain number of them. 

By the common law, it is an offence 
for persons to go or ride armed with 
dangerous weapons; but gentlemen, 
both in and out of the army, may wear 
common armour, according to their qua- 
lity. The king may prohibit force of 
arms, and punish offenders according to 
law; and herein every subject is bound 
to be aiding. Stat. 7. Edward I. None 
shall come with force and amis before 
the king's justices, or ride armed in 
affray of the peace, on pain of forfeiting 
their armour, and suffering imprison- 
ment, &c. 2 Edward III. c. 3. The 
importation of arms and ammunition is 
prohibited by 1 Jac. II. c. 8. and by 
William and Mary, stat. 2. c. 2. So 
likewise arms, cec. shipped after prohi- 
bition, are forfeited, by 29 Geo. I. c. 16. 
sec. 2. 

Arms of parade, or courtesy, were 
those used in the ancient justs and tour- 
naments, which were commonly unshod 
lances, swords without edge or point, 
wooden swords, and even canes. 

Bells of Arms, or Bell Tents, a kind 
of tents in the shape of a cone, where 
the company's arms are lodged in the 
Held. They are generally painted with 
the colour of the facing of the regiment, 
and the king's arms in front. 

Pass of Arms, a kind of combat, 
when anciently one or more cavaliers 
undertook to defend a pass against all 

Place o/Arms. See Fortification. 

Stand of Arms, a complete set of arms 
for one soldier. 

Arms, in artillery, are the two ends 
of an axletree. See Axletree, under the 
word Carriage. 

JVre-ARMS are great guns, firelocks, 
carbines, guns, and pistols ; or any other 
machine discharged by inflamed powder. 

ARMY, any given number of soldiers, 
consisting of artillery, foot, horse, dra- 
goons, and hussars or light horse, com- 
pletely armed, and provided with engi- 
neers, a train of artillery, ammunition, 
provisions, commissariat, forage, &c. 
under the command of one general, 
having lieutenant-generals, major-gene- 
rals, brigadier-generals, colonels, lieu- 
tenant-colonels, majors, captains, and 
subalterns. An army is composed of 
brigades, regiments, battalions, and squa- 

drons, and is generally divided into 
three or more corps, and formed into 
three lines: the first of which is called 
the front line, a part of which forms the 
van guard; the second, the main body; 
and the third, the rear guard, or corps 
of reserve. The center of each line is 
generally occupied by the foot; the 
cavalry form the right and left wings of 
each line; and sometimes a squadron of 
horse is posted in the intervals between 
the battalions. 

Armies in general are distinguished 
by the following appellations — 

A covering uryny. 

A blockading army. 

An army of observation. 

An army of reserve. 

AJlying army. 

An army is said to cover a place when 
it lies encamped or in cantonments, for 
the protection of the different passes 
which lead to a principal object of de- 

An army is said to blockade a place, 
when, being well provided with heavy 
ordnance and other warlike means, it is 
employed to invest a town for the direct 
and immediate purpose of reducing it 
by assault or famine. 

An Army of observation is so called 
because, by its advanced positions and 
desultory movements, it is constantly- 
employed in watching the enemy. 

An Army of reserve may not impro- 
perly be called a general depot of troops 
for effective service. In cases of emer- 
gency the whole or detached parts of an 
army of reserve are generally employed 
to recover a lost day or to secure a vic- 
tory. It is likewise sometimes made 
use of for the double purpose of secretly 
increasing the number of active forces, 
and rendering the aid necessary accord- 
ing to the exigency of the moment, and 
of deceiving the enemy with respect to 
its real strength. 

Flying Army, a strong body of horse 
and foot, commanded, for the most part, 
by a lieutenant-general, which is always 
in motion both to cover its own garri- 
sons, and to keep the enemy in conti- 
nual alarm. 

A naval or sea Army is a number 
of ships of war, equipped and manned 
with sailors, mariners, and marines, un- 
der the command of an admiral, with 
the requisite inferior officers under him. 

ARNAUTS, Turkish light cavalry, 
whose only weapon was a sabre very 


( 24 ) 


much curved. Some are in the Russian 

A 11 PENT, Fr. a French acre, which 
contains ten square perches in length, 
upon as many in breadth. 

ARPENTAGE, Fr. the art of sur- 
veying land, aud of taking the plan 
of it. 
ARPENTEUR, Fr. a land surveyor. 
ARQUEBUSE a croc, an old fire- 
arm, resembling a musket, but which is 
supported ou a rest by a hook of iron, 
fastened to the barrel. It is longer 
than a musket, and of larger calibre, 
and was formerly used to tire through 
the loop-holes of antique fortifications. 

ARQUEBUSIER, a French term, 
formerly applied to all the soldiery who 
fought with fire-arms, whether cavalry 
or infantry. 

D'ARRACHE-^W, Fr. without in- 

ARRACHEMENT, Fr. the taking 
out particular stones, leaving others al- 
ternately, in order to join one wall to 

ARRAY, order of battle. See Bat- 
tle Array. 

ARRAYERS, officers who anciently 
had the charge of seeing the soldiers 
duly appointed in their armour. 

ARREARS, in the army, were the 
difference between the full pay and sub- 
sistence of each officer, which was di- 
rected to be paid once a year by the 
agent. This retention of pay has been 
abolished in the army of the line and mi- 
litia; but it still exists among his Ma- 
jesty's horse and foot guards. 

ARREST, a French phrase, similar in 
its import to the Latin word retinacu- 
lum. It consists in a small piece of steel 
or iron, which was formerly used in the 
construction of fire-arms, to prevent the 
piece from going off. Ce pistolet est en 
arret is a familiar phrase among mili- 
tary men in France, this pistol is in 
arrest, or is stopped. 

ARREST is the exercise of that part 
of military jurisdiction, by which an offi- 
cer is noticed for misconduct, or put in- 
to a situation to prepare for his trial by a 
general court-marl ial. 

ARRESTE of the glacis is thejunc- 
tion of the talus which is formed at all 
the angles. 

A RRET depont,Tr. an engine that goes 
with a vice, and hinders a draw-bridge, 
once down, from being pulled up 

Arret, Fr. the rest for a lance. 
Arret, Fr. the stopping of a horse. 
Arret d'une epee, Fr. the crest, or 
ridge, of a sword. 

ARRETE, Fr. in fortification, the 
shelving sides which form the glacis of 
the covered-way, w here the salient angles 

Arrete, Fr, the edge, or angle, for- 
med by two faces of any solid, whether 
of timber, stone, or iron. 

Vive Arrete de voiite, Fr. the out- 
standing edj^e of a vault. Boyer writes 
the word arete. 
ARRETE, Fr. resolution; decree. 
Arrete de comptc, Fr. a settled ac- 

ARRIERE, Fr. the rear. 
Arriere Bun, Fr. See Ban n. 
ARRiERE-g«r</e, Fr. the rear-guard. 
En Arriere — murche ! Fr. to the 
rear — march ! 

ARR1 ERE-rousswre, Fr. the bending 
of an arch or vault which is made be- 
hind a door or casement iu order to 
give more light. 

ARR1EHE, Fr. in arrears. 
S'ARRIERER, Fr. to be in arrears; 
to remain behind; not to advance. 
ARRIMAGE, Fr. stowage. 
ARRIMER, Fr. to stow. 
ARRONDISSEMENT, Fr. district. 
ARROW, a missive weapon of of- 
fence, slender and pointed, made to be- 
shot with a bow. 

Arrow. See Fortification. 
ARRUGIE, Fr. subterraneous canal. 
ARSENAL is that place where all 
warlike instruments are deposited, and 
kept arranged in a state for any service, 
such as guns, mortars, howitzers, small 
aims, ccc. &c. with quantities of spare 
gun-carriages, mortar-beds, materials, 
tools, &c. &c. In an arsenal of conse- 
quence, all the proper departments con- 
nected with the artillery service, are pro- 
vided with suitable buildings and accom- 
modations applicable to their particular 
branches, such as the foundry, for cast- 
ing of brass ordnance; the carriage de- 
partment, which includes the wheelers, 
carpenters, and smiths; the laboratory, 
for making up and preparing all kinds of 
ammunition; as well as all other de- 
partments requisite, according to the 
extent of the arsenal. The term Arse- 
nal also applies to a place where naval 
stores are deposited. 

Royal Arsenal, a place at Wool- 
wich, where stores, &c. belonging to the 


( 25 ) 


royal artillery are deposited. It was 
formerly called the Warren. 

ART. Military art may be divided 
into two principal branches. The first 
branch relates to the order and arrange- 
ment which must be observed in the 
management of an army, when it is to 
fight, to march, or to be encamped. 

The other branch of military art in- 
cludes the composition and the applica- 
tion of warlike machines. 

ARTICLES of WAR are known 
rules and regulations for the better go- 
vernment of the army in the kingdoms 
of Great Britain and Ireland, dominions 
beyond the seas, and foreign parts de- 
pendent upon Great Britain. They may 
be altered and enlarged at the pleasure 
of the king; but they must be annually 
confirmed by parliament under the mu- 
tiny act. And in certain cases extend 
to civilians — as when by proclamation 
any place shall be put under martial 
law; or when people follow a camp or 
army for the sale of merchandize, or 
serve in any menial capacity. It is or- 
dained, that the Articles of War shall be 
read in the circle of each regiment be- 
longing to the British army every month, 
or oftener if the commanding officer 
thinks proper. A recruit or soldier is 
not liable to be tried by a military tri- 
bunal, unless it can be proved that the 
Articles of War have been duly read to 

ARTIFICE, among the French, is 
understood as comprehending every 
thing which enters into the composition 
of fire-works; as the sulphur, salt-petre, 
charcoal, &c. See Fire-works. 

ARTIFICER or Artificier, he 
who makes fire-works, or works in the 
artillery laboratory, who prepares the 
fuzes, bombs, grenades, &c. It is also 
applied to the military smiths, collar- 
makers, &c. &c. and to a particular 

Artificers, in a military capacity, 
are those persons who are employed 
with the artillery in the field, or in the 
arsenals; such as wheelers, smiths, car- 
penters, collar-makers, coopers, tinmen, 
&c. There is also a corps of royal mi- 

ARTILLERY, in a general sense, 
signifies all sorts of great guns or can- 
non, mortars, howitzers, petards, and 
the like; together with all the apparatus 
and stores thereto belonging, which are 
not only taken into the field, but like- 
wise to sieges, and made use of both to 
attack and defend fortified places. See 

.Artillery, in a particular sense, sig- 
nifies the science of artillery or gunnery, 
which art includes a knowledge of sur- 
veying, levelling; also that of geometry, 
trigonometry, conic sections, laws of 
motion, mechanics, fortification and pro- 

The artillery service is divided into the 
following branches, viz. 

Royal Regiment of Artillery. It con- 
sists at present of ten battalions of foot, 
exclusive of the royal horse artillery, and 
an invalid battalion ; but from the great 
want of artillery-men, in all our foreign 
possessions, as well as for field service 
generally, and the defence of the bat- 
teries on our own coast, there is no 
doubt but the necessity of an addition 
to this corps must be obvious to every 
one acquainted with the duties of the 
service; for it would be the means of 
having the artillery better served, and 
do away the necessity of breaking up 
the strength of regiments of the line, by- 
calling upon them to furnish additional 

Each battalion, including the invalid 
battalion, consists of one colonel-com- 
mandant, two colonels en second, three 
lieutenant-colonels, one major, and ten 
companies, each company consisting of 
one captain, one second captain, two 
first and one second lieutenant, and 120 
non-commissioned officers and privates; 
there is also an adjutant and quarter- 
master to each battalion, and some chap- 
lains for the different principal stations 
of the corps, besides a medical esta- 
blishment: but it appears that it would 
be an advantage to the field service, 
which is the most important part, if the 
companies were leduced to 100 non- 
commissioned officers and men each, 
which number would be sufficient to 

litary artificers attached to the engi-i man a brigade, on the present establish- 
neei's department, for the erection of , ment, and furnish a proportion for park 
fortifications and buildings in the ord- duties, and replacing the sick and 
nance service. The artificers of different j wounded, and would have the good ef- 
trades necessary to be employed in ship- feet of preventing a genera] mixture of 

building, in the king's dock yards, also 
come under the description of artificers. 

companies in the same brigade; and 
other obvious advantages The princi- 


A R T 

( 26 ) 


pal staff of the regiment consists of a 
deputy adjutant-general and assistants, 
who are stationed at Woolwich, and act 
immediately from the orders of the mas- 

The duties of the invalid battalion arc 
confined to Great Britain only, and some 
of its dependant islands. 

The head-quarters of the regiment are 
at Woolwich, where all the officers and 
men first assemble, upon joining the re- 
giment, for the purpose of being in- 
structed in the various duties of the pro- 
fession, previous to being employed on 
foreign service. 

Royal Horse Artillery. There are 
twelve troops, in addition to the foot 
artillery, each troop consisting of one 
captain, one second captain, three sub- 
alterns, two staff serjeants, twelve non- 
commissioned officers, seventy-live gun- 
ners, forty-six drivers, six artificers, and 
one trumpeter, with eighty-six draught 
horses, and fifty-six riding horses, and 
six pieces of ordnance, with carriages 
for the conveyance of ammunition, camp 
equipage, and stores. The introduction 
of horse artillery into the service of this 
country was brought forward in the 
year 1792, by the Duke of Richmond, 
who was then master-general of the 
ordnance, for the purpose of acting with 
cavalry. There is a colonel-command- 
ant, two colonels en second, four lieu- 
tenant-colonels, and one major, attached 
to it. The movements of horse artillery 
are made with great celerity, and it has 
been found, that they are perfectly 
adapted to act with cavalry in the field, 
in their most rapid movements, and are 
considered as forming an essential addi- 
tion to the artillery service. 

Royal Artillery Drivers, (conduc- 
teurs d'artilleric, Fr.) This corps was 
first formed about twelve years ago, by 
the late Duke of Richmond. The great 
advantage derived from having men re- 
gularly enlisted, and well trained to the 
service, instead of men accidentally 
picked up by contractors, soon became 
so evident, that at present the whole of 
the field artillery is furnished with dri- 
vers from this corps. Previous to the 
corps being established, the horses and 
drivers were provided by contract; but, 
as no reliance could be placed on the 
service of either men or horses so pro- 
cured, it was found absolutely necessary 
to abolish so uninilitary and destructive 

a system. The artillery horses are now 
kept in the highest condition for service, 
the drivers being thoroughly drilled to 
the manoeuvres of artillery ; so that the 
brigades, instead of being an incum- 
brance to an army, are not only capable 
of accompanying the troops, but also of 
securing, by rapid movements, advan- 
tageous positions in the field, so as to 
annoy an enemy, or protect our own 
troops. This change arises from the 
high state of excellence in which the bri- 
gades are equipped, and from the artil- 
lery-men being, in particular cases, 
mounted upon the cars attending the 
brigades. The corps consisted, in 1S09, 
of one colonel-commandant, three lieu- 
tenant-colonels, one major, nine cap- 
tains, 54 subalterns, two adjutants, eight 
veterinary surgeons, 45 staff serjeants, 
405 non-commissioned officers, 360 arti- 
ficers, 45 trumpeters, 4050 drivers, and 
7000 horses, all well appointed, and in 
the greatest state of readiness for any 
service, either at home or abroad, for 
which they might be required. A con- 
siderable reduction took place in 1814, 
when four troops were discharged; the 
situation of major having been abolished 
in 1812. 

Commissary's Department, under the 
colonel-commandant of the field train, 
consists of commissaries, assistant com- 
missaries, clerks, and conductors of 
stores, as well as artificers of different 
trades, upon the civil establishment of 
the Ordnance. This system differs from 
the rules of the service with most of the 
continental powers of Europe, it being 
with them a military establishment, and 
placed upon a footing with the oilcers 
of the army at large, under the super- 
intendance of a colonel-commandant, 
colonel-en-second, comptrollers, ccc. &c. 
The duties of this department are of 
great importance; the whole service of 
artillery in the field depending upon 
their exertions for the good arrange- 
ment made in the equipment of the 
ordnance, the proportioning the am- 
munition and stores for all services, as 
well as the forming all the depots of 
ammunition, not only for the artillery, 
but also for the whole army. The com- 
missaries and their assistants are de- 
tached, in common with the regiment of 
artillery, upon all services. It is con- 
sequently of the greatest importance that 
experienced persons should be selected 


( 27 ) 


for these employments, it being a work 
of time for them to be fully instructed 
and made acquainted with the artillery 
service. On this account, young men 
should be early brought into the depart- 
ment, so as to be trained up regularly 
from one situation to another, until 
they become complete masters of their 

Train of Artillery. This train is 
formed from the number of attendants 
and carriages which follow the artillery 
in the field, such as commissaries, 
clerks of stores, conductors of stores, 
wheelers, carriage and shoeing smiths, 
collar makers, carpenters, coopers, tin- 
men, &c. &c. with necessary materials 
and tools, carriages conveying reserve 
ammunition for the artillery and troops, 
spare stores, intrenching tools, spare 
wheels, camp equipage, baggage, &c. 
&c. All these are comprehended in 
the term Train of Artillery. 

Nearly the whole of the field artillery 
is divided into brigades upon a new 
establishment of five guns and one how- 
itzer to each brigade, for the natures of 
12 pounders medium and 9 pounders, 6 
pounders heavy and light, 3 pounders 
heavy and light, as also H\ inch howit- 
zers heavy and light. The guns and 
howitzers are accompanied by ammuni- 
tion cars, upon a new principle. To 
every brigade is a forge cart, a camp 
equipage wagon, and spare gun carriage, 
with spare wheels, and tools for a 
wheeler, collar maker, and carriage 
smith. The proportioning of field and 
battering ordnance, for foreign service, 
is a business of great importance, from 
the knowledge which is requisite to fix 
upon all the numerous articles to accom- 
pany the service, and the method to be 
pursued in equalizing, arranging, and 
disposing of the guns, ammunition, and 
stores. No certain criterion can ever 
be established as to the proportion of 
artillery to be sent upon anv expedition, 
as it must depend entirely upon the 
nature of the service; and great changes 
are generally made to suit the ideas of 
the officer who is to command the army, 
and also those of the officer of artillery, 
who may be selected to accompany it. 
It would therefore only tend to mislead 
were any detailed account to be given. 
Two brigades of field artillery to a divi- 
sion of an army consisting of 6000 men, 
may be considered a good proportion, 
independent of the reserve park, When 

any proportion of artillery is required 
for foreign service, the arrangement of 
it is left to the commandant of the field 
train, whose immediate duty is to make 
out all proportions,and to consider all de- 
mands for artillery and stores for foreign 
service, under the orders of the master- 
general and Board of Ordnance. The 
grand depot of field artillery is kept at 
Woolwich, in a perfect state of readi- 
ness for service. Of late there have 
been other depots established in diffe- 
rent parts of Great Britain, under the 
orders of the master-general and Board 
of Ordnance. The great utility of an ef- 
fective artillery is now so manifest, that 
nothing has been left undone to raise 
the British to the greatest degree of 
perfection ; and the exertions to pro- 
mote that object are clearly evinced by 
the acknowledged superiority of its 
equipment over that of any other ser- 
vice in Europe. 

In the year 1500, an army of 50,000 
men had only 40 pieces of cannon in the 
field, and in the year 1757, the same 
number of troops brought 200 pieces 
into the field, including mortars and 

At the battle of Jemmappes, which 
was fought between the French and 
Austrians on the 6th of November, 1792, 
the latter had 120 pieces of cannon 
disposed along the heights of Framery, 
whilst their effective force in men did 
not exceed 17,000. The French, on 
this occasion, brought nearly the same 
quantity of ordnance, some indeed of 
extraordinary calibre, but their strength 
in men was considerably more formida- 

The Park of Artillery is a place 
selected by the general of an army, to 
form the grand depot of guns, ammuni- 
tion, and stores, to be in readiness as 
occasion may require. Attached to the 
park there are generally as many officers 
and men of the royal artillery as are 
sufficient to man the reserve guns in the 
park, and to replace casualties that may 
happen in the detached guns and bri- 
gades. If a siege is to be undertaken, 
the number of officers and ai tillery-men 
in the park must of course be augmented. 
The reserve officers, drivers and horses, 
the principal commissary with his as- 
sistants and the several neces:-arv arti- 
ficers are also stationed here. To the 
park all the brigades and field f.irces 
detached with the army, look for their 


( *8 ) 


jesources, and when any thing is re- 
quisite, the park is the place whence all 
supplies are forwarded. The reserve 
ammunition for the troops is also depo- 
sited at the park of artillery, and sup- 
plied upon requisition under the orders 
of the commanding officer of artillery. 
The manner of forming the Park is al- 
most every where the same, except that 
some artillery officers differ in the dis- 
position of the carriages, &c; however, 
the hest and most approved method is 
to divide the whole of the guns into 
brigades of different natures, and place 
their ammunition in the cars or wagons 
behind them, iu one or more lines, ac- 
cording to the number of ammunition 
carriages attached to the natures of 
ordnance. Each brigade of artillery, 
including the ammunition carriage, forge 
carts, and camp equipage waguns, have 
a distinct number to prevent any mixture 
of carriages either in disembarking or 
breaking up of a campaign. The ar- 
rangement necessary to he made in 
forming a park of artillery of any mag- 
nitude, requires great exertions and abi- 
lities to prevent its being encumbered 
With any greater quantity of carriages, 
ammunition and stoics than are abso- 
lutely wanted for the service, in case 
there should be any sudden movement, 
yet at the same time to have a sufficiency 
for the purpose of affording any sup- 
plies which the army may stand in need 
of. Upon expedition service, where 
disembarkations of artillery take place, 
the depot of reserve carriages, ammu- 
nition and stores, is usually formed near 
to the spot where the articles are landed 
from the ships, and a communication is 
kept up between the advanced park and 
the. depot, from whence the articles are 
forwarded as demanded for the imme- 
diate exigencies of the park. 

Field Artillery includes every re- 
quisite to forward the operations of an 
army, or of any part of an army acting 
offensively or defensively in the field. 

Encampment of a Regiment of Ar- 
tillery. Regiments of artillery are 
always encamped, half on the right and 
half on the left of the park. The com- 
pany of bombardiers (when they are 
formed into companies, which is the 
case in almost every nation excepting 
England) always takes the right of the 
whole, and the lieutenant colonel's com- 
pany the left; next to the bombardiers, 
the cuionels, the majors, &c. so that 

the two youngest are next but one tff 
the center or park: the two companies 
next to the park, are the miners on the 
right, and the artificers on the left. 

In the rear of, ami 36 feet from the 
park, are encamped the civil list, all in 
one line. 

March of the Artillery. The 
matches of the artillery are, of all the 
operations of war, the most delicate; 
because they must not only be directed 
on the object you have in view, but 
according to the movements the enemy 
make. Armies geneially march in three 
columns, the center column of which 
is the artillery: should the army march 
iu more columns, the artillery and heavy 
baggage march nevertheless in one or 
more of the center columns; the situa- 
tion of the enemy determines this. If 
they are far from the enemy, the bag- 
gage and ammunition go before or be- 
hind, or are sent by a particular road; 
an army in such a case cannot march in 
too many columns. But should the 
march be towards the enemy, the hag- 
gage must absolutely be all in the rear, 
and the whole artillery form the center 
column, except some brigades, one of 
which marches at the head of each co- 
lumn, with guns loaded and burning 
matches, preceded by a detachment for 
their safety. The French almost inva- 
riably place their baggage in the center. 

Suppose the enemy's army in a con- 
dition to march towards the heads of 
your columns: the best disposition for 
the march is in three columns only, that 
of the center for the artillery; for it is 
then easy to form it in order of battle. 
Hence it is equally commodious for each 
brigade of artillery to plant itself at the 
head of the troops, in the place marked 
for it, in such a manner, that the whole 
disposition being understood, and well 
executed, the line of battle may be 
quickly formed in an open country, and 
in the presence of any enemy, without 
risking a surprize; by which method 
the artillery will always be in a condi- 
tion to act as soon as the troops, pro- 
vided it march in brigades. 

If your march should be through a 
country full of defiles, some dragoons 
must march at the head of the columns, 
followed by a detachment of grenadiers, 
and a brigade of artillery; cannon being 
absolutely necessary to obstruct the 
enemy's forming into order of battle. 

When you decamp iu the face of the 


( 29 ) 


enemy, you must give most attention to 
your rear guard. On such occasions, 
all the baggage, ammunition, provisions, 
and artillery, march before the troops; 
your best grenadiers, best cavalry, some 
good brigades of infantry, together with 
some brigades of artillery, form the rear 
guard. Cannon is of infinite use for a 
rear guard, when you are obliged to pass 
a defile, or a river, and should be placed 
at the entry of such defile, on an emi- 
nence, if there be one, or on any other 
place, from whence the ground can be 
discovered, through which the enemy 
must march to attack, the rear guard. 

A detachment of pioneers, with tools, 
must always march at the head of the 
artillery, and of each column of equi- 
page or baasja^e. 

If the enemy be encamped on the 
right flanks of the march, the artillery, 
&c. should march to the left of the 
troops, and vice versa. Should the ene- 
my appear in motion, the troops front 
that way, by wheeling to the right or 
left by divisions; and the artillery, 
which marches in a line with the co- 
lumns, passes through their intervals, 
and draws up at the head of the front 
line, which is formed of the column 
that flanked nearest the enemy; taking 
care at the same time that the ban-Miie 
be well covered during the action. 

Though we have said armies gene- 
rally march in three columns, yet where 
the country will allow it, it is better to 
march in a greater number; and let 
that number be what it will, the artillery 
must form the center columns. 

Officers of Artillery. The master 
general of the ordnance, who is com- 
mander in chief of the artillery, is en- 
trusted with one of the most laborious 
employments, both in war and peace, 
requiring the greatest ability, applica- 
tion, and experience. The officers in 
general should be great mathematicians 
and engineers; *should know all the 
powers of artillery; the attack and de- 
fence of fortified places; in a word, 
every thing which appertains to that 
very important corps. 

Honourable Artillery Company, a 
band of infantry, consisting of 600 men, 
of which the Prince of Wales is always 
colonel. This corps forms part of the 
militia, or citv guard of London. 

ARTILLEUR, Fr. an officer belong- 
ing to the French service, who was for- 
merly appointed by, and acted imme- 

diately under, the master general of the 

ARTILLIER, Fr. a man who works 
on pieces of ordnance as a founder; or 
one who serves them in action 

Artillier, Fr. a matross. 

ARTISONNE, Fr. \ worm-eaten, as 

Bois ARTISONNE, S wood may be. 

ARX, in the ancient military art, a 
fort, castle, &c. for the defence of a place. 

ARZEGAGES, Fr. batons or canes 
with iron at both ends. They were car- 
ried by the Estradiots or Albanian ca- 
valiers who served in France under 
Charles VIII. and Louis XII. 

AS.\PPES,oi - Aza pes, auxiliary troops 
which are raised among the Christians 
subject to the Turkish empire. These 
troops are generally placed in the front 
to receive the first shock of the enemy. 

ASCENSION, Fr. in artillery, the 
upward flight of a bomb from its explo- 
sion out of the mortar, to its utmost 
point of elevation. Descension de la 
bombe signifies, oa the contrary, the 
range which a bomb takes from its 
highest pitch down to its fall. 

ASCENT. See Gunnery. 

ASPECT is the view or profile of 
land or coast, and contains the figure 
or representation of the borders of any 
particular part of the sea. These figures 
and representations may be found in all 
the ruttiers or directories for the sea 
coast. The Italians call them demon- 
stratione. By means of this knowledge 
you may ascertain whether the land 
round the shore be high; if the coast 
itself be steep or sloping; bent in the 
form of an arc, or extended in straight 
lines; round at the top, or rising to a 
point. Every thing, in a word, is 
brought in a correct state before the 
eye, as far as regards harbours, bogs, 
gulphs, adjacent churches, trees, wind- 
mills, ckc. &c. 

A menacing Aspect. An army is 
said to hold a menacing aspect, when bv 
advanced movements or positions it 
gives the opposing enemy cause to ap- 
prehend offensive operations. 

A military Aspect. A country is 
said to have a military aspect when its 
general situation presents appropriate 
obstacles or facilities for an army act- 
ing on the offensive or defensive. 

An imposing Aspect. An army is said 
to have an imposing aspect, when it ap- 
pears stronger than it really is. This 
appearance is often assumed for the 


( 30 ) 

A S Y 

purpose of deceiving an enemy, and 
may not improperly be considered as 
a principal ruse dc guerre, or feint in 

ASPIC, Fr. a piece of ordnance which 
carries a 12 pound shot. The piece it- 
self weighs 4'250 pounds. 

ASPIRANT, Fr. a midshipman; a 
person waiting for promotion ; a candi- 
date for any place, or employment. 

ASSAILLIR, Fr. to attack; to assail. 
This old French term applies equally to 
bodies of men and to individuals. 

ASSAULT, a furious effort to carry a 
fortified post, camp, or fortress, where 
the assailants do not screen themselves 
by any works. While an assault during 
a siege continues, the batteries cease, 
for fear of killing their own men. An 
assault is sometimes made by the regi- 
ments that guard the trenches of a 
siege, sustained by detachments from 
the army. 

To give an Assault is to attack any 
post, &c. 

To repulse an Assault, to cause the 
assailants to retreat, to beat them back. 

To carry by Assault, to gain a post 
by storm, &c. 

ASSAUT, Fr. See Assault. 

ASSEMBLAGE, (assemblage, Fr.) 
the. joining or uniting of several things 
together*; also the things themselves so 
joined or united: of which assemblages 
there are several kinds and forms used 
by joiners, a i with mortuiscs, tenons, 
dove-tails, cVc. 

ASSEMBLfiE, Fr. the assembling 
together of an army; also a rail by beat 
of drum. See ASSEMBLY. 

ASSEMBLY, the second beating of 
the drum before a march ; at which the 
men strike their tents, if encatnj ed, 
roll them up, and stand to arms. See 

ASSEOIR,ifr. to lay; as to lay the 
first stones of a foundation. This word 
is also used to signify the laying of stones 
for a pavement. 

ASSESSMENT, in a military sense, 
signifies a certain rate which is paid by 
the county treason r to the receiver ge- 
neral of the land-tax, to indemnify any 
place for not having raised the militia; 
which sum is to be paid by the receiver- 
general into the exchequer. The sum 
to he assessed is five pounds for each 
man, where no annual certificate of the 
state- of the militia has been transmitted 
to the clerk of the peace; if not paid be- 

fore June yearly it may be levied on the 
parish officers. Such assessment, where 
there is no county rate, is to be raised 
as the poor's rate. 

To ASSIEGE, (assieger, Fr.) an ob- 
solete term for besiege. 

ASSIEGER, Fr. to besiege, 

ASSIETTE, Fr. the immediate scite 
or position of a camp, &c. 

To ASSIGN, to make over; as, to as- 
sign a certain proportion of one's pay, 
for the discharge of debts contracted. 

ASSIGN AT, Fr. paper issued upon 
supposed, or imaginary, property. Of 
this description were the assignats in 
France, at the commencement of the 
French revolution. 

ASSIGNMENT, appropriation of 
one thing to another thing or person; 
as the assignment which is made by the 
colonel of a British regiment for the 
off-reckonings, which are to be issued 
on the clothing, and for which he gene- 
rally pays 5 per cent, to the clothier. 

ASSOCIATION, any number of men 
embodied in arms for mutual defence in 
their district, and to preserve the pub- 
lic tranquillity therein, against foreign 
or domestic enemies. 

ASTRAGAL. See Cannon. 

ASYLUM, (asile, Fr.) a sanctuary, a 
place of refuge. It derives its name 
from a temple, so called by the Ro- 
mans, which was built bj Romulus for 
the reception of malefactors. It is now 
generally used to signify any place of 
refuge or reception. Hence the York 
Asylum, which has been erected under 
the auspices of the Duke of York, and 
is devoted to the education of military 

ASSISE, Fr. a course of stones which 
is carried on equally high, and is only 
broken, or interrupted, by doors or win- 
d »w s. 

Assise de picrre dure, Fr. the hard 
rough stone which is laid for the foun- 
dation of a wall reaching up to the 

Assise dc parpain, Fr. a course of 
stones that crosses a wall. 

ASYMPTOTES, {asymptotes, Fr.) 
straight lines which approach nearer and 
nearer to the curve, hut being indefi- 
nitely prolonged, never meet. Of ail 
the curves of the second decree, such as 
conic sections, the hyperbole is the only 
one that has asymptotes. 

Asymptotes may also be called tangents 
to their curves, at an infinite distance. 


( 31 ) 


The co?ichoicl, cissoid, and logarithmic 
curve, have each one asymptote 

ATILT, in the. attitude of thrusting 
with a spear, &c. as was formerly the 
case in tournaments, &c. 

ATLASSES, in architecture, figures 
or half figures of men, used instead of 
columns or pilasters, to support any 
member in architecture, as a balcony 
or the like. They are also called te- 
1 am ones. 

ATMOSPHERE, (atmosphere, Fr.) a 
subtle and elastic substance which sur- 
rounds the earth, which gravitates upon 
its center, and partakes of all its motions. 

ATRE, Fr. hearth; or the ground 
under a chimney. 

To ATTACH, to place, to appoint. 
Officers and non-commissioned oilicers 
are said to be attached to the respective 
army, regiment, battalion, tronp, or 
company with which they are instructed 
to act. 

To Attach, in a pecuniary sense, sig- 
nifies to prevent the issue of pay or al- 
lowance to an officer on full or half-pay, 
by an order from the commander in 
chief or secretary at war, which is lodged 
at the regimental agent's, or in the pay 

ATTACHE, Fr. the seal and signa- 
ture of the colonel-general in the old 
French service, which were affixed to 
the commissions of officers after they 
had been duly examined. 

The ratification of military appoint- 
ments in this manlier was attended with 
a trifling expense to each individual, 
which became th : perquisite of the co- 
lonel's secretary. 

ATTACK, any general assault, or 
onset, that is given to gain a post, or 
break a body of troops. 

Attack of a siege is a furious as- 
sault made by the besiegers by means of 
trenches, galleries, saps, breaches, or 
mines, &C. by storming any part of the 
front attack. Sometimes two attacks 
are carried on at the same time, be- 
tween which a communication must be 
made. See Siege. 

False Attacks are never carried on 
with that vigour and briskness that the 
others are; the design of them being to 
favour the true attack, by amusing the 
enemy, and by obliging the garrison to 
do a greater duty in dividing their 
forces, that the true attack may be 
more successful. 

Regular Attack is that which is car- 

ried on in form, according to the rules 
of art. See Siege. 

To Attack in front or flank, in for- 
tification, means to attack the salient 
angle, or both sides of the bastion. Thi9 
phrase is familiarly used with respect to 
bodies of men which attack each other 
in a military way. The French say: 
En front el sur lesflancs. 

ATTACK and Defence. A part of 
the drill for recruits learning the sword 
exercise, which is commenced with the 
recruit stationary on horseback, the 
teacher riding round him, striking at 
different parts as openings appear, and 
instructing the recruit how to ward his 
several attacks; it is next executed in a 
walk, and, as the learner becomes more 
perfect, in speed; in the latter instance 
under the idea of a pursuit. The attack, 
and defence in line and in speed form 
the concluding part of the sword exer- 
cise when practised at a review of ca- 
valry. It is to he observed, that although 
denominated in speed, yet when prac- 
tising, or at a review, the pace of the 
horse ought not to exceed three quar- 
ters speed. 

ATTEINDRE, Fr. to reach; to get 

Atteindre Vennemi, Fr. to get up 
with the enemy. 

ATTELIER, Fr. in fortification, all 
sorts of work which may be done by a 
variety of hands, and which are super- 
intended by one or more engineers. 

Entendre bien /'Attelieii, Fr. among 
engineers, to be master of the business; 
to know how to superintend works, and 
to see plans executed. 

ATTENDANCE, the act of waiting 
on another; service. 

ATTENTION ! a cautionary word 
used in the B> itish service as a prepara- 
tive to any particular exercise or ma- 
noeuvre. Gare-a-vous has the same 
signification in the French service. 

ATTESTATION, a certificate made 
by some justice of the peace within 
four days after the enlistment of a re- 
cruit. This certificate is to bear testi- 
mony, that the said recruit has been 
brought before him in conformity to 
the 55th clause of the Mutiny Act, and 
has declared his assent or dissent to 
such enlistment; and, if according to 
the said act he shall have been, and is 
duly enlisted, that the proper oaths have 
been administered to him by the said 
magistrate, and that the 2d and 6th 

B A C 

( 32 ) 

B A C 

sections of the Articles of War against! 
mutiny and desertion have been read to 
the said recruit. 

AVANT, Fr. Foremost, most ad- 
vanced towards the enemy. 

AvANT-6ec, Fr. the starling of a stone] 
bridge. Those starlings which areal-j 
ways pointed towards the current of the 
water, are called avanl-bec-d'amont, and 
the others avant-bec~d , aval. 

AvAtn-chemin-couvert, Fr. the ad- 
vanced covered-way which is made at 
the foot of the glacis to oppose the ap- 
proaches of an enemy. 

AvANT-«r«r, Fr. the pile-work which 
is foimed by a number of young trees 
on the edge or entrance of a river. 
They are driven into the ground with 
battering rams or strong pieces of iron, 
to forma level Hour, by means of strong 
planks being nailed upon it, which serve 
for the foundation of a bridge. Boats 
are placed where the uvant-duc ter- 
minates. The avant-duc is had re- 
course to when the river is so broad 
that there are not boats sufficient to 
make a bridge across. Avant-ducs are 
made on each side of the river. 

AvAm-fosse, Fr. the ditch of the 
counterscarp next to the country. It 
is dug at the foot of the glacis. See 

AvANT-grtrr/e. See Van Guard. 

AvANT-main, Fr. the fore-hand of a 

Avant-<7y»'h, Fr. the limbers of a 
field piece, on which are placed two 
boxes containing ammunition enough 
for immediate service. 

AUDIT-o/fue, an office at Somerset- 
house, where accounts are audited. 

AUDITOR, the person who audits 
regimental or other military accounts. 
He is generally a field officer. 

AL'AVENANT, Fr. proportionably; 
at equal rates. 

AVENUE, in fortification, is any 
kind of opening or inlet into a fort, 
bastion, or out-work. 

A UGE, Fr. a trough which holds water. 

AUGET, or Augette, Fr. a wooden 
pipe which contains the powder by 
which a mine is set lire to. 

AUGMENTATION, increase of any 
thing. Hence colonel commandant by 
augmentation; that is, colonel of an ad- 
ditional battalion. 

AVIVES, Fr. vives; a disease in 

AULNE <lc Paris, a French mea- 
sure, containing 44 inches, used to mea- 
sure sand-hags. 

AUTHORITY, in a general accepta- 
tion of the term, signifies a right to 
command, and a consequent right to be 
obeyed. The King of Great Britain 
has, by the constitution of the land, a 
perpetual inherent right to exercise mi- 
litary authority without controul, so far 
as it regards the army. His Majesty 
may appoint or dismiss officers at his 

AUXILIARY Troops. Foreign or 
subsidiary troops which are furnished to 
a belligerent power in consequence of a 
treaty of alliance, or for pecuniary con- 
siderations. Of the latter description, 
may be considered the Swiss soldiers 
who formerly served in France, and 
the Hessians who were employed by 

AWARD, the sentence or determina- 
tion of a military court. 

AXIS, (axe, Fr.) the line that passes 
through the center of a body, which is 
moveable upon the same, as in a cylin- 
der, cone, or pyramid, and which is 
perpendicular to its base. 

AXLE-TREE, a transverse beam 
supporting a carriage, and on the ends 
of which the wheels revolve. 


T>AC, Fr. a ferry boat; also a sort of 
■" box made of lar»e boards, through 
which water is passed, and carried from 
one quarter to another. 

BACK-notYs, nails made with flat 
shanks, so as to hold fast, and not to 
open the grain of the wood. 

BACK-step, the retrograde movement 
of a man or body of men without chang- 
ing front. 

BACKWARDS, a technical word 
made use of in the British service to ex- 
press the retrograde movement of troops 


( 33 ) 

B A L 

from line into column, and vice versa. 
See Wheel. 

BACULE, ou bascule, Fr. a swipe, or 
swing gate. 

BACULOMETRY, (bac ulamitrie, Fr.) 
in geometry, the art of measuring ac- 
cessible or inaccessible lines, by the 
help of one or more staves. 

BACULUS divinatorius, that is, a 
divining staff" or rod; a branch of hazel 
tree forked, and used for the discovery 
of mines, springs, tkc. 

BAGGAGE, in military affairs, signi- 
fies the clothes, tents, utensils of diver* 
sorts, and provisions, &c. belonging to 
an armv. 

B ag c ag E-Wagons. See Wagons. 

BAGPIPE, the name of a well-known 
warlike instrument, of the wind kind, 
greatly used by the Scotch regiments, 
and sometimes by the Irish. Bagpipes 
are supposed to have been introduced 
by the Danes; but we are of opinion 
that they are much older, as there is in 
Rome a most beautiful bas-relievo, a 
piece of Grecian sculpture of the highest 
antiquity, which represents a bag-piper 
playing on his instrument exactly like a 
modern Highlander. The Greeks had 
also an instrument composed of a pipe 
and blown-up skin. The Romans, in all 
probability, borrowed it from them. 
The Italians still use it under the names 
of piva and cornu-musa . The bagpipe 
has been a favourite instrument among 
the Scots, and lias two varieties: the 
one with long pipes, and sounded with 
the mouth -. the other with short pipes, 
played on with the fingers: the hist is 
the loudest and most ear-piercing of all 
music; is the genuine Highland pipe; 
and is well suited to the warlike genius 
of that people. It formerly roused their 
courage to battle, alarmed them when 
too secure, and collected them when 
scattered; solaced them in their long 
and painful marches; and in times of 
peace kept up the memory of the gal- 
lantry of their ancestors, by tunes com- 
posed after signal victories. 

BAGS, in military employments, are 
used on many occasions : as, 

Sand-B&Gs, generally 16 inches dia- 
meter, and 30 high, filled with earth or 
sand, to repair breaches and the embra- 
sures of batteries, when damaged by the 
enemy's fire, or by the blast of the guns. 
Sometimes they are made less, and 
placed three together, upon the parapets, 
for the men to fire through. 

Earth-Bxcs, containing about a cu- 
bical foot of earth, are used to raise a 
parapet in haste, or to repair one that 
is beaten down. They are only used 
when the ground is rocky, and does not 
afford earth enough to carry on the ap- 

BAGUETTE, in architecture, a small 
round moulding less than an astragal. 
When enriched with ornaments, it is 
called a chaplet. 

BAGUETTES, Fr. drumsticks ; they 
also signify the switches with which sol- 
diers were formerly punished in the 
French service; as passer par (es ba- 
guettes, to run the gauntlet. 

BAHU, Fr. a trunk. According to 
Belidor it also signifies the rounded pro- 
files which are generally given to the 
paved roads of an open country; also 
the rounded edge or profile of the but- 
tress of a parapet, ccc. 

Cheval BAHUTIER, Fr. a sumpter 
horse, or one that carries a portmanteau. 

BAILLOQUE, Fr. an ostrich feather. 

BAJOYERS, Fr. the side walls in a 
sluice or dam. They are also called 

BALANCE, in mechanics, one of 
the six simple powers principally used 
for determining the equality, or diffe- 
rence, of weights in heavy bodies, and 
consequently other masses and quan- 
tities of matter. 

BALANCE, Fr. a term used in the 
French artillery to express a machine 
in which stores and ammunition are 

BALANCIER June echse, Fr. the 
thick bar of iron which serves as a 
handle to shut or open a sluice with one 
or two flood-gates. 

BALATRONES, an ancient name 
given to wicked, lewd, and cowardly 
persons, from Servilius Balatro, a de- 
bauched libertine; whence, according to 
Bailey, the French have probably de- 
rived their Poltron, which see. 

BALISTA, Lat. an instrument from 
which arrows, darts, and javelins were 
thrown in ancient times. 

BALISTIQUE, Fr. the art of throw- 
ing or projecting heavy substances, as 
shells and cannon-balls, to a given dis- 

BALIVEAUX, Fr. young oaks that 
are under 40 years growth, and measure 
from 12 to 21 French feet in the girth. 

BALKS, poles or rafters, over out- 
houses or barns; and among bricklayers. 

B A L 

( 31 ) 

B A L 

great beams, such as are used in making 
scaffolds. The word is also, by some, 
npplied to great pieces of timber coming 
from beyond seas by floats. 

BALL, (balle, Fr.) a round substance, 
made of iron or lead, put into heavy 
ordnance, or fire-arms, for the pur- 
pose of killing or wounding, or making 
a breach. 

GWjhoh-Balls are of iron, and mus- 
ket and pistol balls are of lead. Cannon 
balls are always distinguished by their 
respective calibres, thus, 


^6,631 inches 






pound ball, the 



diameter of 
which is 









L 1,923, ) of which there are ra- 
Light-]i.\Li.i>, S rious sorts, are used for 
various purposes. Their composition is 
mealed powder 2, saltpetre l£, sulphur 
1, rosin 1, turpentine 2|. Sometimes 
they are made of an iron shell, some- 
times a stone, filled and covered with 
various coats of the above composition, 
till it conglomerates to a proper size, 
the last coat being of grained powder. 
But the best sort, in our opinion, is to 
take thick brown paper, and make a 
shell the size of the mortar, and fill it 
with a composition of an equal quantity 
of sulphur, pitch, rosin, and mealed pow- 
der, which being well mixed, and put in 
warm, will give a clear fire, and bum a 
considerable time. 

When they are intended to set fire to 
magazines, buildings, &c. the composi- 
tion must be mealed powder 10, saltpetre 
2, sulphur 4, and rosin 1; or rather, 
mealed powder 43, saltpetre 32, sul- 
phur 10, rosin 4, steel or iron filings 2, 
fir-tree saw-dust boiled in saltpetre ley 
2, birch-wood charcoal 1, well rammed 
into a shell for that purpose, having va- 
rious holes filled with small barrels, 
loaded with musket-balls; and lastly, 
the whole immerged in melted pitch, 
rosin, and turpentine oil. 

SwiiAc-Balls are prepared as above, 
with this difl'erence, that they contain 
5 to 1 of pitch, rosin, and saw-dust. 
This composition is put into shells made 
for (hat purpose, having 4 holes to let 
out the smoke. Smoke-balls are thrown 

out of mortars, and continue to smokal 
from 25 to 30 minutes. 

Stink-BjLLLS are prepared by a com- 
position of mealed powder, rosin, salt- 
petre, pitch, sulphur, rasped horses and 
asses hoofs, burnt in the fire, assa-fojti- 
da, seraphim-gum or ferula, and bug or 
stinking herbs, made up into balls, as 
mentioned in Light-BALLS, agreeable to 
the size of the mortar out of which you 
intend to throw them. 

Puisu)icd-B,\Li.a. We are not sure 
that they have ever been used in Eu- 
rope; hut the Indians and Africans have 
always been very ingenious at poisoning 
several sorts of warlike stores and in- 
struments. Their composition is mealed 
powder 4, pitch 6, rosin 3, sulphur 5, 
assa-foetida 3, extract of toads poison 12, 
other poisonous substances 12, made 
into balls as above directed. At the 
commencement of the French Revolu- 
tion, poisoned balls were exhibited to 
the people, pretended to have been fired 
by the Austrians, particularly at the 
siege of Lisle. We have seen some of 
this sort ourselves. They contained 
glass, small pieces of iron, &c. and were 
said to be concocted together by means 
of a greasy composition, which was im- 
pregnated with poisonous matter. In 
1792 they were deposited in the archives 
of Paris. 

Red-hot Balls, balls made red-hot, 
upon a large coal fire in a square hole 
made in the ground, 6 feet every way, 
and 4 or 5 feet deep. Some make the 
tire tinder an iron grate, on which the 
shell or ball is laid; but the best method is 
to put the hall into the middle of a clear 
burning fire, and when red-hot, all the 
fiery particles must be swept off. What- 
ever machine you use to throw the red- 
hot ball out of, it must be elevated ac- 
cording to the distance you intend it 
shall range, and the charge of powder 
must be put into a flannel cartridge, and 
a good wad upon that; then a piece of 
wood of the exact diameter of the piece, 
and about 3| inches thick, to prevent 
the hall from setting fire to the powder; 
then place the ball on the edge of the 
mortar, &,c. with an instrument for that 
purpose, and let it roll of itself against 
the wood, and instantly fire it off. Should 
there be a ditch or parallel before such a 
battery, with soldiers, the wood must not 
be used, as the blast of powder will 
break it to piece*, and its own elasticity 
prevent it from living far; it would in 

B A L 

C 35 ) 

B A L 

(hat case either kill or wound your own 
people. On this account the wad must 
be double, the second being damp. It 
the gun lies at a depression, there must 
be a wad over the shot, which may be 
rammed home. 

Chain-BALLS are two balls linked 
together by a chain of 8 or 10 inches 
long, and some have been made with a 
chain of 3 or 4 feet long; they are used 
to destroy the palisadues, wooden 
bridges, and chevaux-de-frizes of a for- 
tification. They are also very destruc- 
tive to the rigging of a ship. 

Sta?ig-BALLs are generally termed 
bar-shot, and by some called balls of 
two heads; they are sometimes made of 
two half-balls joined together by a bar 
of iron from 8 to 14 inches long; they 
are likewise made of two entire balls : 
they answer the same purpose as the 
before mentioned. 

Anchor-Y$Ai.i.s are made in the same 
way as the light-balls, and filled with 
the same composition, only with this ad- 
dition, that these are made with an iron 
bar two-thirds of the ball's diameter in 
length, and 3 or 4 inches square. One 
half is fixed within the ball, and the 
other half remains without; the exte- 
rior end is made with a grapple-hook. 
Anchor-balls are very useful to set fire to 
wooden bridges, or any thing made of 
wood, or even the rigging of ships, tkc. 
for the pile end being the heaviest, flies 
foremost, and wherever it touches, fas- 
tens, and sets all on fire about it. 

Message-Bxi.LS. See Shells. 

BALLE-d-lVu, Fr. See IuYc-Balls 

BALLF.-m«t'A(ie, Fr. a musket ball, 
which the soldier bites and indents in 
different places before he loads his mus- 
ket. It is contrary to the established 
rules of war to use any thing of the sort. 

BALLIUM, a term used in ancient 
military history. In towns, the appel- 
lation of ballium was given to a work 
fenced with palisades, and some times 
to masonry, covering the suburbs; but 
in castles, it was the space immediately 
within the outer wall. 

BALLON, Fr. balloon. 

Ballon, Fr. in architecture, the 
round globe on the top of a pier or 

Ballon a lombcs, Fr. a bag in which 
are placed beds of smaller bombs, that 
are charged and interlaid with gunpow- 
der. This bag is put into another co- 
vering, that is pitched and tarred, with 

the neck closely tied up with pack- 
thread, in which a fuse is fixed, as in 
ordinary bombs. These balloons, or 
bags containing bombs, are thrown out 
of mortars, and are frequently used in 
the attack and defence of fortified places. 
Colonel Shrapnel's invention of the sphe- 
rical case-shot is of a superior kind. 

Ballon a eailloux, Fr. a balloon or 
bag filled with stones or pebbles in the 
same manner as the above mentioned. 

Ballon a grenades, Fr. a balloon or 
bag, impregnated with pitch, containing 
several beds of grenades, with a fuse at- 
tached to each. 

BALLOON, a hollow vessel of silk, 
varnished over and filled with inflam- 
mable air, or gas, by which means it as- 
cends in the atmosphere. It has some- 
times been used by the French in recon- 
noitring, particularly at Fleurus, during 
the revolutionary war. 

Balloon for communicating intelli- 
gence. This balloon is 5 feet diameter, 
and will carry between 4 and albs, weight, 
or about 3000 printed papers, each 5 
inches square. The balloon by which 
the papers are carried and discharged 
is 12 inches diameter. The fire will 
burn at the rate of one minute per inch: 
consequently one round will be 36 inches; 
and the double ring will, of course, con- 
tinue to discharge for one hour and 12 

* • * /* I 

minutes, and so on in proportion, if the 
battery be triple, as the circle may go 
20 times round ; by which means the 
discharging of papers may be kept up 
for hours: and to prevent any possibi- 
lity of the fire going out, it may be made 
to burn double; although there is not 
one chance in a hundred of its going 
out by single fire. By a simple com- 
munication of fire to the inflammable 
air in the balloon, after the last parcel 
of papers is discharged, the whole is ex- 
ploded into air. This balloon was tried 
at the Royal Arsenal in Woolwich, by 
order of the Earl of Moira jn 1S06, and 
was favourably reported upon. 

The battery, when charged, is covered 
with skin, to prevent the rain or wet 
from affecting the fire, 

BALLOT, a little ball or ticket used 
in giving votes. The act of voting by 

To Ballot, to chuse by balls or 
tickets, without open declaration of the 
vote. The militia of Great Britain aud 
Ireland is drawn for by ballot in the 
several counties and parishes. 

B A N 

( 36 ) 


BALLOTS, Fr. sacks or bales of 
wool, made use of, in cases of great 
emergency, to form parapets or places 
of arms. They are likewise adapted for 
the defence 01 trenches, to cover the 
workmen. in saps, and in all instances 
where promptitude is required. 

BALUSTER, (balustre, Fr.) This 
word is usually, but corruptly, pro- 
nounced bannister. It is a small co- 
lumn or pilaster of different dimensions, 
viz. from an inch and three quarters, to 
tour inches square, or diameter. The 
sizes and forms of balusters are various, 
according to the fancy of the workman. 
BALUSTRADE, {balustrade, Fr.) an 
assemblage of one or more rows of little 
turned pillars, called balusters. 

Balustrade fcinte, Fr. small pillars 
or balusters which are fixed, half their 
usual height, upon any ground. 

BAN and Arrihc Ban, a French 
military phrase, signifying the convoca- 
tion of vassals under the feudal system. 
Menage, a French writer, derives the 
term from the German word ban, which 
means publication. Nicod derives it 
from another German term, which sig- 
nifies field. Borel, from the Greek nav, 
which means all, because the convoca- 
tion was general. In the reign of 
Charles VII, the ban and arriere ban 
bad different significations. Formerly it 
meant the assembling of the ordinary 
militia. After the days of Charles VII. 
it was called the extraordinary militia. 
The first served more than the latter; 
and each was distinguished according 
to the nature of its particular service. 
The persons belonging to the arriere- 
ban were at one period accoutred and 
mounted like light horse: but there 
were occasions on which they served 
like infantry, — once under Francis I. 
in 1545, and again under Lewis XIII. 
who issued out an order in 1637, that 
the arriere-ban should serve on foot. 

Ban likewise signified, during the 
ancient monarchy of France, a procla- 
mation made by the sound of drums, 
trumpets, and tambourines, either at 
the head of a body of troops, or in 
quarters. Sometimes to prevent the 
men from quitting camp, at others to 
enforce the rigour of military discipline; 
sometimes for the purpose of receiving 
a new commanding officer, and at others 
to degrade and punish a military cha- 

BANC, Fr. a bed or layer of stones 
in the quarry. 

Banc decicl, Fr. that bed or layer of 
the hardest upper stones, which is sup- 
ported by pillars, at intermediate dis- 

BAND, (banrfe, Fr.) in architecture, 
is a general name for any fiat low mem- 
ber, or one that is broad, and not very 
deep; which is also called face, from the 
Latin fascia, which Vitruvius uses for 
the same thing; and sometimes fillet, 
plinth, Ike. 

BANDELET, (bandelette, Fr.) a 
little fillet or band. 

BANDER, Fr. to bind, to bend, to 
cock. Bander les yeux a un trompette, 
to blindfold a trumpeter. Bander un 
pistolet, to cock a pistol. 

Bander also signifies to unite, to in- 
trigue together for the purposes of in- 

BANDERET, Fr. in military history, 
implies the commander in chief of the 
troops of the canton of Bern, in Swit- 

BANDES, Fr. bands, bodies of in- 

Bandes Francoises, Fr. The French 
infantry was anciently so called. The 
term, however, has of late become less 
general, and been confined to the Prevot 
des Bandes, or the Judge or Provost 
Marshal that tried the men belonging to 
the French guards. 

Bandes, Fr. iron hoops or rings. 

Sons-Ban de% Fr. the iron hoops in a 
mortar-carriage on which the trunnions 

Sms-Bandes, Fr. the iron bands or 
hoops that cover the trunnions of can- 
nons or mortars when mounted on their 
carriages: they are usually made with a 

BANDIERE, Fr. This terra is fre- 
quently used in the same sense with ban- 
nitre, banner; especially on board ship. 

Bandiere, Fr. line, artnie rangie en 
front de bandiere signifies an army in 
battle-array. This disposition of the 
army is opposed to that in which it is 
cantoned and divided into several bodies. 
line armie campie front de Ban- 
diere, Fr. an army which is en- 
camped with the regular stand of co- 
lours in front. Hence La ligne bandiere, 
the camp-colour line. The sentries 
should not, on any account, permit per- 
sons out of regimentals to pass this line. 

BANDIT or Banditto, (bandit,Yr.) 
a lawless plunderer, a military depredator. 

BANDOLEER, in ancient military 
history, a large leathern belt worn over 


( 57 



tlie right shoulder, and hanging under 
the left arm, to carry some kind of war- 
like weapon. 

Bandoleers arelikewiselittle wooden 
cases covered with leather, of which 
every musketeer used to wear 12 hang- 
ing on a shoulder-helt; each of them 
contained the charge of powder for a 
musket. They are now no more in use, 
hut are still to be seen in the small ar- 
moury in the Tower, 

BANDROLS. See Camp-Colours. 

BANDS, properly bodies of foot, 
though almost out of date. The term 
band is also applied to the body of mu- 
sicians attached to any regiment or bat- 

XVaj'n-BANDS. In England, the mi- 
litia of the City of London were gene- 
rally so called. The thud regiment of 
Foot, or the Old Buffs, were originally 
recruited from the Train Bands, which 
circumstance has given that corps the 
exclusive privilege of marching through 
London with drums beating and colours 

Band of Pensioners, a company of 
gentlemen so called, who attend the 
King's person upon all solemn occasions. 
They are 120 in number, and receive a 
yearly allowance of 1001. 

Band is also the denomination of a 
military order in Spain, instituted by 
Alphonso XL King of Castile, for the 
younger sons of the nobility, who, before 
their admission, must serve 10 years, 
at least, either in the army or during a 
war; and are bound to take up arms in 
defence of the Catholic faith, against 
the infidels. 

JVafe-BANDS, with gunners, hoops of 
iron, binding the nave of a gun-carriage 
at both ends. 

BANNER, the ordnance flag fixed 
on the fore part of the drum-major's 
kettle-drum carriage, formerly used by 
the Royal Artillery. At present, when 
a flag is carried, it is affixed to the car- 
riage of the right hand gun of the park, 
generally a 12 pounder. 

Banner, in the horse equipage, for 
the kettle-drums and trumpets, must be 
of the colour of the facing of the regi- 
ment. The badge of the regiment, or 
its rank, to be in the center of the har- 
rier of the kettle-drums, as on the se- 
cond standard. The king's cypher aur! 
crown to be on the banner of the trum- 
pets, with the rank of the regiment in 
figures underneath. The depth of the 

kettle-drum banners to be 3 feet 6 
inches; the length 4 feet 8 inches, ex- 
cluding the fringe. Those of the trum- 
pets to be 12 inches in depth, and IS 
inches in length. 

BANNERET, Fr. a term derived from 
banniere. This appellation was attached 
to any lord of a fief who had vassals 
sufficient to unite them under one ban- 
nitre or banner, and to become chief of 
the troop or company. 

Un Chevalier Banneret, or a Knight 
Banneret, gave precedence to the troop 
or company which he commanded over 
that of a banneret who was not a knight 
or chevalier; the latter obeyed the 
former, and the banner of the first was 
cut into fewer vanes than that of the 

BANNERET. Knights-banneret, ac- 
cording to the English acceptation of 
the term, are persons who, for any par- 
ticular act of valour, have been knighted 
on the field of battle. 

The late Sir William Erskine, on his 
return from the Continent in 1764, was 
made a knight-banneret in Hyde Park, 
by his present Majesty, in consequence 
of his distinguished conduct at the bat- 
tle of Emsdoiff. But he was not ac- 
knowledged as such in this country, al- 
though he was invested with the order 
between the two standards of the 15th 
regiment of light dragoons, because the 
ceremony did not take place where the 
engagement happened. Captain Trol- 
lope of the Royal Navy is the last cre- 
ated knight-banneret. Knights-banne- 
ret take precedence next to knights ot 
the Bath. 

BANNIANS, Ind. a name signifying 
innocent people, and without guile; a 
religious sect among the Indians, who 
believe in a transmigration of souls, and 
therefore do not tat the flesh of any 
living creature, nor will they even kill a 
noxious animal. They wear round their 
necks a stone called tunibesau, about the 
bigness of an egg, which is perforated, 
and has three strings run in it; this 
stone, they say, represents their great 
God; and on this account, the Indians 
shew them very great respect. 

BANNiAN-rf«y, a day so called from 
the above sect, on which no animal food 
is touched. 

BANQUET. See Bridges. 

Banquet, of a bridle, is that small 
part of the branch of a bridle that is 
under the eye, which is rounded like a 


( 38 ) 


small rod, and gathers and joins the 
extremities of a hit to the branch, so 
that the banquet is not seen, but is co- 
hered by the cap, or that part of the bit 
which is next to the branch. 

BANQUETTE, Fr. a kind of step 
made on the rampart of a work near the 
parapet. See Fom ificamon. 

BAR, a long piece of wood or iron, 
used to keep things together. Bars have 
various denominations in the construc- 
tion of artillery carriages, as sweep and 
cross bars for tumbrils; fore, hind, and 
under cross bars for powder-carts; shaft 
bars for wagons, and dowel bars used in 
mortar beds. 

B.\R-shot. Sec S/a»g-BALLS, under 
the head Ball. 

To Bar a rein, in farriery, is to 
strike it, or open it above the skin, and 
after it has been disengaged, and tied 
above and below, to strike between the 

Bau, (a sea word,) a rock or sand, 
lying before a harbour, which ships can- 
not sail over, but upon a flood. 

BARAQUER une anuee, Fr. to put 
an army into cantonments. 

BARAQUES, Fr. small huts made 
with wood and earth for the accommo- 
dation of soldiers during a campaign. 

BARB, the reflected points </f the 
head of an arrow. See Baure. 

BAKBACAN,or Barrican, a watch- 
tower for the purpose of descrying an 
enemy at a great distance: it also im- 
plies an outer defence or sort of ancient 
fortification to a city or castle, used es- 
pecially as a fence to the city or walls; 
also an aperture made in the walls of a 
fortress to fire through upon the enemy. 
It is sometimes used to denote a fort at 
the entrance of a bridge, having a double 
wall with towers. 

BARBACANAGE, money given to 
the maintenance of a barbacan. 

BARBE, the armour of the horses of 
the ancient knights and soldiers, that 
were accoutred at all points. 

BARBETS are peasants subject to 
the King of Sardinia, who abandon their 
dwellings when the enemy has taken 
possession of them. The King forms 
them into bodies, who defend the Alp*. 
being part of his dominions. 

B\RHET-batterg, in gunnery, is when 
the breast-work of a battery is only 3 
feet high, that the guns may fire over it 
without being obliged to make embra- 
sures: in such cases, it is said the guns 
tire en barbel. See Batiery. 

BARDE, Fr. a long saddle for an ass 
or mule, made only of coarse canvass 
stuffed with flocks. 

Javefine de Barde, Fr. a barbed ja- 
velin for a horseman. 

BARDE, Fr. barbed or trapped, as a 
great horse is; also bound or tied across. 

BARDEAU, Fr. a small piece of 
ship-timber, made in the shape of a tile, 
with which pent-houses and windmills 
are covered. 

BARDEES cTeav, Fr. a measure used 
in the making of saltpetre, containing 
three half hogsheads of water, which are 
poured into tubs for the purpose of re- 
fining it. Four half hogsheads are some- 
times thrown in. 

ed or canvass saddle with which colts 
are backed. 

BARGE-COURSE, with bricklayers, 
a term used for part of the tiling which 
projects over, without the principal 
rafters,, in all sorts of buildings where 
there is either a gable, or a knkin-head. 

BARILLA R, Fr. an officer who was 
formerly employed among the gallies, 
whose chief duty is to superintend the 
distribution of bread and water. 

BARILLET, Fr. keg; the barrel of a 
watch; also the body or funnel of a 
sucking pump, in which the piston plays 
up and down. It is likewise called 
Secre t. 

B ARILS, Fr. small barrels, contain- 
ing gunpowder, flints, &c. 

B a r i ls j'audroyu ns et flam boi/ans, Fr. 
See Thundering Barrels. 

BARM, or Berm. See Berm. 

BARQUE, Fr. a small vessel which 
has only one deck, and serves chiefly 
for the carriage of goods. It has three 

Barque longue, Fr. a small vessel 
used in war, without a deck, lower than 
the ordinary barges, with a peak head, 
and carrying sails and oars. 

BARRACKS (barraques, Fr.) are 
places erected for both officers and men 
to lodge in ; they are built different ways, 
according to their different situations. 
When there is sufficient room to make 
a large square, surrounded with build- 
ings, they are very convenient, because 
the soldiers are easily confined to their 
quarters, and the rooms being contigu- 
ous, orders are executed with privacy 
and expedition; and the troops have not 
the least connection with the inhabi- 
tants of the place : this prevents quar- 
rels and riots. Those for the horse were. 


( 39 ) 

B A S 

formerly called barracks, and those for 
the foot huts ; but now barrack is used 
indifferently for both. See Caserne. 

Barrack conies from the Spanish, 
baruccas, small cabins which the fisher- 
men make on the sea-shore. 

BARRACK-altoToance, a specific allow- 
ance of bread, beer, coals, ike. to the 
regiments stationed in barracks. 

BARRACK-guard. When a regiment 
is in barracks, the principal guard is the 
barrack-guard; the officer being respon- 
sible for the regularity of the men in 
barracks, and for all prisoners duly 
committed to his charge while on that 

Barrack-TV/ws^?' General, a staff of- 
ficer at the head of" the barrack depart- 
ment; lie has a number of barrack- 
masters and deputies under him, who 
are stationed at the different barracks; 
he has an office and clerks for the dis- 
patch of business; to this office all re- 
ports, ckc. respecting the barrack de- 
partment are made. 

BARRACK-Q/#ce, the office at which 
all business relating to the barrack de- 
partment is transacted. 

BARRE, Fr. a spar, or long thin 
piece of wood which serves to keep to- 
gether the boards in a partition, and to 
fasten other works; also a whipstaff; a 

Barre ou barreau de fer, Fr. a solid 
bar of iron. 

BARRELS, in military affairs, are of 
various kinds. 

.Fire-BARRELs are of different sorts; 
•some are mounted on wheels, filled with 
composition, and intermixed with loaded 
grenades, and the outside full of sharp 
spikes: some are placed underground, 
which have the effect of small mines: 
others are used to roll down a breach, 
to prevent the enemy's entrance. — Com- 
position: corned powder, SOlb. Swedish 
pitch 12, saltpetre 6, and tallow 3. Not 
used now. 

Thundering-BARRKLS are for the same 
purpose, filled with various kinds of 
combustibles, intermixed with small 
shells, grenades, and other fire-works. 
They are not used now. 

Poztfde/'-BARRELs are about 16 inches 
diameter, and 30 or 32 inches long, 
holding 100 pounds of powder; but the 
quantity put into a whole barrel is only 
90 lbs. into an half barrel 45 lbs. 
and a quarter barrel, used for rifle 
powder, only 22ilbs.; this proportion 
leaves a space for the powder to sepa- 

rate when rolled, or otherwise it would 
always be in lumps, and liable thereby 
to damage. 

Budge-B\RRZLS hold from 40 to 60 
pounds of powder; at one end is fixed 
a leathern bag with brass nails: they are 
used in actual service on the batteries, 
For loading the guns and mortars, to keep 
the powder from firing by accident. 

Barrels of earth, in an army, a sort 
of halt-hogsheads filled with earth, 
which are used as breast-works for co- 
vering the soldiery; and also to break 
the gabions made in the ditch; also to 
roll into breaches. 

BARRER, Fr. to stop; to obstruct. 

Barrer te chenun d'une troupe, ou 
d'une armie ennemie, Fr; to take pos- 
session of any particular road or pas- 
sage, and to cut it up, or plant it with 
ordnance, ckc. in such a manner that no 
hostile force could march through. 

BARRES, Fr. the martial sport 
called bars. 

BARRICADE. To barricade is to 
fortify with trees, or branches of trees, 
cut down for that purpose, the brushy 
ends towards the enemv. Carts, wa- 
gons, &c. are sometimes made use of 
for the same purpose, viz. to keep back 
both horse and foot for some time. 

BARRICADES, Fr. obstructions or 
obstacles created by means of ditches, 
temporary abattis, &c. 

BARRIER, {barriire, Fr.) in a ge- 
neral sense, means any fortification, or 
strong place on the frontiers of a coun- 
try. It is likewise a kind of fence com- 
posed of stakes, and transums, as over- 
thwart rafters, erected to defend the en- 
trance of a passage, retrenchment, or the 
like. In the middle of the barrier is a 
moveable bar of wood, which is opened 
and shut at pleasure. It also implies a 
gate made of wooden bars, about 5 feet 
long, perpendicular to the horizon, and 
kept together by two long bars going 
across, and another crossing diagonally. 
Barriers are used to stop the cut made 
through the esplanade before the gate 
of a town. 

BARMER.-tozcns, (vil/es barrieres, Fr.) 
The barrier-towns in Europe were 
Menin, Dendermond, Ypres, Tournay, 
Moris, Namur, and Maestricht. These 
towns were formerly garrisoned half by 
French or Imperial, and half by Dutch 
troops. They were established in 1713 
by the treaty of Utrecht, and demolished 
by Joseph II. in 1782. 

BAS-BOUD, Fr. a sea-term; the lar- 

B A S 

( 10 ) 

13 A S 

hoard side. The French use the words 
bas-burd and slri-bord to distinguish the 
right and left sides of a sluice, when a 
person is going through. Stri-btird is 
the right, and bas-burd the left, or stai- 
bmrd and larboard, looking at the prow 
of a sin 1 1. 

BASALTES, a sort of marble of an 
iron colour: the hardest block mar- 

BASCULE, JFr. a counterpoise which 
serves to lift up the draw-oi idge of a 
town. Likewise a term used in fortifi- 
cation to express a door that shuts and 
opens like a trap-door. 

BASE, rest, support, foundation: 
any body which bears another. It par- 
ticularly applies to the lower parts of a 
column, or pedestal. 

Base, or Basis, in fortification, the 
exterior part or side of a polygon, or 
rhat imaginary line which is drawn from 
the flanked angle of a bastion to the 
angle opposite to it. 

Base signifies also the level line on 
which any work stands that is even with 
the ground, or other work on which it 
is erected. Hence the base of a parapet 
is the rampart. 

BASE-/i«e, the line on which troops in 
column move. The first division that 
inarches into the alignment forms the 
base-line, which each successive division 

Base-/jW also signifies the line on 
which all the magazines and means of 
supply of an army are established, and 
from which the lines of operation pro- 

Hxst-ring. See Cannon. 

Base, with gunners, the smallest 
piece of ordnance, 4 feet and a half 
long, the diameter at the bore 1 inch ] 
quarter; it weighs 203 pounds, carries a 
ball 1 inch l-8th diameter, and 
live or six ounces. 

BASIL, with joiners, the an»le to 
which the edge of an iron tool is ground. 
To work on soft wood, basils are usually 
made twelve degrees; for hard wood, 
eighteen degrees: it being observed, 
that the more acute or thin t he basil is, 
the better and smoother it cuts; and 
the more obtuse, the stronger and fitter 
for service. 

BASILISK, an ancient name given to 
a 48 pounder. See Cannon. 

BASIS. See Base. 

BASKET-/,*//, the hilt of a sword, 
so made as to contain and guard the 
whole hand. 


BASKETS, in military affairs, are 

simple baskets, frequently used in sieges. 
They are filled with earth, and placed 
on the parapet of a trench, or any other 
part. They are generally about a foot 
and a half in diameter at the top, and 
eight inches at the bottom, and a. foot 
and a half in height; so that, being 
placed on the parapet, a kind of embra- 
sure is formed at the bottom, through 
n Inch the soldiers lire, without being ex- 
posed to the shot of the enemy. See 

There are common wicker baskets, 
bushel and half-bushel, used in the 
field in making batteries, &c. besides 
the gabion appropriated to forming part 
of the batteries, by being filled with 

BAS-OFFICIERS, Fr. non-commis- 
sioned ollicers, i. e. Serjeants and cor- 
porals, are so called in the French ser- 
vice. With us, the serjeants and lance 
Serjeants only are so called. 

BASON, a rcservatory of water, as 
the bason of a jet d'eau or fountain. It 
is also applied to a port or harbour, as 
the inner or outward bason, where ships 
may be moored. 

BASSE, Fr. a collar for cart-horses, 
made of rushes, sedge, straw, &c. 

BASSIN, Fr. a wet dock. 

Bassin de partage, Fr. that spot, in 
an artificial canal, where the summit of 
the slope is on a level, and the waters 
join for the continuation of the canal. 
Point de partage is the point where the 
junction is formed. 

Bassin d chaux, Fr. a lime-kiln, or a 
place where lime is slaked and inortail 

BASSINET, Fr. the pan of a musket. 



BASSON or BASSOON, a wind in- 
strument blown with a reed, performing 
the base to all martial music, one or two 
of which are attached to each regimental 

BASTILLE, Fr. any place fortified 
with towers. 

Bastille, a state prison which stood 
near the Temple in Parts, and was de- 
stroyed by the inhabitants of that capi- 
tal on the 14th of July, 1789. 

BASTINADO, a punishment among 
the Turkish soldiers, which is performed 
by beating them with a cane or the flat 
side of a sword on the soles of their 
feet. Among the French, the culprit is 
tied upon a bundle of straw, aud re- 


( *i ) 


ceives a prescribed number of blows, ' either on the capitals prolonged of the 
either upon the shoulders or upon his bastions or half-moons, or upon their 

faces. In thickness it is from 15 to 18 
feet, that it may be able to withstand 


See Fortification. 
BAT, Fr. a pack-saddle. 
BAT- .Horses, } are baggage horses 
BAW-flicwses, £ belonging to the offi- 
cers when on actual duty. 

H&T-Men, j were originally servants 
BAW-Mien, i hired in war time, to 
take cure of the horses belonging to the 
train of artillery, bakerv, baggage, &c. 
They generally wear the King's livery 
during their service. Men who are ex- 

the violence of the enemy's batteries. 
Its height depends upon the depth of 
the ditch, and upon the elevation of the 
water that is necessary to be kept up 
for an inundation; but the top of the 
building must always be under the co- 
ver of the parapet of the covert-way, so 
as not to be exposed to the enemy's 
view. In the middle of its length is 
raised a massive cylindrical turret, 

cused regimental duty, for the specific j whose height exceeds the batardeau G 

purpose of attending to the horses be- feet. 

longing to their officers, are called bat 

BATABLE, that may be disputed. 
This term was applicable to the contests 
which once existed between theBorderers 
of England and Scotland. 

BATAGE, BATTAGE, Fr. the time 
employed in reducing gunpowder to its 
proper consistency. The French usually 
consumed '24 hours in pounding the mate- 
rials to make good gunpowder; supposing 
the mortar to contain 16 pounds of com- 
position, it would require the application 
of the pestle 3500 times each hour. The 
labour required in this process is less in 
summer than in winter, because the 
water is softer. 

BATAILLE, Fr. a battle. 

Clicvul de BatatlI/E, Fr. a war horse, 
or charger. This expression is used 
figuratively as a sheet anchor or last re- 

Bataille rangee, Fr. troops drawn 
up in a regular line for action. 

BATAILLER, Fr. to engage one 

EATER, Fr. to saddle with a pack- 

BATESME du Tropique, Fr. a chris- 
tening under the Line. This is a pro- 
phage and ridiculous ceremony which 
every person is obliged to go through the 
first time he crosses the Line on his pas- 
sage to the East Indies. Different me- 
thods of performing it are observed by 
different nations. Englishmen frequently 
buy themselves off. Among the French, 
the individual who was to be baptized 
or christened, swore solemnly by the 
Evangelists, that he would individually 
assist in forcing every person hereafter, 
who should be similarly situated, to go 
through the same ceremony. 

Knights of the BATH, an English 
military order of uncertain original. 
Some writers say it was instituted in the 
Saxon times; some will have it to have 
been founded by Richard II. and others 
by Henry IV. nor is the occasion that 
eave ri^e to the order better known. 
Some say it arose from the custom which 

another partially, or by detachments, formerly prevailed of bathing, before 

without coming to a general engage- 
ment; to struggle hard. 

BATAILLON, Fr. battalion, which 

Bataillox quarrc, Fr. a battalion 
which is drawn up in such a manner, 

they received the golden spurs. Others 
say that Henry IV. being in the bath, 
was told by a knight, that two widows 
were come to demand justice of him; 
when, leaping out of the bath, he cried, 
" It was his duty to prefer the doing of 

that it forms a perfect square, and is justice to his subjects to the pleasures 
equally strong on the four sides. | of the bath;" and in memory of this 

BATARDE, French 8 pounders are 
so called. They are used in action. 

BATARDEAU, in fortification, is a 
massive perpendicular pile of masonry, 

transaction the Knights of the Bath 
were created. Camden however insists, 
that this was only the restoration of the 
order, which was in that prince's reign 

whose length is equal to the breadth of.| almost abolished: but however that may 
the ditch, inundation, or any part of a i be, the order was revived under George 
fortification where the water cannot be I. by a solemn creation of a considera- 
kept in without the raising of these ble number of knights. They wear a 
sorts of works, which are described 1 red ribbond, and their motto is Tria 



( 42 ) 


Juncta in uno, alluding to the three car- 
dinal virtues which every knight ought 
to possess. 

BATIMENT, Fr. any thing built or 
raised by art; regular or irregular; also 
a ship or vessel. 

BATON, Fr. a staff. 

Baton a dtux bouts, Fr. a quarter- 

Baton de commandement, Fr. an in- 
strument of particular distinction which 
was formerly given to generals to the 
French army. Henry III. before his 
ascension to the throne, was made gene- 
ralissimo of all the armies belonging to 
his brother Charles the iXtl), and pub- 
licly received the Baton, as a mark of 
high command. 

Baton ferrat tt non ferrat, Fr. all 
sorts of weapons. 

Obtenir son objet pur It tour du Ba- 
ton, Fr. to accomplish one's ends by 
equivocal means. 

Eire bien assure, de son Baton, Fr. to 
be morally certain of a thing. 

Eire ou Baton btanc, Fr. to 
be reduced to one's last stake. 

Se conduire a Batons rompus, Fr. to 
do any thing by fits and starts, to be un- 
decided in one's plans of attack, &c. 

BATOON, a truncheon, or marshal's 

BATTA, allowances made to troops 
in India. 

Dry-BATT a, Ind. money which is given 
in India to the troops, in lieu of rations; 
or batta received in money, to distinguish 
it from wet-hatta or batta received in 
kind. This distinction applies only to 
privates, as the batta to officers is always 
paid in money. 

F«i/-Batta, bid. an additional al- 
lowance which is given by the East In- 
dia Company to their troops. 

Haff'-BATTA, Ind. half of the above 
allowance, drawn by troops in garrison. 

Wet-BATTA, Ind. batta given in kind. 

BATTAILOUS, a warlike or military 

BATTALIA. Johnson adopts the 
word from Battaglia, Ital. and calls it 
the main body of an army, distin- 
guished from its wings. We are of opi- 
nion, that it farthe/ implies an army 
or considerable detachment of troops 
drawn up in order of battle, or in any 
other proper form to attack the enemy. 
See Ba itle. 

BATTALION or Batai.ion, an un- 
determined body of infantry in regard 

to number, generally from COO to 1000 
men. The royal regiment of artillery 
consists of 10 battalions, exclusive of 
the invalid or veteran battalion. Some- 
times regiments consist each of 1 bat- 
talion only; but il more numerous, are 
divided into several battalions, accord- 
ing to their strength; so that every one 
may come within the number men- 
tioned. A battalion of one of our 
marching regiments consists of 1000 
and sometimes of 1200 men, officers 
and non-commissioned included. When 
there are companies of several regiments 
in a garrison to form a battalion, those 
of the eldest regiment post themselves 
on the right* those of the second on the 
left, and so on till the youngest fall into 
the center. The officers take their posts 
before their companies, from the right 
and left, according to seniority. Each 
battalion is divided into 4 divisions, and 
each division into two subdivisions, which 
are again divided into sections. The 
companies of grenadiers being unequal 
in all battalions, their post must be re- 
gulated by the commanding ollicer. See 

Triangular Battalion, in ancient 
military history, a body of troops rang- 
ed in the form of a triangle, in which 
the ranks exceed each other by an equal 
number of men. If the first rank con- 
sists of one man only, and the difference 
between the ranks is only one, then its 
form is that of an equilateral triangle; 
and when the difference between the 
ranks is more than erne, its form may 
then be an isoscele, having two sides 
equal, or scalene triangle. This method 
is now laid aside. 

BATTEN, among carpenters, a scant- 
ling of wooden stuff, from two to four 
inches broad, and about one inch thick. 

BATTER, a term used by bricklayers, 
carpenters, 6iC. to signify that a wall, 
piece of timber, or the like, does not 
stand upright, but leans from the per- 
son looking front-way at- it. When, on 
the contrary, it leans towards the per- 
son, so looking, it is said to over-hang, 
or hang-over. 

BAITER, a cannonade of heavy ord- 
nance, from the 1st or 2d parallel of 
entrenchment, against any fortress or 

To Batter in breach implies a heavy 
cannonade of many pieces directed to one 
part of the revetemeut from the third 


( 43 ) 


BATTERIE de tambour, a French 
beat of the drum similar to the General 
in the British service. 

Batterie en roituge, Fr. a battery 
used to dismount the enemy's cannon. 

Batterie par camarade, Fr. the dis- 
charge of several pieces of ordnance to- 
gether, directed at one object or place. 

Batterie a barbette, Fr. pieces of 
ordnance which are planted above a pa- 
rapet that is not sufficiently high to ad- 
roit of embrasures. 

Batterie de canons, Fr. This term 
among (he French signiries not only the 
park of artillery, or the place where the 
pieces of ordnance are planted, but also 
the pieces themselves. 

Batterie directe, Fr. cannon planted 
right in front of a work, or of a body 
of men, and which can play directly 
upon either. 

Batterie d'enfilade, Fr. cannon so 
planted that it can play along the whole 
extent of a line. 

Batterie cnterrte, Fr. cannon or 
ordnance sunk into the earth in such a 
manner, that the shot can graze the 
whole surface of the ground it goes over. 

Batterie de morlier, Fr. a collection 
of bombsor shells, generally formed with- 
in the circumference of a wall. 

Batterie d'obusier, Fr. a battery 
formed of howitzers. 

Batterie de pierriers, Fr. a battery 
consisting of machines, from which 
stones may be thrown. 

Batterie en plein champ, Fr. a bat- 
tery consisting of cannon, which a/e 
planted in such a manner, that their ob- 
ject of attack is whollyunmasked. , 

Batterie en reduns, Fr. cannon 
planted in such a manner, that the se- 
veral pieces form a species of saw, and 
are fired from alternate intervals. Can- 
non thus ranged may be said to stand 
pointed in echellon. 

BATTERING implies the firing with 
heavy artillery on some fortification or 
strong post possessed by an enemy, in 
order to demolish the works. 

Batter i tic-p ieces are large pieces of 
cannon, used in battering a fortified town 
or post. 

It is judged by all nations, that no 
less than 24 or 18 pounders are proper 
for that purpose. Formerly much larger 
calibres were used, but as they were so 
long and heavy, and very troublesome 
to transport and manage, they were for 
a long time rejected, till adopted among 

the French, who, during the late war, 
have brought 36 and 48 pounders into 
the field. At present they use light 
pieces in the field. 

BATTERiNO-TVam, a train of artil- 
lery used solely for besieging a strong 
place, inclusive of mortars and howit- 
zers: all heavy 24, 18, and 12 pounders, 
come under this denomination; as like- 
wise the 13, 10, and 8 inch mortars and 

Battering-How. See the article 

BATTERY implies any place where 
cannon or mortars are mounted, either 
to attack the forces of the enemy, or to 
batter a fortification: hence batteries 
have various names, agreeable ta the 
purposes they are designed for. 

G^ti-Battery is a defence made of 
earth faced with green sods or fascines, 
and sometimes made of gabions filled 
with earth: it consists of a breust-zoork, 
parapet, or epaulement, of 13 or 20 feet 
thick at top, and of 22 or 24 at the 
foundation; of a ditch 12 feet broad at 
the bottom, and 13 at the top, and 7 
feet deep. They must be 7\ feet high. 
The embrasures are 2 feet wide within, 
and 9 without, sloping a little down- 
wards, to depress the rnetal on occa- 
sion. The distance from the center of 
one embrasure to that of the other is 
13 feet; that is, the guns are placed at 
18 feet distance from each other ; con- 
sequently the merlons (or the solid 
earth between the embrasures) are 
16 feet within, and 7 without. The 
gcnouilleres (or part of the parapet 
which covers the carriage of the gun) 
are generally made l i\ feet high from 
the platform to the opening of the em- 
brasures ; though this height owght to 
be regulated according to the semi-dia- 
meter of the wheels of the carriage, or 
the nature of the gun. The platforms 
are a kind of wooden floors, made to 
prevent the cannon from sinking into 
the ground, and to render the working 
of the guns more easy; and are, strictly 
speaking, a part of the battery. They 
are composed of 5 sleepers, or joists of 
wood, laid lengthways, the whole extent 
of the intended platform ; and to keep 
them firm in their places, stakes must 
be driven into the ground on each side; 
these sleepers are then covered with 
sound thick planks, laid parallel to the 
parapet; and at the lower end of the 
platform, next to the parapet, a piece 


( 44 ) 


of timber 6 inches square, called a 
Jiurter, is placed, to prevent tbe wheels 
from damaging the parapet. Platforms 
lire generally made li! t'tet long, 15 feet 
broad hehind, and 9 before, with a slope 
of about 9 or 10 inches, to prevent the 
guns from recoiling too much, and to 
bring them more easily forward when 
loaded. The dimensions of the plat- 
forms, sleepers, planks, hurters, and 
nails, ought to he regulated according 
to the nature of the pieces that, are to 
be mounted. 

The powder magazines to serve the 
batteries ought to be at a convenient 
distance from the same, as also from 
each other; the large one, at least 55 
feet in the rear of 4 he battery, and the 
small ones about 25. Sometimes the 
large magazines are made either to the 
right or left of the battery, in order to 
deceive the enemy; they are generally 
built 5 feet under ground; the sides and 
roof must he well secured with boards, 
and covered with earth, clay, or some- 
tiling of a similar substance, to prevent 
the powder from being tired : they are 
guarded by sentinels. The balls are 
piled in readiness beside the merlons, 
between the embrasures. 

Mortar-Bxn try. These kinds of 
batteries diner from gun-batteries, only 
in having no embrasures. They consist 
of a parapet of 18 or 20 feet thick 


;• high in front, and 6" in the rear; of 

a berm 2' or 8 feet broad, according to 
the quality of the earth; of a ditch 24 
I 'road at the top, and 20 at the 
bottom. The beds must be 9 feet long, 
(i broad, 8 from each otiier, and 5 feet 
from the parapet: they are not to be 
sloping like the gun-platforms, but ex- 
actly horizontal. The insides of these 
batteries are sometimes sunk 2 or 3 feet 
into the ground, by which they are much 
sooner made than those of cannon. The 
powder magazines and piles of shells are 
pi iced as is mentioned in the article 

Ricoclict-B\TTZKY, (Batterie at rico- 
chet, Fr.) so called by its inventor M. 
Vauban, and first used at the siege of 
Aeth in 1697. It is a method of dis- 
charging cannon with a very small quan- 
tity of powder. The elevation is so 
as just to fire over the parapet; and 
then the shot will roll along the oppo- 
site rampart, dismounting the cannon, 
and (hiving or destroying the troops. 
In a siege, Ricochet Batteries are gene- 

rally placed at about 300 feet before 
the first parallel, perpendicular to the 
faces produced, which they aie to enfi- 
lade. Ricochet practice is not outlined 
to cannon alone; small mortars and 
howitzers may effectually be used for 
the same purpose. — They are of singu- 
lar use in action to enfilade the enemy's 
ranks; for when the men perceive the 
shells roiling and bouncing about with 
their fuzes burning, expecting them to 
burst every moment, the bravest among 
them will hardly have courage to wait 
their approach, and face the havoc of 
their explosion. 

Horizontal Batteries, (Batteriis 
horizontals, Fr.) are such as have only 
a parapet and a ditch ; the platform being 
no more than the surface of the horizon 
made level. 

Ci-oss Batteries are such as play 
athwart each other against the same ob- 
ject, forming an angle at the point of 
contact; whence greater destruction fol- 
lows, because what one shut shakes, the 
other beats down. 

Oblique Batteries, or Batteries en 
echarpe, on par bricole, Fr. are those 
which play on any work obliquely; mak- 
ing an obtuse angle with the line of 
range, after striking the object. 

Enfilading Batt e r i ES,(Butteries tt en- 
filade, Fr.) are those that sweep or scour 
the whole length of a straight line, or the 
face or flank of any work. 

Sweeping Batteries. See Enfilad- 
ing Batteries. 

Redan Batteries, (Butteries en re- 
dans, Fr.) are such as flank each other at 
the salient and rent rant angles of a for- 

Direct Batteries, (Batteries di- 
rectes, Fr.)are those situated opposite to 
the place intended to be battered, so that 
the balls strike the works nearly at right 

Reverse Batteries, (Batteries de re- 
verSf on mcurtrilres, Fr.)are those which 
play on the rear of the troops appointed 
to defend the place. 

G/arcc/ȣ-BATTERiES are such whose 
shot strike the object at an angle of 
about 20°, after which the ball glances 
from the object, and recoils to some ad- 
jacent parts. 

Joint Batteries, or Comrade Bat- 
teries, (Batteries par camarade, Fr.) 
are so called from several guns firing on 
the same object at the same time. — 
When 10 guns are fired at once, their 


( *5 ) 


*fifect will be much greater than when 
fired separately. 

Swik Batteries, (batteries, 
Fr.) are those whose platforms are 
sunk beneath the level of the field ; the 
ground serving for the parapet ; and in 
it the embrasures are made. This often 
happens in mortar, but seldom in gun- 

Fascine Batteries, (batteries a fas- 
vines, Fr.) and Gabion Batteries, are 
batteiies made of those machines, where 
sods are scarce, and the earth very loose 
or sandy. 

HATTERY-planks are the planks or 
boards used in making platforms. 

BATTERY-foues are square chests or 
boxes, filled with earth or dung; used 
in making batteries, where gabions and 
earth are not to be had. They must not 
be too large, but of a size that is go- 

Battery-tkhYs are wooden pins made 
of the toughest wood, with which the 
planks that cover the platforms are 
nailed. Iron nails might strike fire 
against the iron-work of the wheels, in 
recoiling, &c. and be dangerous. 

BAJTERY-master, the person whose 
duty formerly it was to raise the bat- 
teries. This office is now suppressed in 

BATTE\JRSd'estrade,Fr. See Scouts. 

BATTLE implies an action where 
the forces of two armies are engaged ; 
and is of two kinds, general and parti- 
cular ; general where the whole army is 
engaged, and particular where only a 
part is in action ; but as they only differ 
in numbers, the methods are nearly alike. 

The following are some of the most im- 
portant Battles and Actions that have 
taken place in all parts of the civilized 
Abraham (St.) Sept. 15, 1759. — Death 

of General Wolfe. 
Aculco, (Mexico) Nov. 7, 1810. 
Adige, March 28, 1799. 
Aghrim, July 22, 1691. 
Agincourt, Oct. 25, 1415. — Won by the 

Agnaudell, 1599. 
Airolo, 1799. 

Albans, (St.) May 31, 1555; 1556. 
Albeck, Oct. 1805. 
Alberes, April 27 to 30, 1794. 
Albis ltieden, June 9, 1799. 
Albuhera, May 16, 1811. 
Alcacar-quivir, June 24, 1574. 
Aldenhoven, Mar. 1, 1793; Oct. 2. 1794. 

Aldudes, June 3, 1794. 

Aleppo, 1517. 

Alessandria, (Italy,) May 17, 1799. 

Alexandria, July 2, 1798; March 12, 
1801; March 21, 1801, expulsion of 
the French from Egypt. 

Alkmaar, Aug. 27 to Nov. 30, 1799. 

Alii Ghur, Sept. 4, 1803. 

Almanza, 1707. — In this battle the Eng- 
lish were entirely defeated. The 
English army was commanded by a 
Frenchman, and that which conquered 
them was headed by an Englishman. 

Almeida, May 11, 1811. 

Altenkirken, June 4, 1796 ; Sept. 19, 

Altenheim, July 16, 1675. 

Altorff, Aug. 14, 1799; Sept. 30, 1799. 

Amailhon, July 1, 1793. 

Amberg, Aug. 21, 1796\ 

Ampfingen, Nov. 30, 1800. 

Ancenis, Dec. 15, 1793. 

Andaye, June 21, 1793. 

Anderlecht, Nov. 15, 1792. 

Anghiari, Jan. 15 and 16, 1797. 

Angouri, 1400. — Bajazet I., at the head 
of 100,000men,was defeated and taken 
prisoner bj Tamerlane at the head of 
800,000. He received from his con- 
queror the respect due to his rank. 
He was not inclosed in an iron cage, 
nor did he meet with a cruel death, a» 
the Greek historians assert. 

Antoine, (Fauxbourg St.) July 5, 1652. 

Antraim, Nov. 20, 1793. 

Aoste, June 12, 1791. 

Appenwirh, 1796. 

Aran, (Valley of,) 1793. 

Arcis-sur-Aube, 1814. 

Arcoli, November 15, 16 and 17, 1796. 
— Won by Bonaparte. 

Arlon, 1792, 1793; April 17, 1796. 

x\rques, September 21, 1589. 

Arroyo del Molino, October 28, 1811. 

Arysch, (El,) 1799. 

Aspe, September 6, 1791. 

Ascalon,(Judaja,) 1192. — Richard, King 
of England, defeats Saladin's army, 
consisting of 300,000 fighting men. 

Ashdown, 1016. — Between Canute and 

Aspeme, August 21, 1809. 

Assaye, Sept. 23, 1303. — Won by the 
British in India ; on which occasion 
the present Duke of Wellington, then 
Lieut. Colonel Wellesley of the 33d 
Foot, greatly distinguished himself. 

Aumale, 1692. 

Aubin, (St.) 1488. 

Aurav, Sept. 29, 1364. 

B A T 

( 45 a > 


Aoesoy, 1791. 

Austeilit/, Dec. 2, 1805.— Tho conquest 

( t Germany by Bonaparte. 
A\cin, loi'.O 
Ayvaille, 1794. 
Ay moo/.. March, 1709. 
Baden, July 1, 1796. 
Bagdad, 17:».'». 
BagBoty October 25, 179:'.. 
Bagnouls-la-Maixo, 1793. 
Baltimore, 1781; September 19j 1811. 
Bamberg, August 1, 1796. 
Banbury, July 26, I4t.9. 
Bannor.kburn, June 27, 1314. 
Bavckham, October 7 to 9, 1608. 
Bardis, April 5, 1798. 
Barnet, April 11, 1471. 
Barrosa, March 5, 1811. — Won by the 
British under General Graham, now 
Lord Lynedock. 
Bartholomew, (St.) May 8, 1800. 
Bassano, Sept. 8, 1796; January 11, 

1801 ; November 9, 1805. 
Bassignana, May 19, 1799. 
Bastan, (Valley of St.) Julv -2-1, 1794. 
Bautzen, May BO to 81, 1313. 
Beylen, July 80> 1608: 
Bayonne, December 10 to IS, 1313.— 

Won by the Duke ol' Wellington. 
Beauge, April S, 1481. 
Beauheu, September 20, 1793. 
B .■amnont, April 26, 1794. 
Beaupreau, March 29, 1793. 
Beansejour, 1793. 
Belbeys, March 31, 1800. 
Belluni, March 13, 1797. 
Belonc, July 5, 1796. 
Belvedere, 1793; April 29, 1791. 
Belver, June 26, 1794. 
Beneadi, April 18, 1798. 
Bera, 1793; July 24, 1791. 
Berchera, December 2 to 1, 1793. 

I .ira, November 28, 1794. 
Bergen, April 13, 1759. 
! •- tried, February 3, 1807. 

gzabern, October 3, 1793. 
iVresiiia, November 28, 1812. 
Berne, March 5, 1798. 
Bessai, Julv SO, 1793. 
Betentll, March 18, 1791. 
Bezalu, July 20, 1794. 
Bhurtporey April 2, 1805. 
Bibemcb, Oct. 2, 1796; May 9, 1310- 
Bicoecpie. 1528. 
BiddasBoa, August 17 and October 9, 

Bilbao, July 12 to 13, 1794. 
Binasco, April 20 and 21, 1794. 
BingeVjVJarch 17, 1793; March 27, 

Bjschofswerda, September 22, 181*. 

Bitonto, Mav 25, 1731. 

Blackhcath, June 22, 1197. 

Illaekmere, 1323. 

Bladensburg, August 21, 18] 1.— Ca]T- 

tur« ot" the city of Washington. 
Blaregmes, September II. 170!>. 
Hlasclieidt, November 20, 179-1. 
Bleneau, April 7, 1652. 
Blenheim, August 18, 1701.— Won by 

the Duke of Marlborough. 
r.l.nehearli, September 24, 1439. 
Hoi-ghetto, May 30, 1796. 
BorislofT, J une' 25, 1708. 
Bormio, March 26, 1799. 
Borodino, September 7, 1812. — Th« 

capture ol' Moscow bv the Trench. 
BoKO, October 21, 1799. 
Bosworth, August 21,1 185. 
Bothwell Bridge, June 22, 1679. 
Boulon, August IS, 17 91. 
Bonvines, July 27, 121 1. 
Bouxweiller, November 18 to 20, 1793. 
Boitel, September 14 and 15, 1794. 
Boyne, July 11, 1690. 
Braunsberg, February 26, 1807. 
Brandy-wine Creek, September 12, 1777. 
Breeds-hill, 1775. 
Brcnta, (Defiles of the,) September T t 

1796; November 3 and 3, 1796. 
Breslaw, November 31, 1757. 
Bressuire, August 24, 1792. 
Brienne, January 29, 1814. 
Briga, April 21," 1794. 
Brignais, 1361. 
Brooklynn, August 22, 1776. 
Brouzil, 1793. 

Bruschali, September 4 to 15, 1796. 
Brzecie, September 19, 1794. 
Butl'arola, June 23, 1636. 
Bunker's-hill,near Boston,June 17,1775. 

— Won by tlie Americans. 
Burg-eberac.l), Xov. 3 and 4, 1800. 
Burguet, October 16, 1794. 
Bussingen, October 7, 1799. 
Butzbach, July 9, 1796. 
Buzaco, September 27, 1810. 
Byn-el-barr, April 2, 1798. 
Cadibona, April 5, 1800. 
Cairo, I Egypt>) April 19 to 27, 1800. 
Cairo, (Italy,) September 20, 1794. 
Calcinato, April 19, 1706. 
Galdero, December 12, 1796. 
Calderon, (bridge of,; January 17, 1811. 

Calvi, December 6, 1796, 
Campo Santo, 1743. 
Cana, June 10, 1798. 
Camden, March 25, 1781. 

Caatalopo, December li, 1796. 


( 45 6 ) 


Carpenedolo, January 26, 1796. 

Carpi, 1701. * 

Cars, June 17, 1744. 

.Casasola, March 19, 1797. 

Cassano, 1705 ; April 25, 1799. 

Cassovie, 1389. 

Cast, September 4 to 10, 1758. 

Castel-franco, November 23, 1503. 

Castel-genest, November 24, 1793. 

Castellamare, 1617; April 27, 1799. 

Castella, May 12, 1812. 

Castellaro, Sept. 12, 1796. 

Castelnaudari, 1632. 

Castel-novo, November 21, 1796. 

Castel-novo, (Dalmatia,) September 30, 
and October 10, 1806. 

Castiglione, June 29, 1796. 

Castrel, (Mount,) April 30, 1794. 

Cateau-Cambresis, April 7, 1794. 

Ce, (bridge of,) April 26 and 28, 1792. 

Cerea, September 11, 1798. 

Ceret, May 4, 1794. 

Cerignolles, April 28, 1503. 

Cerise, September 1, 1794. 

Cerisolles, April 15, 1544. 

Ceva, April 26, 1796. 

Cezio, May 7, 1800. 

Chabotiere, March 23, 1796. 

Champagne, (Campaign of,) August 22 
to October 25, 1792. — The Prussian 
army, dreadfully afdicted with the 
dysentery, in consequence of the sol- 
diers eating unripe grapes, forced to 
abandon the coalition. 

Chantonnay, September, 1793. 

Chateignerave, 1793. 

Chatillon, (Savoy,) May 18, 1800. 

Chatillon, (France,) Julv 8 to October 6, 

Chebreisse, July 13, 1793. 

Chemille, February 24, 1796. 

Chiari, 1801. 

Chili, (India,) 1803. 

Chiusa, August 5, 1796; January 2, 

Chiusella, April 25, 1800. 

Choczim, November 11, 1673. 

Chollet, March 15, 1793; October 15, 
1794 ; February, 1794. 

Chotzemitz, July 18, 1745. 

Circeo, July 29," August 2 to 9, 1798. 

Cistella, May 5 and 6, 1795. 

Ciudad Rodrigo, January 19, 1812. — 
Won by the British under the Duke of 

Civita-Castellana, December 4, 1798. 

Clausen, 1797. 

Closter-camp, October 16, 1760. 

Cocherel, 1364. 

Coefeld, August 1, 1759. 

Col-du-mont, Apr. 17 and May 12, 1795- 
Colonibino, January, 1794. 
Commines, 1382. 
Consarbruck, November 9 to December 

SO, 1792. 
Constance, October 7, 1799. 
Coimbra, October 7, 1810. 
Coptos, March 8, 1798. 
Coraiin, March 23, 1800. 
Coron, September 17, 1793. 
Corbach, June 24, 1760. 
Cornells, August 26, 1811.' — Total de- 
feat of the Dutch ; the general and a 

few followers being all that escaped of 

10,000 men. — The conquest of Java 

by the English. 
Corsica, 1769; 1793; October, 1796. — 

Taken by the British, who expelled the 

Corunna, January 16, 1309.- — Won by 

the British under Sir John Moore, who 

was killed. 
Cosdorif, February 20, 1760. 
Cossaria, April 13, 1796. 
Costheim, September, 1795. 
Courtrai, 1302; June 17 to 30, 1792; 

May 10, 1794. 
Coutras, October 20, 1537. 
Cracovie, 1702. 
Cressy, August 26, 1346.— Won by th« 

Crevelt, June 23, 1758. 
Crevent, June, 1423. 
Croix-des-bouquets, June 23, 1793. 
Croix-de-Mortimer, 146 1 . 
Culloden, April 27, 1746. 
Culm, August, September, 1813. 
CunnersdorfT, August 12, 1759. 
Cyr, (St.) September, 1795. 
Czarnowo, December 22, 1806. 
Czaslawau, May 17, 1742. 
Dalem, 1568. 
Dego, April 15, 1796. 
Delhi, September 9, 1803. 
Delmesingen, May 22, 1800. 
Demenhour, May 8, 1799. 
Denain, 1712. 
Denis, (St.) 1567. 
Dennewitz, September 6, 1813, 
Deppen, February 5, 1807 ; June C, 

Dettingen, June 26, 1743. — George the 

Second commanded in person. 
Deux-ponts, September 22, 1793. 
Deva, June 28, 1795. 
DierdorrY, April 17, 1797. 
Diernstein, Nov. 14, 1305. 
Diersheim, April 20 to 25, 1797. 
Diettickon, September 22 to 26, 1799, 
Dobeln, May 12, 1762. 

B A T 

( 45c ) 


Dominco, (St.) 1.502, 1700. 

Dresden, August 27 and 28, 1813.— 
Moreau mortally wounded. 

Dreux, December IP, 1562. 

Dumblain, November 12, 1715. 

Dona, 1701. 

Dunbar, September 3, 1650. 

Dunes, 1638. 

Dunkirk, September 7, 1793. 

Durham, October 17, 1346.— David, 
king of Scots, taken prisoner. 

Dusseldorff, September 8, 1795. 

Fckeren, June 30, 1703 —Gen. Obdam 
commanding the allies, ran oil' at t'ull 
speed, declaring all lost; but General 
Slangenbourg remained with the troops 
and made a skilful retreat. 

Edgehill, October 23, 1642. —Lost by 
Charles I. and won by Oliver Crom- 

Einbeck, August 24, 1761. 

Eltz, October 19, 1796. 

EmsdorfF, July 9, 1760.— Won by the 
allied army commanded by Prince 
Ferdinand, when the Fifteenth Ligbt 
Dragonnslnst distinguished themselves 
under Lord Heathfield, then Lt. Col. 

Engadines, (Affairs in the,) March, 1799. 

Engen, May 3, 1800. 

Ens, 1800.* 

Ensheim, October 4, 1674. 

Erbach, October 18, 1800, 

Eri van, 1805. 

Ernani, 1794. 

Escaulas, Xm ember 20, 1794. 

Eslingen, July 81, 1796. 

Essling, May 32, 1809. 

Etlingen, July 9, 1796. 

Evesham, August 4, 1265. 

Exiles, July 19, 1747. 

Eylau, February 8, 1807. 

Faenza, February S, 1797. 

Faioum, October 8, 1796. 

Falkirk, July 21, 1298; Jan. 28, 1746. 

Famars, Mav l to 26, 1798. 

Favorite, (J. a,) January 14, 1797. 

Fehrbellin, June 18, 1675. 

Feldkirk, March 5 to 23, 1799; Julv 15, 

Femeuil, August 27, 1424. 

Feiruekabad,(E.I.) November 17, 1804. 

Figuiero, November 27, 179 I. 

Fleurus, August ;'.0, 1622; July 1, 1696; 
Ma} 21 and June 26, 1794. 

Flines, 1792. 

Flodden,Sept. 9, 1513.— James IV. king 
of Scots, killed. 

Florent, (St.) March 10, 1793. 

Fluvia, June 15, 1795. 

Fombio, May 9, 1796. 

Fontaine-francaise, 1595. 

Fontarabia, August 1, 1794, 

Fontenai, (Vendee,) May 16 and 24, 

Fontenoi, May 11, 1745. — Won by the 
French under Marshal Saxe, after the 
British had been masters of the field 
all day. They were commanded by 
the fat Duke of Cumberland. 

Fontoi, August 19, 1792. 

Forham, July 21, 1739. 

Formigni, April 15, 1450. 

Formosa, 1662. 

Fornoue, 1494. 

Fossano, April 23, 1796. 

Fougores, November 2, 1793. 

Frankfort-on-the-Maine, December 2, 
1792; October 5, 1799. 

Frankfort-on-the-Oder, August 12, 1759. 

Frankenthal, June 24, 1796. 

Fraucnfeld, May 22, 1799. 

Fravenstal, 1706. 

Freibach, July 2 to 14, 1794. 

Frelignt, September 13, 1794. 

Freschweiller, December 22, 1792. 

Frendenstadt, July 4, 1796. 

Freyberg, October 10 and 29, 1762. 

Fribourg,August3, 1644 ; March 1, 1798. 

Fridlingen, 1702. 

1'riedbera, August 30, 1762 ; August 24, 

Friedberg, (Silesia,) June 3, 1747. 

Friedland, June 14, 1807.— Won by Bo^ 
naparte against the Prussians. 

Fuente de Honor, May 5, 1811. 

Fulda, July 28, 1762. 

Fulgent, September 23, 1793. 

Gabesbusch, 1712. 

Garigliano, 1502. 

Garrezio, November 29, 1791. 

Gavignana, 1530. 

Gaza, February 26, 1799. 

Gehemi, April 11, 1799. 

Geisberg, December 6, 1793. 

Geisenfeld, September 1, 179C. 

Gemblours, 1518. 

Gemmingen, 1568. 

Genola, November 3 and 4, 1799. 

George, (St.) September 14, 1796. 

George, (St.) Fort, E.I. 1760. 

German-town, October 14, 1777. 

Gilletto, October 17 and 18, 1793. 

Giorgewo, June 2 to 8, 1790. 

Giovanni, (St.) June 17 to 20, 1799. 

Gleisclv.veilhr, July 29, 1793. 

Gliswelle, June 13, 1792. 

Goar, (St.) 1758. 

Godart, (St.) 1661. 

Golden Kock,(Tritchinopolv,) 1753.— A 


( 45 d ) 


handful of British and Sepoys defeats 
a French battalion and 10,000 Mah- 
ratta horse. 

Golymin, December, 1806. 

Gonawes, February 22, 1802. 

Gondelour, 1759. 

Gorcum, January 21, 1795. 

Gorde, September 16, 1813. 

Gorlitz, 1745. 

Gothard, (St.) September 17, 1799. 

Governo, 1526. 

Governolo, 1796 ; September 18, 1797. 

Grabensteyn, June 4, 1760. 

Granchamp, June, 1795. 

Grandpre, September 10, 1792. 

Granson, 1475. 

Grant, 1685. 

Granville, November 14, 1793. 

Gravelle, 1793, to January 24, 1794. 

Grebenstein, June 24, 1762. 

Greussen, October 16, 1806. 

Grisen, April 25, 1799. 

Grimsel, August 14, 1799. 

Grodno, 1708. 

Gros Jegemdorff, August 30, 1757. 

Grosberen, August 22 and 23, 1813. 

Grunnewald, October 22, 1793. 

Grunsberg, March 2, 1761. 

Guastalla, 1734 ; March 24, 1746. . 

Guechenen, August 15, 1799. 

Guilford Court House, (America,) March 
15, 1781. 

Guinegatte, 1479. 

Gumine, March 5, 1798. 

Gundelfingen, August 8, 1793. 

Guntzbourg, October 9, 1805. 

Gurau, 1705. 

Guttstadt, June 9, 1807. 

Haag, October 15, 1806. 

Haguenau, 1706 ; December 22, 1793. 

Halberstadt, 1760. 

Halidon-Hill, July 29, 1333. 

Halle, October 17, 1806. 

Hamptienne, June 23, 1793. 

Hanau, October, 1813. 

Haslach, July 14, 1796. 

Hastenbeck, July 26, 1757. 

Hastings, Oct. 14, 1066. — King Harold 
slain, and the race of English kings 
destroyed by William the Bastard, 
commonly called William the Con- 

Heilsberg, June 12, 1807. 

Helder, August 27, 1799. 

Heliserke, 1368. 

Heliopolis, March 19, 1800. 

Helsinborg, 1709. 

Henef, September 13, 1795. 

HennersdortY, November 24, 1745. 
Herrings, February 12, 1429. 

Hersan, 1687. 

Herxheim, June 17, 1793. 

Hexham, May 15, 1464. 

Hocheim, Dec. 14, 1792, to Jan. 6, lf93* 

Ilochkirken, October 14, 1758. *«* 

Hochstedt, August 13, 1703; August 13, 
1704: January 19, 1800. 

Hoff, February 7, 1307. 

Hohenlinden, December 3, 1800; won 
by the French under General Moreno 
against the Austrians. 

Hohenwil, April 25 to May 1, 1800. 

Hollabrnnn, Dec. 15, 1805. 

Hollofin, July 14, 1708. 

Hondscoote, Sept. 7, 8, 9, 1793; won 
by the French over the British, after 
the unsuccessful attempt to enter Dun* 

Hooglede, June 10 and 15, 1794. 

Hoterage, July 19, 1572. 

Hundsmark, April 4 to 15, 179G. 

Ichenhausen, June, 1800. 

Iller, May 28. to June 5, 1800. 

Ingelmunster, May 10, 1794. 

Inn, Dec. 5 to 14, 1800; 1805. 

Inspruck, 1797; 1305. 

Intrapa, Nov. 25 to 27, 1795. 

Iratie, May 11, 1794. 

Irmeaca, April 26, 1794. 

Irun, July 23, 1793. 

Isola, July 1 to 7, 1806. 

lvry, March 14, 1590. 

Janvilliers, Feb. 14, 1814. 

Jarnac, March 13, 1569. 

Jean, (St.) April 16, 1796. 

Jean-de-Luz, Feb. 5, 1794. 

Jean-pie-de-port, (St.) June 6, 1793. 

Jemmapes, Nov. 6, 1792. — Won by the 
French army under the command of 
General Dumourier against the Aus- 
trians, headed by Prince Saxe Teschen, 
Governor of the Low Countries. The 
consequence of this battle was the 
subsequent irruption of the French 
into Flanders and Holland ; and even- 
tually, the cause of that military en- 
thusiasm, by which France was ena- 
bled to over-run all civilized Europe ; 
Great Britain excepted. 

Jena, Oct. 14, 1806. — The conquest of 
Prussia, by Bonaparte. 

Jersey, Jan. 6, 1781. 

Joannesberg, Aug. 30, 1762. 

Jagerthall, March 8, 1774. 

Josseau, Oct. 11, 1745. 

Josselin, (the Thirty,) 1351. 

Juliano, May 11 to 29, 1799. 

Juterboch, Aug. 1813. 

Kagoul, July 18, 1770. 

Ka'lisk, 1706. 

B A T 

( 45 C ) 

B A T 

Kamlacli, August 13, 1706. 
Karmidtjea, Dec. 28, 1806. 
Katzbach, Augasl 96, 1813. 
Kayserlaoteni, Nov. 98 and 29, 1793; 

Oct. 06, 1796. 
K.iM-riluil, Un 14, 1790. 
Kill), (passage of the Rhine,) June 24, 

L796; SepL 15, 1790; Nov. 22, 1796; 

.l:m. 94, 1797. 
Kent', Feb. 12, 1799. 
Kesselsdorff, Dec. 15, 1745. 
l\n m:il, 17.".;;, 1789. 
Kingston, Noveoibe»2, 1449. — Between 

Charles I. and the Parliamentary 

Kint/ig, (on the,) Aug. 18 to 15, 1793. 
Kirkdenckcrn. Julv IS, 17 'i 1 . 
Kinveiller, April 23, 1794. 
Kitzinge*, August, 1794. 
Klotten, July 9f, 1796. 
Kffinigeberg, lane 46, 1867. 
Kolin, June 18, 1757. 
Korsoum, March 15, 1799. 
Krasnoij Nov. id, i«i?. 
Krattan, (Java,) battle and a^saulr of the 

palace of the Sultan Djojeoaita, June 

21, 1818. 
Krupezize, L794. 
kutVestain, (Fort,) Nov. 1896. 
Kursomb, Dec 24, 180G. 
Labositz, Oct. I, 175G. 
Laffeld, July 20, 1747. 
Lambach, Oct. 27, 1806. 
Lambert, (St.) Sept. 19, 1765; 
Landsbut, June 23 to July 23, 1700. 
Langensalza, Feb. 12, 17<>0. 
Lango-nogro, August, 1806. 
Laogueaau, Oct. 10, 1805'. 
Ixuuioi, Sept. ... 1798; August 2ft, 1793; 

.May 18, 1791. 
Lansdown, July 5, 1646. 
Lantesee, Mav i. 179 i. 
Laon, March 9, !0, 181 I. 
Laufeld, July 2, 17 47 ; Sept. 19, 1791 

July P, 

Liege, Nov. 1792; July 27, 1794, won 

by the French under Dnmouriep. 
Lignitz, 1241 ; August 15, 1760, 

Limburg, Nov. 9, 1792; 1795; 

Lincelles, August 18, 1793. 

Lincoln, May 19, 1217. 

Lissa, Nov. 5, 1757. 

Loano, Nov. 23, 1795. 

Lobbes, May 24, 1794. 

Lodi, May 11, 1790.— Tlie bridge of 
Lodi was crossed by Bonaparte and 
Augereau, under a heavy lire from the 
Austrian batteries; Bonaparte heading 
the Grenadiers with a standard in bis 

Lodron, July 13, 1790. 

Loniitten, 1807. 

Long Island, August 27, 1770. 

Longwy, Oct. 22, 1792. 

Lopaczim, Dec. 25, 130G. 

Loubi, April 11, 1799. 

Louesch, May 31, 1799. 

Louisbourg, July 27, 1758. 

I.onvain, April 22, 1793; July 15, 1794. 

Lowers, Dec. 5, 1806; 

Lowosita, Oct. l, 1750. 

Lubcck,Oct. 31, 1S06. — Capitulation of 
Marshal Blucher, the Duke of Saxe- 
Weiinar, and Duke of Brunswick Oels. 
' Lucerne, 1 158. 
! Lucia, (Santa,) March 30, 1799. 

Lugon, June 23, 1793; Oct. 13, 1793. 

Lugo, July 9, 1790. 

Lutzelberg, 1 758. 

Lutzen, 1032; 1813. 

Luxembourg, June 12, 1795. 

Luzara, 1702. 

Machecoult, Mar. 14, 1793; Dec. 1798. 

Maczim, July 13, 1791. 

Madelaine, Sept. 20, 1798. 

Madrid, August 4, 1812. 

Magnan, March 30 to April 7, 1799. 

Maida, July 0, 180G. 

Laurent-de-la-Mouga, May 0, 1794 ■;, Mairnbourg, Sept. 7, 1790. 

H©V, 17, 1701 
Lauria, August, 1806. 
I .nun rbourg, ( let. f l to 28, 1798. 
Lavis, (River,) 1790; March 20, 1797. 
Lax, April 1, 1700. 
Lech, June 11, 1800; Oct. and' 7, 

Leipsic, 1G31; Oct. 16 and 19, 1813.— 

Jn the last great battle, the King of 

Saxony and his Court were undo 

Lesnow, Oct. 7, 17o;;. 
Leswaree, Nov. 1, 1803. 
Leuze, Sept. 18, 1091. 
Lewes, May 14, 1264. 
Lexington, 1775. 

Malines, July 13, 1794. 

Malo-Yaraslovetz, Oct. 24, 1812. 

Malplaquet, Sept. 11, 1709. 

Manoss, April 22, 1799. 

Mans, Dec. 10, 1793. 

Mantua, May 29, 1796. 

Marco, (San,) Jan. 1, 1801. 

Marengo, June 15, 1800. — The conquest 
of great part of Italy; won by Bona- 
parte in person against the Austrian 
army. General Desaix, who largely 
contributed by breaking the line, was 
killed on this occasion. 

Mai pee, 1641. 

Maricndal, 1645. 

Maiicnvverder, 1G29- 


( 45/ ) 


Marienzel, Nov. 7, 1805. 
Marignan, Sept. 13 and 14, 1515. 
Marquain, April 25, 1792. 
Marsaille, 1693. 
Marston-Moor, July 2, 1644. 
Martinique, 1762; April 16, 1780 
Matchewitz, Oct. 14, 1794. 
Maulde, 1792. 
Maurice, Oct. 4, 1793. 
Maxem, 1759. 
Medellin, Mar. 2S, 1809. 
Meer, August 5, 1758. 
Memel, July 3, 1757. 
Memmingen, May 10, 1800. 
Messina, 1282. 
Mexico, 1519. 
Michel, (St.) June 13, 1797. 
Micoui, 1798. 

Millesitno, April 14, 1796; won by Bo- 
Minden, August 1, 1759; won by the 

Mitquamar, Sept. 28, 1798. 

Mittau, 1705. 

Moescroen, April 29, 1794. 

Moeskirck, May 5, 1800. 

JUohatz, 1526;" 1687. 

Mohilow, July, 1812. 

Mohrungen, Jan. 25, 1807. 

Mohvitz, April 10, 1741. 

Mondovi, April 5, 1796. 
Monmouth, March 11, May 11, 1403. — 
Defeat of the Welsh. 

Monmouth Court-house,(America,) June 
28, 1778. 

Mons-en-pue!Ie, 1304. 

Mtnitabaur, April 19, 1797. 

Montaigu, 1793. 

Monte-Coccaza, August, 1806. 

Montcontour, 1559. 

Moutebaldo, 1796; Jan. 13, 1797. 

Montebello, June 12, 1800. 

Monte di Savaro, March 2, 1797. 

Monte-inurio, August 1, 1538. 

Montenotte, April 9, 10,11, 1796. 




first memorable battle 
fought by Bonaparte. 
Montesimo, 1745. 
Mont-Genevre, August 27, 1793. 
Montiel, March 14, 1363. 
Montlhery, 1465. 

Montmartre, Romainvilleand Belleville, 
(heights before Paris,) Mar. 30, 1814 
— Occupation of Paris by the Allies 
— Restoration of Louis XVIII. 
Monzanbano, Dec. 26, 1800. 
Mooch, April 14, 1574. 
Moore-Cross-Crick, 1776. 
Morgarten, 1499. 
Mortajme, 1793. 

Moskowa, 1812, called by the Russians 
The Bloody Battle of Borodino. — 
Marshal Ney distinguished himself 
greatly in this battle, and thence took 
his title. 

Mouveau, July 10, 1793. 

Moxon, Nov. 20 and 21, 1759. 

Mulberg, 1547. 

Mulhausen, 1674. 

Mulheim, 1505. 

Munden, Oct. 29, 1762. 

Muradal, 1210. 

Muret, 1213. 

Muttenthal, Oct. 1799. 

Nageara, 1368. 

Namslaw, 1745. 

Nanci, 1477. 

Nantes, June 24 to 27, 1793. 

Narrew, Feb. 15, 1807. 

Narva, Nov. 30, 1700. 

Naseby, June 25, 1645.— The downfall 
of the monarchy under Charles the. 
First, and the erection of the common- 
wealth under Oliver Cromwell. 

Navarete, April 3, 1367. — Henry the Bas- 
tard totally defeated by the Prince of 
Wales, and Don Pedro replaced or 
the throne of Castile. 

Nazielsk, Dec. 30, 1806. 

Negrepelisse, 1622. 

Nerac, July 7, 1621. 

Neresheim, 1796. 

Nerwinden, July 29, 1693; March 18 
and 19, 1793. — Won by the Austrians 
under the command of Prince Co- 
bourg, father to the British Saxe Co- 
bourg. In consequence of tins battle, 
the French, under Generals Dumou- 
rier and Miranda, were obliged to 
evacuate Holland and the Low Coun- 
tries, and Paris itself was threatened 
by the combined armies under the 
Duke of Brunswick. 

Neubourg, June 26, 1800. 

Neuhoff, April 23, 1797. 

Neumark, (Carniola,) April 2, 1797. 

Neumulli, June 24, 1796. 

Neuwied, 1794; Sept. 8, 1796; Oct. 23, 

1796; April, 1797. 
Neuwiller, Nov. 18, 1794. 
Newbury, Oct. 27, 1644; remarkable 
for the obstinate courage which was 
displayed by the London militia, every 
man of which, according to the late 
Earl of Liverpool, was found dead in 
the ranks. See his Pamphlet respect- 
ing the Militia. 
Newport, Sluys, and Ipres, October 19", 

1793. ' 

Niagara, (Fort,) 1756. 
Niagara, July 25, 1314. 

B A T 

( 45g ) 


.Nicea, 1333. 

Nicobar, 1227. 

Nicopolis, (Danube,) 1393. 

Nicopolis, (Epirus,) 1799. 

Nidel-Ingelheim, Sept. 15, 1795. 

Niderbach, May 25, 1796. 

Nieve, Dec 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13, 1313. 

Nieuport, July 2, 1(300; July 8, 1794.— 
Inundated round and man f ally de- 
fended by a small body of British 
against the French army commanded 
by General Pichegru, in 1794. 

Ninety-six, June 19, 1781. 

Nisbet, May 7, 1402. — Between tbe 
English and the Scots, when 10,000 
of the latter were slain. 

Noirmoutiers, Jan. 5, 1794. 

Nordlingen, Sept. 6, 1634 ; August 3, 

Northallerton, 1138. 

Northampton, July 19, 1460. 

Novi, 1745; August 16, 1799; Jan. 8, 

Nuremberg, Dec. 15, 1800. 

Oberflesheim, March 30, 1793. 

Obrique, 1139. 

Ockzakow, Dec. 6, 1788. 

Offembourg, 1796. 

Oldensee, 1605. 

Omulef, May 13, 1805. 

Oporto, May 12, 1809.— Won by the 

Ost-Capelle, July 7, 1793. 
Orchies, July 13 to 14, 1792. 
Ormea, April 16, 1794. 
Orthes,Feb. €7, 1814. 
Oss, July 16, 1796. 
Ostend, April 19, 1798. 
Ostreiram, 1762. 
Otricoli, Jan. 5, 1799. 
Otterburn, July 31, 1388. — Between 

Hotspur and Earl Douglas. 
Oudenarde, July 7, 1708. 
Pampeluna, July 9, 1795. 
Parma, June 29, 1734; July 12, 1799. 

— The French under Gen. Macdonald 

defeated by Suwarrow. 
Partha, Oct. 15, 1813. 
Passaw, 1703. 

Patay, June 10, 1429, under Joan of Arc. 
Paviii, 1525. 
Peila, August 16, 1762. 
Peiiestortes, Sept. 18, 1793. 
Periapatam, (E.I.) March 4, 1799. 
Peschiera, July 19, 1796. 
Peterwaradin, August 4, 1710. 
Pfaffenhoffen, 1745. 
Pfullendorff, March 20 to 23, 1799. 
Pietri, July 29, 1793. 
Pinkey, Sept. 10, 1547. 
Piqpasteus, Sept. 14, 1793. 

Pirna, October 16, 1756. 
Plasencia, June 16, 1746 ; 1799; May 5, 

Plassendal, 1708, 1745. 

Plassie, (E. I.) February 5, 1757. 

Plomnitz, February 13, 1745. 

Plowcre, 1331. 

Po, (St. Cypriano,) June 6, 1800. 

Poitiers, September 19, 1356. — The King 
of France and his sou taken pri- 

Polotsk, September, 1812. 

Pontremoli, May, 1799. 

Posnanie, 1704. 

Prague, 1600 ; May 22, 1757. 

Prentzlow, October 28, 1806. 

Preston-pans, October 2, 1745. 

Pretsch, October 29, 1759. 

Primolan, September 7, 1796. 

Princetown, 1778. 

Prusnitz, September 30, 1745. 

Pruth, 1711. 

Pufflich, October 39, 1794. 

Pultusk, 1702 ; December 26, 1806. 

Pultawa, July 9, 1709. 

Pyramids, July 20, 1798. 

Pyrenees, August 11, 16, 19, 1813.— 
Won by the British under the Duke 
of Wellington. 

Quaquoun, March 13, 1799. 

Quatre Bras, June 16, 1815. 

Quebec, April 28, 1760. 
i Quentin,(St.) August 10, 1557. 

Quiberon, June 24 to July 25, 1795.— 
The Emigrants defeated and destroyed 
by the French Republicans under Ge- 
neral Hochc. 

Quievrain, April 28, 1792. 

Radstadt, July 5, 17961 

Kami) lies, May 23, 1706. 

Rastars, April 4, 1794. 

Rathenau, 1646. 

Razboc, 1390. 

Rebec, 1523. 

Reichenberg, April 21, 1757. 

Reichlingen, (passage of the Rhine,) April 
30, 1800. 

Reignac, (island of the Rhine,) 1743. 

Renchen, June 28, 1796. 

Renti, August 15, 1551. 

Rhamanie, July 10, 1798 ; May 9, 1801. 

Rhinberg, October 16, 176U. 

Rhinfeld, February 28, 1638; July 8, 

Ricardi, 1466. 

Rieti, December, 1798. 

Rimenatc, 1578. 

Riota, June 6, 1513. 

Rivoli, January, 1797- 

Rocoux, 1746.— Won by the French 

under Marshal Saxe A ajjaiuit the Dutch 


( 45* ) 



and English, under Prince Charles of 
Rocroy, 1643. 

Rodelheim, December 3, 1792. 
llolcia, August 17, 1808. 
RoncevaUes, July 24, 1813. 
Rorbis, 1799. 

Rosbach, November 5, 1757. 
Rosbeq, 1382. 
Rosemberg, 1755. 

Rosetta, March 31 and April 19, 1807. 
Roundawaydown, July 13, 1643. 
Roveredo, Septernher 3 to 5, 1796. 
Runiersheirn, August 26, 1709. 
Rymnich, September 22, 1789. 
Sabuga!, 1404. 
Saffef, May 12, 1799. 
Sahagun, Dec. 21, 1803. 
Salado, 1340. 

Salamanca, July 22, 1312. 
Salehieh, 1793 ; March 3, 1800. 
Sal ion za, December 27, 1800. 
Salza, (Passage of the,) December, 1800. 
Samanouth, January, 1799. 
Sand Hills, near Bergen, October 2, 

Sandershagen, October 10, 1758. 
Sandershausen, July 23, 1758. 

Saratoga, October *16, 1776. — Won 
the Americans, when the late General 
Bourgoyne was taken prisoner, and his 
whole army surrendered. 

Saragossa, 1118; 1710. 

Sarre', November 10, 1313. 

Saumur, June, 1793. 

Savannah, January 15, 1778. 

Savcnay, November 15, 1793. 

Savigliano, September 18, 1799. 

Sawolax, 1788. 

Scherding, January 17, 1744. 

Schifferstadt, May 23, 1794. 

Schliengen, October 23, 1796. 

Sebastian, (St.) September 9, 1813. 

Sedaseer, March, 1799. 

Sediman, March 30. 1798. 

Selbourg, August, 1704. 

Seminara, April 21, 1503; May 28, 

Senef, August 11, 1674. 

Seringapatam, 1799. 

Sezia, April 30, 1800. 

Shacton, May 16, 1643. 

Shrewsbury, June 21, 1403. 

Siegberg, July 3, 1796. 

Silleri, (Plains of,) 1760. 

Sintzeim, 1674. 

Sion, May 15, 1798. 

Smolensko, September 22, 1708; August 

17, 1812. 
Soldau, December 26, 1806. 

Solway, November 24, 1542. 

Sommo Sierra, 1808. 

Sora, 1307. 

Souaqui, January 3, 1799. 

Souhama, 1799. 

Spanden, June 4, 5, and 6, 1807. 

Spierbach, November 15, 1703. 

Spire, 1792. 

Staflarde, 1690. 

Stamford, March, 1470. 

Steinkerk, August 3, 1692. 

Stockach, March 25, 1799. 

Stoke, June 6, 1487. 

Strehlen, August 2, 1760. 

Stum, 1630. 

Suez, April, 1800. 

Suffelsheim, August 23, 1744. 

Sulzbach, August 19, 1796. 

Syene, February 12, 1799. 

Tagliacozzo, 1268. 

Tagliamento, (Passage of the.) effected 
by Bonaparte, March 14, 1797 ; No- 
vember 12, 1805. 

Taillebourg, 1242. 

Talavera de la Ileyna, July 28, 1809.— 
Won bv the present Duke of Wel- 

Tanaro, 1745. 

Tannenbeig, July 15, 1409- 

Tarvis, March 25, 1797. 

Tauris, 1514. 

Taunton, March SJ, 1461. 

Terni, December, 1798- 

Terracina, August 11, 1798. 

Tesino, March 31, 1800. 

Tewkesbury, May 4, 1471. 

Thanis, (Passage of the,') (Egypt,) 1250. 

Thebes, (Egypt,) January 13*1799. 

Theme, April 9, 1799. 

Tiberiad, 1187. 

Ticonderoga, July o, 1758. 

Tidon, 1746. 

Tilsitt, 1807. — Won by Bonaparte, who 
made peace with the Emperor Alex- 

Tirlemont, November 8, 1792 ; July 19, 

Tolhuys, (Passage of the Rhine,) 1672. 

Tongres, 1 i08. 

Tonquin, 1200. 

Torfou, September 19, 1793. 

Torgau, September 8, 1759; November 

3, 1760. 
Toulouse, April 10, 1814. / 

Tours, October, 732. — This battle was 
fought between Abdoulrahman, the Sa- 
racen chief, and Charles Martel, the 
hero of Christendom, and was pro- 
ductive of most important conse- 
quences, for it decided that the reli- 

n a t 

( 4(3 ) 

C A T 

gion of Mahomet "as not to become 

{wedominant in Eoiope. — For pai ticu- 
ars, see Gibbon's History, 4to. edit. 
vol. HI. 

Trunin, .March 83, 1797*. 
r« di ■ . December, 1 776. 

Treves, August 8. 1701. 

Tripstadt, July 11. 1 7 i- 1 . 

Tana, 1693; ami 1706. — Inconsequence 
of which the French were driven out 
of Italy. 

Turkheim, 14 

Vim. October 15, 1805. 

Urlaffen. June 87, 1796. 

U telle, October 81, 1703. 

Valmy, September, 1798. 

Varne, 1444. 

Veillane. 16S0. 

Velletri, (surprized 1744. 

Vellinghausen, Julj 16, 1761. 

Verner. September, 1J 

Verneuil, 1504. 

Verona, August, 1704; 1799. 

Villa-Vic osa, 1710. 

Ville-longue, December 6, 1793. 

Villers en Coocbee, A il 24, 1701. — 
The Emperor Leopold saved by the 
Fifteenth Light Dragoons; for which 
gallant action eight of ti;e oriicers were 
us inTested with the Military 
Order of Maria Theresa. 

V ntira, August 81, 1808. 

\ 'ittoria, June 81, 1813. 

Wa.i -- ge of the,) 1795. 

Wagram,Ja j 5, I ■ >9. 

W akd did, I . r :i. U60. 

Waatsenau, October 85, 1703. 

Warbourg, July 31, 15 

Warsaw, 1771. 

Waterloo, June 18, 1815. — Total defeat 
of the French army under the guidance 
of Bonaparte, by the combined British 
and Frussian armies, commanded by 
the Duke of Wellington, and Marshal 
Prince Blucher. — Second restoration 
of Louis XVIII. 

Watignies, 17 

WeisseiuLerg, 1744. 

White Plains November 16, 1776. 

Wignendorff, October 17, l v 06. 

WiThelmstahl, June 04, i; 

Wilstett, June 86, 17. 

Wunpfen, May 16, 1669. 

Woitenbuttel, June 29, 1641. 
-u 1312. 

Wondiwas, December 31, 1760. 

W rcester, September 3. 1651. 

Women, May, 1313. — This battle was 
won by Bonaparte, and stauds re- 
corded in the famous collection of 

mint medals, known bv the description 
of the reign. 
Wynedale, September 28, 1708. 

York-Town, (America,' Oct JO, 1781. 

Zama, A. R. 560 — Ar.t.i .—This 
I ::le was fought between Scipio, the 
Roman, and Hannibal, the Carthagi- 
nian, and put an end to the long 
existing rivalsbip of Rome aud Car- 

Zamora, 1476. 

Zedenick, October '27, 1806. 

Zenta, 16 

Zorndorff, August 85, 175S. 

Zullichau, July 83, 1759. 

Zuntersdorff, November, 1805. 

Between Porto Novo and Mooteapollam, 
1.1.) 17S1. 

Between Scindiah and the English, (E.I.) 
August 11, 1803. 

Near Riga, (between St. Cyr and Witt- 
genstein,) IS 13. 

Near Montinirai], February 12, 1811, 
(between Bonaparte and Blucher.) 

There is no action in war more bril- 
liant than that of battles, the success of 
which sometimes decides the fate of 
kingdoms. It is by this action a general 
acquires his reputation. It is in battle 
that his valour, his force of genius, and 
his prudence, appear in their full extent; 
and when !y he has occasion for 

that firmness of mind, without which the 
most able general will hardly succeed. 

Bat t Us have ever been the last re- 
source of good generals. A situation 
where chance and accident often baiiie 
and overcome the most prudential and 
most able arrangements, and where su- 
periority iu numbers by no means en- 
sures success, is such as is never entered 
into without a clear necessity for so 
doing. The lighting a battle only be- 
cause an enemy is near, or from having 
no other formed plan of offence, is a 
direful way of making war. Darius 
lost his crown and life by it: King 
Haroid of England, did the same; and 
Francis I. at Pavia, lost the battle and 
his liberty. King John, of Fiance, 
fought the battle of Poitiers, though 
ruin attended his eueray if he had not 
fought, The Russian and Prussian cam- 
paigns against Bonaparte, in 1806 and 
". are also strong illustrations of this 
truth ; and particularly so, the battle of 
. loo. 

The true situation for giving battle is 


( 47 ) 


when an army's situation cannot be 
worse, if defeated, than if it does not 
fijiht at all; and when the advantage 
may be great, and the loss little. Such 
was the Duke of Cumberland's at Hast- 
etiheck, in 1757, and Piince Ferdinand's 
at Vellinghausen,in 1761. The reasons 
and situations for giving battle are 
so numerous, that to treat of them all 
would fill a large volume: we will there- 
fore content ourselves with the follow- 
ing. There may be exigencies of stale 
that require its array, to attack the ene- 
my at all events. Such were the causes 
of the battle of Blenheim, in 1794, of 
Zorndorrt, in 1758, of Cunnersdorff, in 
1759, and of Rosbuch, in 1757. To raise 
a siege, to defend or cover a countrv. — 
An army is also obliged to engage when 
shut up in a post. An army may give 
battle to effectuate its junction with ano- 
ther army, &c. 

The preoarations for battle admit of 
infinite variety. By a knowledge of the 
detail of battles, the precept will ac- 
company the example. The main gene- 
ral preparations are, to profit by any 
advantage of ground ; that the tactical 
form of the army he in some measure 
adapted to it; and that such form be, if 
possihle, a form tactically better than the 
enemy's. In forming the armv, a most 
careful attention should be given to mul- 
tiply resources, so that the fate of the 
army may not hang on one or two ef- 
forts; to give any particular part of the 
army, whose quality is superior to such 
part in the enemy's army, a position 
that ensures action ; and finally, to have 
a rear by nature, or, if possible, by art, 
capable of checking the enemy in case 
of defeat ; that is, never to lose sight of 
the Base Line. 

The dispositions of battles admit 
likewise of an infinite variety of cases; 
for even the difference of ground which 
happens at almost every step, gives oc- 
casion to change the disposition or plan; 
and a general's experience will teach 
him to profit oy this, and take the ad- 
vantage the ground offers him. It is an 
instant, a coup-iCail, which decides this: 
for it is to be feared the enemv raav de- 
prive you of those advantages, or turn 
them to his own profit; and for that 
reason this admits of no precise rule; 
the whole depending upon time and op- 

W ith regard to battles, there are 
three things to be considered; what 

precedes, what accompanies and whet 
follows the action. As to what pre- 
cedes the action, you should unite all 
your force, examine the advantage of the 
ground, the wind, and the sun, (things 
not to be neglected,; and chuse, if possi- 
ble, a field of battle proportioned to the 
number of your troops. 

You must post the different kinds of 
troops advantageously for each : they 
must be so disposed as to be able to re- 
turn often to the charge; for he who 
can charge often with fresh troops, is 
commonly victorious; witness the uni- 
form practice of the French. Your 
wings must be covered so as not to be 
surrounded, and you must take care, 
that your troops can assist each other 
without any confusion, the intervals be- 
ing proportioned to the battalions and 

Particular regard must be had to the 
regulation of the artillery, which should 
be disposed so as to be able to act in 
every place to the greatest advantage; 
for nothing is more certain than that, if 
the artillery be well commanded, pro- 
perly distributed, and manfully served, 
it will greatly contribute to gaining the 
battle; being looked upon as the gene- 
ral instrument of the army and the most 
essential part of military force. — The 
artillery must be well supplied with am- 
munition, and each soldier have a suf- 
ficient number of cartridges. The bag- 
gage, provisions, and treasures of the 
army, should, on the day of battle, be 
sent to a place of safety. 

In battle, where the attacks are, there 
is also the principal defence. If an army 
attacks, it forms at pleasure; it makes 
its points at will : if it defends, it will 
be sometimes difficult to penetrate into 
the designs of the enemy, but when 
once found, succour succeeds to the dis- 
covery. Ground and numbers must 
ever lead in the arrangement of battles; 
impression and resource will ever give 
them the fairest chance of success. Xever 
to be surprized is perhaps the surest way 
never to be beaten. 

The Battle, a term of distinction 
which was used during the 13th and 
14th centuries, to mark the cavalry, or 
gentlemen who served on horseback. 
Robertson, in his View of the State of 
Europe, vol. i. page 80, observes, that, 
during those period-, the armies of Eu- 
rope were composed almost entirelv of 
cavalry. No geutleman would appei- 

T, A T 

in the field hut on horseback. 

( 48 ) 


To serve 

in any oilier manner, lie would have 
deemed derogatory to his rank. The 
cavalry, by way of distinction, was called 
The Battle, and on it alone depended 
the fate of every action. The infantry, 
collected from the dregs and refuse of 
the people, ill armed, and worse disci- 
plined, wiis almost of no account. 

B\tti.e-^/>t«v, ) the method and 

Line of B \ i 1 le, S order of arranging 
the troops in line of battle; the form of 
drawing up the army for an ei^gagi - 
inenf. This method generally consists 
of three lines, viz. the front line, the 
rear line, and the reserve. 

The second line should be about 300 
paces behind the first, and the reserve 
at about .3 or GOO paces behind the se- 
cond. The artillery is likewise distri- 
buted along the front of the first line. 
The front line should be stronger than 
the rear line, that its shock may be more 
violent, and that, by being more exten- 
sive, it may more easily close on the 
enemy's Hanks. If the first line has the 
advantage, it should continue to act, 
and attack the enemy's second line, 
which must be already terrified by the 
defeat of the first. The artillery must 
always accompany the line of battle in 
the order it was at first distributed, if 
the ground permit; and the rest of the 
army should follow the motions of the 
first line, when it continues to march 
on alter its first success. 

Main Battle. See Battle-Array. 

B\TTLE-«aT, (hache d'armes, Fr.) an 
effensive weapon, formerly much used 
by the Danes, and other northern in- 
fantry. It was a kind of halberd, and 
did great execution when wielded by a 
strong arm. 

BATTLEMENTS, in military af- 
fairs, are the indentures in the tup of 
<>id castles or fortified walls, or other 
buildings, in the form of embrasures, 
for the greater conveniency of tiring or 
looking through. 

BATTUE, Fr. to direct one or more 
| icces of ordnance in such a manner, 
that any given object may be destroyed 
or broken into by the continued dis- 
ge of cannon ball, or of other war- 
like materials; it likewise means to 
silence an enemy's fire. 

Battre en Sreche, Fr. to batter in 
breach. The word battre is aJso applied, 
in the artillery, to all the different ways 
of battering. 

Battue Festrade, Fr. to scour; to 

Battue la campagne, Fr. to scour the 
country, or make incursions against an 

Battre de front, Fr. to throw can- 
non-shot in a perpendicular or almost 
perpendicular direction against an\ body 
or place which becomes an object of at- 
tack. This mode of attack is less ef- 
fectual than any other unless you bailer 
in breach. 

Battrj cVecharve, Fr. to direct shot, 
so that the lines of fire make a manifest 
acute angle with respect to the lino of 
any particular object against which can- 
non is discharged. 

Bati R e i a jlunc, Fr. is when the shot 
from a battery runs along the length of 
the front of any object or place against 
which it is directed. 

Battue « don, Fr. to direct the shot' 
from one or several pieces of cannon so 
as to batter, almost perpendicularly, 
from behind any body of troops, part of 
a rampart or intrenchment. 

Battre de revers, Fr. to direct shot 
in such a manner as to run between the 
two last mentioned liens of fire. When 
you batter from behind, the shot fall 
almost perpendicularly upon the reverse 
of the parapet. When you batter from 
the reverse side, the trajectories or lines 
of fire describe acute angles of forty- 
live degrees or under, with the prolon- 
gation of that reverse. 

Battre de bricole, Fr. This method 
can only be put in practice at sieges, 
and against works which have been con- 
structed in front of others that are in- 
vested. Every good billiard player will 
readily comprehend what is meant by 
bricole or back-stroke. 

Battue en sape, Fr. to batter a work 
at the foot of its revetemeut. 

Battre en salve, Fr. to make a gene- 
ral discharge of heavy ordnance against 
anv spot in which a breach is attempted 
to be made. 

Battue la cainse, Fr. to beat a drum. 

Battue I'assemblce, Fr. to beat the 

Battre un ban, Fr. to give notice by 
sound of drum, when an officer is to be 
received, orders given out, or any punish- 
ment to he publicly inflicted. 

Battre la chamade, Fr. to give inti- 
mation by the sound of drum, from a 
besieged place, of a disposition to capi- 
tulate; to beat a parley. 


( 49 ) 


Battre aux champs, Fr. to give notice, 
by beat of drum, that a regiment, or 
armed body of men, is approaching or 
marching off. It also signifies the beat 
which is made when a superior officer 
comes near a guard, &c. 

Battre la charge, Fr. to beat the 
charge; or to give notice that a general 
discharge of musketry is about to take 
place, and that the whole line is to 
charge with bayonets. 

Battre la Diane, Fr. to beat the Re- 

Battre les drapeanx,¥r. to announce, 
by beat of drum, that the colours are 
about to be lodged. 

Battre la generate, Fr. to beat the 
General; a signal to collect the soldiers 
together for immediate action, or for 
quitting camp, or quarters. 

Battre la marche, Fr. to give notice, 
by beat of drum, for troops to advance 
or retreat. 

Battre la messe, Fr. to give notice, by 
beat of drum, for soldiers to march 
to church. 

Battre la prierc, Fr. to give notice, 
by beat of drum, for soldiers to assem- 
ble at any particular place to hear 

Battre la retraite, Fr. to beat the 
retreat; a notice given by all the drums 
of a regiment or army, for soldiers to 
keep to their several colours, and to re- 
tire in the best order they can, after a 
disastrous battle. 

Se Battre en retraite, Fr. to main- 
tain a running fight. 

Mener battant, to overcome. 

Mener quelqiiun att tambour battant, 
to disconcert, to confound, puzzle, and 
perplex any body. 

BATTURES, Fr. breakers; shelves. 

BAUDRIER, Fr. a cross-belt. It 
also signifies a sword-belt. 

BAVETTE, Fr. in architecture, a 
piece, or apron, of lead, which is placed 
in front of a water pipe, or upon a roof 
that is slated. It signifies, literally, a 
bib, such as is put before a child. 

BAUGE, Fr. a coarse sort of mortar 
which is made with chopped straw, or 
pounded hay, in the manner that lime 
and sand are mixed up. This species of 
mortar is used in lieu of better. 

BAVINS, in military affairs, implies 
small faggots, made of brush-wood, of 
a considerable length, no part of the 
brush being taken off. See Fascines. 

BAYARD, Fr. a provincial term used 

i in Languedoc and Roussilion to signify a 

BAY, {bai/e, Fr.) an inlet of the sea 
between two capes or headlands. It 
also signifies such a gulph or inlet of the 
land as does not run very deep into it, 
whether large or small; but smaller 
bays are frequently denominated creeks, 
havens, or roads. It may be observed, 
indeed, in general, that a bay has a pro- 
portionably wider entrance than either a 
gulph, or a haven; and that a creek has 
usually a small inlet, and is always 
much less than a bay. 

BAY-window, one that is composed of 
an arch of a circle; consequently it will 
stand without the stress of the building: 
by which means spectators may better 
see what is done in the street. 

BAYE, Bee ou Jour, Fr. in architec- 
ture, every sort of aperture in a build- 
ing is so called. 

BAYONET, {bayonnette, Fr.) a kind 
of triangular dagger, made with a hollow 
handle, and a shoulder, to fix on the 
muzzle of a firelock or musket, so that 
neither the charging nor firing is pre- 
vented by its being fixed on the piece. 
It is of infinite service against horse. 
At first the bayonet was screwed into 
the muzzle of the barrel, consequently 
could not be used during the fire. It is 
said by some to have been invented by 
the people of Malacca, and first made 
use of on quitting the pikes. Accord- 
ing to others, it was first used by the 
fuzileers in France, who were afterwards 
made the body of Royal Artillery. At 
present it is given to every infantry re- 
giment. This weapon was formerly 
called dagger. In some old English 
writers it is written Bagonet; and, in- 
deed, generally now so pronounced by 
the common soldiers. 

A French writer, in a work entituled 
L'Essai general de la Tactique, has pro- 
posed a methud of exercising the sol- 
diers in a species of fencing or tilting 
with this weapon. But, as another very 
sensible author (Mauvillion in his Essai 
sur I'lnjluence de la Poudre a Canon dans 
I'ylrt de la Guerre Moderne) justly asks, 
how can any man tilt or fence with so 
cumbrous an instrument, and so dithcult 
to be handled, as the firelock? It seems 
probable that great advantage mav be 
obtained by a person who has been 
taught to use such a weapon scientifi- 
cally, when contending with an indi- 
vidual; but we do not think that the 


( so > 


niceties of parrying are applicable to the 
charge in line; but a firm grasp and a 
quick and steady thrust are required. 
A French author, M. G. De Levis, in bis 
Maxima and Reflexions, observes: Oner 
combat tre a Farme blanche, voila ce qui 
constitue le veritable guerrier. Lex 
peuplet qui out cttte e'nergie (et its sont 
ai bien petit nomine) peuvent s'appeler 
<) ban droit let" Grenadiers de F Europe." 
Experience has convinced the French 
that this daring quality is peculiarly 
marked in the character and conduct of 
a British soldier, of which a signal proof 
was given at the battle of Waterloo, on 
the 18th June, 1815. 

BEACON, (j'anal, Fr.) something 
raised on an eminence to be fired, or 
displayed, on the approach of an enemy, 
to alarm the country; also,marks erect- 
ed, or lights made in the night, (as on 
the North and South Forelands on the 
Coast of Kent, and elsewhere,) to direct 
navigators in their course, and warn 
them from rocks, shallows, and sand- 
banks. It is said that Bonaparte's 
boasted pillar near Boulogne will be 
converted into one. 

On certain eminent places of the 
country are placed long poles erect, 
whereon are fastened pitch-barrels to be 
fired by night, and smoke made by day, 
to give notice, in a few hours, to the 
whole kingdom, of an approaching in- 

To BEAR, in gunnery. A piece of 
ordnance is said to bear, or come to bear, 
when pointed directly against the ob- 
ject; that is, pointed to hit the object. 

BEARD, the reflected points of the 
head of an ancient arrow, particularly 
of such as were jagged. 

To BEAT, in a military sense, signi- 
fies to gain the day, to win the battle, &c. 
To Beat a parley. See Cham a de- 
To Beat a drum. See Drum. 
To Beat to arms, to assemble the sol- 
diers, or armed citizens of a town or 
place by beat of drum. 

BEAVER, that part of the ancient 
helmet which covered the face, and 
which was moveable so as to expose the 
face without removing the beaver from 
the helmet. 

BEC de corbin, Fr. a battle-axe. 
BEC1IE, Fr. a spade used by pio- 

BEDS, in the military language, are 
of various sorts, viz. 

Mortar-BEDS serve for the same pur- 

pose as a carnage does to a cannon : they 
are made of solid timber, consisting ge- 
nerally of two pieces fastened together 
with strong iron bolls and bars. Their 
sizes arc according to the kind of mortar 
they carry. 

-Roi/«/-Beds, ) are carriages for a 
Coe A<m«b-B EDS, S royal mortar, whose 
diameter is 5 . 8 inches: and a coehorn 
mortar, whose diameter is 4 . G inches. 
Those beds are made of one solid block 

Sea-Mori 'nr-BEns are likewise made 
of solid timber, like the former, but differ 
in their form, having a hole in the center 
to receive the pintle or strong iron bolt, 
about which the bed turns. Sea-mortars 
are mounted on these beds, on board of 
the bomb-ketches. 

N. B. These beds are placed upon very 
strong timber frames, fixed into the 
bomb-ketch, in which the pintle is fixed, 
so as the bed is turned about it, to tire 
any way. The fore part of these beds is 
an arc of a circle described from the same 
center as the pintle-hole. 

There are iron mortar-beds, as well as 
wood, for the nature of 13, 10, and 8 
inch mortars, which are expressly for 
land service. 

S/oo/-Bed is a piece of wood on which 
the breech of a gun rests upon a truck- 
carriage, with another piece fixed to it at 
the hind end, that rests upon the body 
of the hind axle-tree; and the fore part 
is supported by an iron bolt. See Car- 

Bed of atone, in masonry, a course or 
range of stones. The joint of the bed 
is the mortar between two stones placed 
over each other. 

BEEFEATERS, (Buffetiers,) yeomen 
of the guard to the King of Great Britain, 
so called from being stationed by the 
sideboard at great royal dinners. They 
are kept up rather from state than for 
any military service. Their arms are a 
sword and lance. 

BEETLES, in a military sense, are 
large wooden hammers for driving down 
palisades, and lor other uses, &c. 

BEETLESTOCK, the stock or handle 
of a beetle. 

BEFROI, Fr. belfry, alarm-bell ; also 
a watch-tower, or high place tit for dis- 

BELANDRE, Fr. a flat-bottomed 
vessel, with masts and sails, &c. which is 
used in Flanders for the conveyance of 


( 61 ) 

B E V 

BELIER, Fr. a battering ram. 

BELLIGERENT, in a state of war- 
fare. Hence any two or more nations at 
war are called belligerent powers. 

BELTS, in tlie army, are of /different 
sorts, and for various purposed, viz. 

Sword-BzLT, a leathern strap in which 
a sword han^s. 

Shoulder-i')£LT, a broad leathern belt, 
which goes over the shoulder, and to 
which the pouch is fixed : it is also 
called Cross-Belt . It should be made 
of stout smooth buff, with two buckles 
to fix the pouch to the belt. See Pouch. 

Waist-BELT, a leathern strap fixed 
round the waist, by which a sword or 
bayonet is suspended. 

Belts are known among the ancient 
and middle-age writers by divers names, 
as zona, cingulum, reminiculum, ringa, 
and baldrellus. The belt was an essen- 
tial piece of the ancient armour, inso- 
much that we sometimes find it used to 
denote the whole armour. In latter ages 
the belt was given to a person when he 
was raised to knighthood; whence it has 
also been used as a badge or mark of the 
knightly order. 

BELVEDERE, Fr. a turret, or raised 
pavilion, on an. elevated ground, in the 
shape of a platform, whence the country 
round may be seen. 

BENAR, Fr. a large four-wheeled 
wagon, which is used to carry stones in 
the construction of fortified places. 

BENDINGS, in military and sea mat- 
ters, are ropes, wood, &c. bent for se- 
veral purposes. M. Amontons gives se- 
veral experiments concerning the bend- 
ing of ropes. The friction of a rope 
bent, or wound round an immoveable 
cylinder, is sufficient, with a very small 
power, to sustain very great weights. 
Divers methods have been contrived for 
bending timber, in order to supply crook- 
ed planks and pieces for building ships; 
such as by sand, boiling water, steam of 
boiling water, and by fire. See M. Du 
Hamel, in his book called Du Transport, 
de la Conservation, et de la Force des 
Bois. M. Delesme ingeniously enough 
proposed to have the young trees bent 
while growing in the forest. The method 
of bending planks by sand-heat, now used 
in the king's yards, was invented by 
Captain Cumberland. 

A method has been lately invented 
and practised for bending pieces of tim- 
ber, so as to make the wheels of car- 
riages without joints. The bending of 

boards, and other pieces of timber for 
carved works in joinery, is effected by 
holding them to the fire, then giving 
them the figure required, and keeping 
them in it bv tools for the purpose. 

BENEDICTION de drapeaux, Fr. 
the consecration of colours. 

Benediction generate, Fr. a religious 
invocation which is made to God by the 
principal chaplain belonging to a French 
army on the eve of an engagement. 

BENEFICIARII, in ancient military 
history, denotes soldiers who attend the 
chief officers of the army, being exempt- 
ed from all other duty. 

Beneficiarii were also soldiers dis- 
charged from' the military service or 
duty, and provided with benejicia to sub- 
sist on. 

BERCEAU, Fr. literally a cradle; 
a full-arched vault. 

BERGE, Fr. the high bank or bor- 
der of a river. Kivage signifies the edge 
of the water, but berge means the ad- 
jacent high ground which secures the 
country round from inundations. 

BERM, a little space or path between 
the ditch and the parapet. See Forti- 

To BESIEGE, to lay siege to, or in-, 
vest any place with armed forces. 

BESIEGERS, the army that lays siege 
to a fortified place. 

BESIEGED, the garrison that de- 
fends the place against the army that 
lays siege to it. See Siege. 

BETAIL, Fr. cattle in general. 

To BETRAY, (trahir, Fr.) to deliver 
perfidiously any place or body of troops 
into the hands of the enemy; to dis^ 
cover that which has been entrusted to 

BETTY, a machine used for forcing 
open gates or doors. See Petard. 

BEVEAU, Fr. a mathematical instru- 
ment which is used to carry a mixed- 
lined angle from one angle to another. 

BEVIL, ) in masonry and joinery, a 

BEVEL, S kind of square, one leg of 
which is frequently crooked, according 
to the sweep of an arch or vault. It is 
moveable on a point or center, and may, 
therefore, be set to any angle. The 
make and use of the bevel are much the 
same as those of the common square 
and mitre, except that the latter are 
fixed ; the first at an angle of 90 degrees, 
and the second at 45: whereas the bevel 
being moveable, it may in some measure 
do the office of both, and also their de- 
ll 2 

r; I II 

( M ) 

B I L 

flciency, which it is chiefly intended to 
supply, serving to set off or transfer 
angles, either greater or less than 90 or 
45 degrees. 

BzvEL-angle, anv angle that is not 
square, whether it he more ohtuse or 
more acute than a right angle; but if it 
be one half as much as a right angle, 
viz. 45 degrees, it is then called a mitre. 
There is also a half-mitre, which is an 
angle that is one quarter of a quadrant 
or square^ viz. 'l'2\ degrees. 

BEY, (Beis, Fr.) an officer of high 
rank among the Turks, but inferior in 
Command to the Pacha. 

BIAIS, Fr. bevel, slanting, sloping, 

Entreprendm nne affaire de /ow.s- les 
Bi*rs, to undertake a thing in every way. 

BIAISER, Fr. to bevel, to slope: 
figuratively, to shuffle. 

BICOQL E, Fr. a term used in France 
to signify a place iti-fortified and incapa- 
ble of much defence. It is derived from 
a place on the road between Lodi and 
Milan, which was originally a gentle- 
man's country-house surrounded by 
ditches. In the year 1522, a body of 
imperial troops were stationed in it, and 
stood the attack of the whole French 
army during the reign of Francis I. 
This engagement was called the battle 
ol Bicoqtti . 

MI DON, Fr. a sort of oblong ball or 
shut, which goes farther than a round 

BTEZ, Fr. that particular part of a 
navigable canal which lies between two 
floodgates, and whence waters are drawn 
in order to facilitate the ascent or de- 
scent of boats and barges, where there 
are fails. 

BIGORNE, Fr. an anvil. 

BIGORNEAU, Fr. a small rising 

B1IIOUAC, BrorAC, Biouvac, or 
Bivouaq, Fr. [derived by some from 
the German weymacht, a double watch 
or guard : by others from the German 
biwacht, an extraordinary guard, set at 
night, tor the safety of a camp:] a 
night-guard, or a detachment of the 
wh lie army, which, during a siege, or in 
the presence of an enemy, marches out 
every night in squadrons or battalions 
to line the circumvailations, or to take 
post in front of the camp, for the pur- 
pose of securing their quarters, prevent- 
ing surprises, and of obstructing sup- 
plies. When an army docs not encamp 

hut lie's under arms all night, it is said 

to Invalid!]. 

Bivolac also signifies small huts or 
sheds to which troops upon the outposts 
of an army may occasionally retire for 
repose, fi) the Dictionnaire de i'Aca- 
demie this word is written bivac or bi- 

Lever le Bivouac, Fr. to draw in 
the out-posts, after break of day, and 
order the different parties, horse or foot, 
into camp or barracks. 

BIVAQUER, on Bivouaquer, Fr. 
to be out all night in the open air. The 
Evcubitc of the Romans corresponded 
with these duties, which were done night 
and day. See D'Aouino't Lexicon Mili- 

BILAN, Fr. a book in which French 
bankers and merchants write their active 
and passive debts. 

BILBO, a rapier or small sword was 
formerly so called. 

BILBOQUETS, Fr. small pieces of 
stone which have been sawed from the 
block, and remain in store. 

HILL or Bill-hook, a small hatchet, 
used for cutting wood for fascines, ga- 
bions, bavins, ccc. When it is long, it is 
called a hedging-bill; when short, a 
hand- bill. 

7b Bill up, a term used when a sol- 
dier is ordered not to go out of barracks 
or camp; his name being stuck up at 
the barrack-gate, or given in at the quar- 
ter-guard to prevent his egress. This 
word is also used, in some regiments, to 
signify the putting a soldier into the 
black-hole, or into what the Guards call 
the Dry-room. 

BILLE pendante, Fr. in hydraulics, 
the piece of timber which is suspended 
from the end of the balance or beam, 
and serves to put some other essential 
piece in motion. 

Bille couchce, Fr. a piece of timber 
which advances and recedes with the 
motion of the wheel in a water-mill. 

BILLET, a well-known ticket for 
quartering soldiers, which entitles each 
soldier, by act of parliament, to candles, 
vinegar, and salt, with the use of fire, 
and the necessary utensils for dressing 
and eating their meat. The allowance 
of small beer has been altered by a lata 

Billet, blanc ou voir, Fr. a piece of 
white or black paper which is folded up, 
and serves to determine various matters 
by drawing lots. 

B L A 



B L O 

Billet de came, Fr. an acknowledg- 
ment which is given in writing by the pay- 
master of a regiment for money in 

Billet d'entree d Vhopital, Fr. a 
ticket which is given to a sick soldier to 
entitle him to a birth in the military 

Billet d'honneitr,Y\\ a written ac- 
knowledgment which is given by an 
officer for articles taken on credit ; but 
this more frequently happens in matters 
of play. 

Billet de logement, Fr. a billet for 
quarters. This billet or ticket was for- 
merly delivered out to the French troops 
upon the same general principles that it 
is issued in England. 

BILLETING, in the army, implies the 
quartering soldiers in the houses of any 
town or village. 

BILLETTES d'une espieu, Fr. cross 
hars of iron or steel. 

BlNACLE,a telescope with two tubes., 
so constructed, that a distant object 
might be seen with both eyes, now rarely- 


BINN, a great chest to put corn in. 

BINOCLE, (binocle, Fr.) a kind of 
dioptric telescope. 

BINOMIAL root, in mathematics, is 
a root composed of two parts, joined by 
the sign -|-. If it has three parts, it is 
called a trinomial ; and any root consist- 
ing of more than three parts is called a 

BISSAC, Fr. a wallet, or a sack which 
opens down the middle. 

BISSECTION, in geometry, the di- 
vision of any quantity into two equal 
parts. It is the same as bipartition. 
Hence to bissect any line is to divide it 
into two equal parts. 

BISTOURE, Fr. in surgery, an inci- 
sion knife. 

BIT, the bridle of a horse which acts 
by the assistance of a curb. See Curb 
and Bridon. 

BLACK-HOLE, a place in which sol- 
diers may be confined by the command- 
ing officer, but not by any inferior officer. 
In this place they are generally restricted 
to bread and water. Many colonels and 
commanding officers of corps are advo- 
cates for this sort of correction, in pre- 
ference to flogging or corporal punish- 

BLANKETSjCombustible things made 

of coarse paper steeped in a solution 
of saltpetre, which, when dry, are again 
dipt in a composition of tallow, resin, 
and sulphur. They are used only in fire- 

BLAST, and BLASTING. See Mines 
and Mining. 

BLINDAGE, a work which is car- 
ried on along a trench, to secure it from 
the shells, &c. of a besieged garrison. 

BLINDE, Fr. See Blinds. 

BLINDER, Fr. to make use of 

BLINDS, in military affairs, are 
wooden frames composed of 4 pieces, 
either flat or round, two of which are 
6 feet long, and the others 3 or 4 feet, 
which serve as spars to fasten the two 
first together: the longest are pointed at 
both ends, and the two others are fasten- 
ed towards the extremities of the former, 
at about 10 or 12 inches from their 
points, the whole forming a rectangular 
parallelogram, the long sides of which 
project beyond the other about 10 or 12 
inches. Their use is to fix them either 
upright, or in a vertical position, against 
the sides of the trenches or saps, to 
sustain the earth. Their points at the 
bottom serve to fix them in the earth, 
and those at the top to hold the fascines 
that are placed upon them; so that the 
sap or trench is formed into a kind of 
covered gallery, to secure the troops from 
stones and grenades. 

The term Blind is also used to express 
a kind of hurdle, made of the branches of 
trees, behind which the soldiers, miners, 
or labourers, may carry on their work 
without being seen. See Hurdle. 

Blinds are sometimes only canvass 
stretched to obstruct the sight of the 
enemy. Sometimes they are planks set 
up; for which see Mantlet. Some- 
times they are made of a kind of coarse 
basket-work. See Gabions. Sometimes 
of barrels, or sacks filled with earth. In 
short, they signify any thing that covers 
the labourers from the enemy. 

Blind. See Orillon and Fortifi- 

BLOCAGES, Fr. small stones, or 
shards, which are used in mortar, or 
thrown into water for a sort of founda- 

Blocage, ou Blocaille, Fr. rubbish; 
such as is used to fill up walls. 

BLOCKADE, ) in military affairs, 

BLOCKADING, ] implies the sur- 

B L O 

( 54 ) 


rounding a place with different bodies 
of troops, who shut up all the avenues 
on every side, and prevent every thing 
from going in or out of the place — this 
is usually effected by means of the ca- 
valry. The design of the blockade is to 
oblige those who are shut up in the town 
to consume all their provisions, and by 
that means to compel them to surrender 
for want of subsistence. 

Hence it appears that a blockade must 
last a long time, when a place is well 
provided with necessaries: for which 
r i ason this method of reducing a town 
is seldom taken, but when there is rea- 
son to believe the magazines are unpro- 
vided, or sometimes when the nature or 
situation of the place permits not the 
approaches to be made, which are neces- 
sary to attack in the usual way. 

Maritime towns, which have a port, 
are in much the same case as other 
towns, when their port can be blocked 
up, and the besiegers are masters of the 
sea, and can prevent succours from being 
conveyed that way into the place. 

To Bi.OCKapi: or to block up a place, 
is to shut up all the avenues, so that it 
cannot receive any relief either of men or 
provisions, &c. 

To raise a Blockade is to march 
from before the place, and leave it free 
and open as before. 

To turn a siege into a Blockade is 
to desist from a regular method of be- 
sieging, and to surround the place with 
those troops who had formed the 

To form a Blockade is to surround 
the place with troops, and hinder any 
thing from going in or coming out. 

QUER, Fr. a sea term, signifying to 
apply the sheathing hair to a ship's bot- 

BLOCUL, Fr. the main pole in a 
tent ; also a small tower. 

B LOCUS, Fr. See Blockade. 

BLOCK-batter>/,\\\ gunnery, a wooden 
battery for two or more small pieces 
mounted on wheels, and moveable from 
place to place; very ready to fire en bar- 
bette, in the galleries and casemates, &c. 
where room is wanted. 

Block-Aousc, in the military art, a 
kind of wooden fort or fortification, 
sometimes mounted on rollers, or on a 
flat-bottomed vessel, serving either on 
the lakes or rivers, or in counterscarps 
or counter-approaches. The Brisbane, 

on the south side of Calais harbour, 19 
of this description, standing on wooden 
piles, and surrounded by a battery. This 
name is sometimes given to a brick 
or a stone building on a bridge, or the 
brink of river, serving not only for its 
defence, but for the command of the 
river, both above and below. 

BLOQUEIt, Fr. to blockade. 

Bloqler, Ft", in mason-work, to 
erect thick rough walls along the trenches, 
without confining them to measure or 
line, as is the case in stone walls. 

Bloquer also signifies to fill up, indis- 
criminately, the chasms in walls with 
rubbish and coarse mortar, as is the case 
in works constructed under water. 

BLUES, or Royal Horse Guards, com* 
monly called the Oxford Blues. This 
regiment was originally raised at Oxford, 
and possesses landed property in that 
county. It consists of 1 colonel, with 
8 warrant men; 2 lieutenant colonels; 
1 majors; 8 captains, (of whom his pie- 
sent Majesty is one;) 8 lieutenants; 8 
cornets; 8 quarter-masters, who all bear 
the King's commission; 2 surgeons; 1 
adjutant; 1 assistant surgeon; 1 vete- 
rinary surgeon; 1 corporal-major; 42 
corporals; 9 trumpeters; . r >60 privates. 
It is worthy of remark, that lieutenant 
colonels and captains of this regiment 
do not pay any thing to the agent, as is 
the case in other regiments. 

The kettle drummers and trumpeters 
belonging to this corps, and to the Life 
Guards, being household troops, have 
their clothing furnished to them out of his 
Majesty's wardrobe. 

BLUNDERBUSS, (mousqueton, Fr.) 
a well-known fire-arm, consisting of a 
wide, short, but very large bore, capable 
of holding a number of musket or pistol 
balls, or slugs ; very fit for doing great 
execution in a croud, making good a 
narrow passage, defending the door of a 
house, staircase, &c. or repelling an at- 
tempt to board a ship. 

To BOAR,) with horsemen. A horse 

To BORE, J is said to boar or bore, 
when he shoots out his nose as high as 
he can. 

BOARD, (conseil, bureau, departe- 
ment, Fr.) an office under the govern- 
ment, where the affairs of the state are 
transacted; of which there are several 
sorts in England; as Board of Ordnance,, 
Board of Admiralty, &c. &c. 

BOAT. See Advice Boat, Pontoon- 
Boat, &c. 

B O I 

( 55 ) 


BOB-tail, with archers, is the steel of 
an arrow or shaft, which is small breasted, 
and large towards the head. 

BODY, {corps, Fr.) in the art of war, 
is a number of forces, horse or foot, 
united under one commander. 

Main Body of an army sometimes 
means the troops encamped in the cen- 
ter between the two wings, and gene- 
rally consists of infantry. The main 
body on a march signifies the whole of 
the army, exclusive of the van and rear- 

Body of reserve. See Reserve. 

Body of a place is, generally speak- 
ing, the buildings in a fortified town ; 
yet the inclosure round them is generally 
understood by it. 

BOETES pour les rtjouissances, Fr. 
small guns, made of wrought or cast 
iron, which are laid in a vertical posi- 
tion, after thev have been loaded with 
gunpowder, and then plugged up with a 
wooden stopper. These guns are let off, 
like other pieces of ordnance, by apply- 
ing the match to the bottom of the box. 
The train, along which the fire is con- 
veyed, consists of bran, with gunpowder 
at the top, in order to secure the latter 
from moisture. 

Boete, in the artillery, an instrument 
made of brass, to which a steel temper- 
ed blade is attached, with which the 
metal in a cannon is diminished, for the 
purpose of widening the bore. See 

Boete, ou coffre, Fr. a wooden box, 
in which is carried the gun-powder for 
a mine. 

BozTE-a-pierrier, Fr. a hollow cy- 
linder made of iron or copper, which, 
when loaded, is placed in a mortar, so 
that an immediate communication takes 
place between the fuse of the latter and 
its touch-hole, and it is propelled to the 
place of destination. 

Aller au BOIS, Fr. to go with a party 
of men for the purpose of procuring 
wood, &c. 

Bors de rcmontage, Fr. every species 
of timber which is used to new mount 
cannon, or refit ammunition wagons, 

Boxs de chauffage, Fr. the fuel which 
is distributed among French troops. 

Long Boj s, Fr. a pike, lance, or spear. 

Faire de tout Bois Jleches, Fr. figu- 
ratively, to use every thing that turns 
to one's purpose. Literally, to make 
arrows out of every sort of wood. 

Faire haut le Bors, Fr. pikemen are 
said to do so, when they stop and niaks 
a stand, advancing their pikes. 

L'ceil tend a au Bots, Fr. warily : 
watchfully; alluding to a bowman, who 
keeps his eye upon the wood of his in- 
strument, when he takes aim. 

BOISE, Fr. a log, or great piece of 
timber; more particularly a brace of 

BOISSEAU, Fr. a French bushel, 
being the 12th part of a septier, and 
somewhat less than our London peck 
and a half. A boisseau of wheat 
weighs 20 pounds; our peck of wheat- 
meal 14. 

BOISSEL d'osier, Fr. a weel or weerc 
of ozier twigs. 

BOISSIER, Fr. to wainscot walls, 

BOISSIERE, Fr. a hedge, thicket, or 
plot of box trees. 

BOLT, an iron pin used for strength- 
ening a piece of timber, or for fastening 
two or more articles together. Bolts 
in gunnery, being of several sorts, aoV 
mit of various denominations, which 
arise from the specific application of 
them, as 


8. Garnish 

9. Axle-tree 
10. Bolster 

Bolts of iron for house-building are 
distinguished by ironmongers into three 
kinds, viz. plate, round, and spring bolts. 
Plate and spring bolts are used for the 
fastening of doors and windows. Bound 
boltsare long iron pins, with a head at one 
end and a key hole at the other. 

Prize-BoLTS, with gunners, are large 
knobs of iron on the cheek of a car- 
riage, which prevent the handspike from 
sliding, when it is poising up the breech 
of the piece. 

Transom-Bons, with gunners, are 
bolts which go between the cheeks of 
a gun-carriage to strengthen the tran- 

Traverse-BoLTS, with gunners, two 
short bolts put one into each end of an 
English mortar carriage, which serve to 
traverse the raoi tar. 

Bracket-BoLTS, with gunners, bolts 



r> o m 

( ™ ) 

13 O M 

which go through the clieeks of a mor- 
tar, and by tin- help of the coins keep it 
fixed to the elevation given her. 
/ See Siili.l. 
nnM],)('W. See Caisson. 

j Vessels, ) small vessels,made 
\ Ketches, \ very strong, with 
large beams, particularly calculated for 
i hi owing shells into a town, castle, or 
fortification, from 13 to 10-inch mor- 
tars, two of which are placed on hoard 
of each ship. They are said to have been 
invented by one M. Reyneau, a French- 
man, and to have been first put in action 
at the bombardment of Algiers in 1681 : 
till then it had been judged impracticable 
to bombard a place from the sea. 

Bomb Tender, a small vessel of war 
laden with ammunition for the bomb 
ketch, and from which the latter is con- 
stantly supplied. The ammunition and 
stores are now carried in the bomb ves- 
sel : tenders not being employed in that 

BOMB AlfD, (bombarde, Fr.) an an- 
cient piece of ordnance, very short, and 
very thick, with an uncommon large 
bore. There have been bombards 
which have thrown a ball or shell of S 
Bwt. : they made use of cranes to load 
them. The Turks use some of them 
at present. 

To Bombard, (bombarder, Fr.) See 

BOMBARDING, ) the act of as- 
BOMBARDMENT, S saulting a city 
or fortress, by throwing shells into it, 
in order to set fire to, and ruin the 
houses, churches, magazines, &c. and 
to do other mischief. As one of the 
effects of the shell results from its 
weight, it is never discharged as a ball 
from a cannon, that is, by pointing it at 
a certain object : but the mortars in 
England are fixed at an elevation of 45 
degrees; that is, inclined so many de- 
grees from the horizon, that the shell 
describes a curve, called the military 
projectile: hence a mortar, whose trun- 
nions are placed at the breech, can have- 
no point blank range. I am of opinion 
that mortars should be so contrived, 
that they may be elevated to any- -degree 
iequired, as much preferable to' those 
rixed at an angle of 45°; because shells 
should never be thrown at that angle but 
in one single case only, which seldom 
happens; that is, when the battery is so 
far off, that they cannot otherwise reach 
the works: for when shells are thrown 

from the trenches into the works of a 
fortification, or from the town into the 
trenches, they should have as little ele- 
vation as possible, in order to roll along, 
and not bury themselves; whereby the 
damage they do and the terror they 
cause to the troops, is much greater 
than if they sink into the ground. On 
the contrary, when shells are thrown 
upon magazines, or any other buildings, 
with an intention to destroy them, the 
mortar should be elevated as high at 
possible, that the shells may acquire a- 
greater force in their fall. Some mor- 
tars (5{ inch brass) have of late been 
constructed to fire at different elevations, 
upon brigadier-general Lawson's princi- 


Shells should be loaded with no more 
powder than is required to burst them 
into the greatest number of pieces, and 
the length of the fuzes should be exactly 
calculated according to the required 
ranges; for, should the fuze set fire to 
the powder in the shell before it fails on 
the place intended, the shell will burst in 
the air, and propably do more mischief 
to those who fired the mortar, than to 
those against whom it was discharged. 
To prevent this, the fuzes arc divided 
into as many seconds as the greatest 
range requires, consequently may be cut 
to any distance, at an elevation of 45 

Mortars are not to be fired with two 
fires; for when the fuze is properly 
fixed, and both fuze, and shell dredge' 
with mealed powder, the blast of the 
powder in the chamber of the mortar, 
when inflamed by the tube, will likewise 
set fire to the fuze in the shell. 

BOMBARDIERS, non-commissioned 
officer, so called because they were 
chiefly employed in mortar and howitzer 
duty. They are to load them on all oc- 
casions; and in most services they load 
the shells and grenades, fix the fuzes, 
prepare the composition both for fuzes 
and tubes, and fire both mortars and 
howitzers on every occasion. They are 
also employed on all services in the ar- 
tillery. In the English service, shells, 
grenades, and composition for the same, 
fuzes,ccc. are prepared in the Laboratory 
by people well skilled in that business. 

In most foreign services, both officers 
and soldiers belonging to the companies 
of bombardiers have an extraordinary 
pay, ;^s it requires more mathematical 
learning to throw shells with some d»- 


( 57 ) 


gree of exactness, than is requisite for 
the rest of the artillery. In the British 
service, a specific number is attached to 
each company of artillery; hut they flo 
not form a separate corps as in other 

BOM BE, ou courbe, Fr. a flat portion 
of a circle, such as is made upon the 
base of an equilateral triangle, whose 
center is the angle at the top. 

Bombe, Fr. timber that is crooked, 
and tit for crotches, knees, &c. 

BOMBELLES, Fr. diminutive bombs 
or shells, which are used against a be- 
sieged fortress, or for the purpose of 
creating confusion among a body of 

BOMBEMENT, Fr. curvity, con- 
vexity, also the swelling of a pillar. 

BOi\ T , Fr. a written document which 
always precedes the signature of a sove- 
reign or a minister, and by which some 
appointment is confirmed, to one or 
more persons. 

BONACE or BONNACE, Fr. calm 
weather, with a serene sky and smooth 

BONAVOGLIE, Fr. a man that for a 
certain consideration voluntarily en- 
gages to row. 

BONDIR, Fr. to bound; to fly up as 
a cannon ball does. It is also applied to 
a horse that suddenly leaps forward. 

BONNET, in fortification, implies a 
small but useful work, that greatly an- 
noys the enemy in his lodgments. 
This work consists of two faces, which 
make a salient angle in the nature of a 
ravelin, without any ditch, having only a 
parapet three feet high, and 10 or 12 
feet broad. They are made at the sa- 
lient angles of the glacis, outworks, and 
body of the place, beyond the counter- 
scarp, and in the faussebray. See For- 

Bonnet, a sort of cap which is worn 
by the Highlanders, hence called Bon- 

Bonnet a Frttre, or Priest's-cap, 
in fortification, is an outwork, having 
three salient and two inward angles, and 
differs from the double tenaille only in 
having its sides incline inwards towards 
the gorge, and those of a double tenaille 
are parallel to each other. See Forti- 

Bonnet defer, Fr. an iron scull, a 
sal lad. 

BOOKS. There are different books 
made use of in the British army, for the 

specific purposes of general and regi- 
mental economy. 

The general order book is kept by the 
brigade major, from which the leading 
oiders of regiments, conveying the pa- 
role and countersign, are always taken. 

The regimental order book contains 
the peculiar instructions of corps which 
are given by a colonel or commanding 
officerto the adjutant — Hence adjutant's 
order book. — And from him to the 
serjeant-major, who delivers the same 
to the different Serjeants of companies 
assembled in the orderly room for that 
purpose. Hence the company's order 

The regimental book is kept by the 
clerk of the regiment, and contains 
all the records, &c. belonging to the 

The black book is a sort of memoran- 
dum which is kept in every regiment to 
describe the character and c induct of 
non-commissioned officers and soldiers; 
when, and how often, they have been re^ 
duceri,or punished, &c. 

Every quarter-master belonging to the 
cavalry and infantry has likewise a book 
which may not improperly be called a 
book or inventory of regimental stores, 
&c. A black bonk, is kept in the adju- 
tant-general's office in Dublin, so that 
the commander in chief can always 
know the state or condition of each re- 
giment in that country, with respect to 
its interior management. This system 
ought to he general. 

Time book. A book which is usually 
kept at public offices in order to ascer- 
tain the exact time at which the clerks, 
Cv'c. make their appearance, particularly 
at the War-Office. 

Quarter book. A book kept in the 
Office of Ordnance, which contains the 
names of such officers, and such salaries 
only, as have been sanctioned by his 
Majesty's warrants. 

Practice book. A book containing 
the weight, range, &c. of cannon; and 
also the manner of exercising with 
pieces of artillery. Every officer be- 
longing to the royal artillery ought to 
have a book of practice. 

Regimental court-martial book. This 
book contains the names of the soldiers 
who have been tried since the date of 
the last inspection of a regiment, stat- 
i ing the crime lor which each man has 
been tried; the punishment awarded, 
and i he punishment inflicted. 
• I 


( 58 ) 


Description book. This book is like- 
wise called regimental book. 

BOOM, in marine fortilication, is a 
long piece of timber, with which rivers 
or harbours are stopped, to prevent the 
enemy's coining in : it is sometimes done 
by a cable or chain, and floated wiih 
yards, top-masts, or spars of wood lash- 
ed to it. 

BOOTS, a familiar term used in the 
British service. It means the youngest 
officer at a regimental mess, and takes 
its origin, most probably, from what is 
generally called Boots at an inn. 

BORDAGE, I V. the planks of a ship's 

Franc Bordace, Fr. the outside 

BORDE E de canon, Fr. a broadside, 
or all the guns on one side of a ship. 

BORDER, in military drawings, im- 
plies single or double lines, or any other 
ornament, round a drawing, &c. 

BORDER, Fr. in a military sense, to 
line: as Border la cole, to line the coast. 

BORDEREAU, Fr. a sort of diary 
which is kept in a troop or company, for 
the purpose of ascertaining what arti- 
cles have been distributed, and what 
jnonev lias been paid to the soldiers. 

BORDERERS(King'sown.) The 25th 
regiment is so called; from the regiment 
having originally been stationed on the 
boundaries of Scotland. 

BORDURE, Fr. in architecture, a 
profile in relievo, which is either oval or 
round. When it is square, it is called 
cadre, and serves to frame a picture or 

Bordure de pave, Fr. the curb stone 
on each side of a paved road. 

BORE, in gunnery, implies the cavity 
of the barrel of a gun, mortar, howitzer, 
or any other piece of ordnance. See 

BORNE, Fr. a stone stud, which is 
placed at the corner of, or before, a 
wall, to secure it against wagons, &c. 

Borne, Fr. limit; bound. 

BORNOYER, Fr. to ascertain the 
straight ness of a line, by looking with 
one eye through three or more stakes 
or poles, in order to erect a wall, or 
plant a row of trees. 

BOSCAGE, ^ a term in architecture, 

BOSS AGE, $ used for any stone that 
has a pmjeeture, and is laid in a place, 
in a building, lineal, to be afterwards 
carved into mouldings, capitals, coats of 
arms, &c 

Bossage is also that which is other- 
wise called rustic work. 

Bossage en liaison, Fr. that which re- 
presents the squares and stones laid 

BOSSE, Fr. a term used in the 
French artillery to express a glass bottle 
which is very thin, contains four or five 
pounds of powder, and round the neck 
of which four or five matches are hung 
under, after it has been well corked. A 
cord, two or three feet in length, is tied 
to the bottle, which serves to throw it. 
The instant the bottle breaks, the pow- 
der catches fire, and every thing within 
the immediate effects of the explosion is 
destroyed, or injured. 

Bosse, Fr. a small knob or emboss- 
ment, which is left on the dressing of a 
stone, to shew that the dimensions have 
not been toised, and which the work- 
man pares off when he finishes. 
BO ITER, Fr. to boot. 
BOTTINE, Fr. half boots worn by 
the hussars and dragoons in foreign 

BOUCHE, Fr. the aperture or 
mouth of a piece of ordnance, &c. 
Bouche, Fr. the king's kitchen. 
BOUCAES a feu, Fr. This word is 
generally used to signify pieces of ord- 
nance, such as cannon and mortars. 

Grosse Bouche a feu, Fr. a piece of 
heavy ordnance. 

Petite Bouche a feu, Fr. a carbine, 
musket, or pistol. 

BOUCHERS d'une armie, Fr. This 
term is sometimes used among the 
French, to signify the persons who con- 
tract with the quarter-master general's 
department for a regular supply of 

BOUCHON d'etoupe, de Join, de 
paille, Fr. the wad of a cannon, made 
of tow, hay, straw, &c. 

Un port BOUCLE, Fr. a land-locked 

BOULANGERIE, Fr. a bakery; 
the spot where bread is baked for an 
army, or where biscuits are made at a 

BOULANGERS, Fr. bakers. Per- 
sons of this description are generally at- 
tached to armies. 

BOVLDER-u alls, a kind of wall 
which is built with round flints, or 
pebbles, laid in strong mortar. These 
walls are chiefly used where the sea has 
a beach cast up, or where there is plenty 
of flints. 


( 69 ) 


BOULER la mutitre, Fr. to stir up inhabitants which consists of respect- 

the different metals which are used in 
casting cannon. 

BOULETS a deux tites, ou anges, Fr. 
double headed shot. 

Boulets enchaints,Yr. chain-shot. 

Boulets ramis, Fr. barred-shot. 

Boulets rouges, Fr. red -hot shot. 

BOULEVART, Fr. formerly meant 
a bastion. It is no longer used as a mi- 
litary phrase, although it sometimes oc 

able tradesmen who are united among 
themselves, and, in moments of danger, 
learn military movements, and turn out 
as volunteers for the security of their 
rights, &c. 

BOURGUIGNOTE, Fr. a helmet or 
morion which is usually worn with a 
breast-plate. It is proof against pikes 
and swords. It is also called a Cabosset. 

BOURRADE, Fr. a thrust which is 

curs in the description of works or lines I made with the barrel end of the musket 
which cover a whole country, and pro- instead of the butt. 

tect it from the incursions of an enemy. 
Thus Strasburgh and Landau may be 
called two principal boulevarts or bul- 
warks, by which France is protected on 
this side of the Rhine. 

The elevated line, or rampart, which 
reaches from the Champs Elysees in 
Paris beyond the spot where the Bas- 
tille was destroyed in 1789, and surrounds 
Paris, is styled the Boulevart. 

In ancient times, when the Romans 
attacked any place, they raised boule- 
varts near the circumference of the 
walls. These boulevarts were 80 feet 
high, 300 feet broad, upon which wood- 
en towers commanding the ramparts 
were erected, covered on all sides with 
iron-work, and from which the besiegers 
threw upon the besieged stones, darts, 
(ire-works, &c. to facilitate the ap- 
proaches of the archers and battering 

BOULINER, Fr. to pilfer. Bouliner 
dans un camp, to steal or pilfer in a 
camp. Un soldat boulineur, a soldier 
that plunders. 

BOULINS, Fr. pieces of timber 
which are fastened into walls in order 
to erect a scaffold. 

XVoms <&rBouLiNS,Fr.scaffoldingholes. 

BOULON, Fr. an iron bolt. 

BOULONNER, Fr. to fasten with 
an iron bolt. 

BOULONS d'afut, Fr. the bolts of 
the gun-carriage. 

BOUNTY, a certain sum of money 
which is given to men who enlist. 

FmA-BouNTY, money given to a 
soldier when he continues in the ser- 
vice after the expiration of the term for 
which he enlisted. 

BOU RE, Fr. See Mousse. 

BOURGEOIS, Fr. the middle order 
of people in a town are so called, to 
distinguish them from the military and 

BOURGEOISIE, Fr. that class of 

BOURRE, Fr. a wad. 

BOURRELET, Fr. the extremity of 
a piece of ordnance towards its mouth. 
Bourrelet means likewise a pad or collar. 

BOURRER, Fr. to ram the wad or 
any other materials into the barrel of a 

Bourrer une mine, Fr. to fill up 
the gallery of a mine with earth, stones, 

BOURRIQUET, Fr. a basket made 
use of in mining, to draw up the earth, 
and to let down whatever may be ne- 
cessary for the miner. 

BOURSEAU, Fr. in architectures 
round moulding upon the ridge of lead, 
on the top of a house that is slated. 

BOUSIN, Fr. soft crust of stones 
taken out of the quarry. 

BOUSSOLE, Fr. a compass, which 
every miner must be in possession of to 
direct him in his work. 

BOUTE-SELLE, Fr. the signal or 
word which is given to the cavalry to 
saddle their horses. 

BOUTON, Fr. the sight of a musket. 

BOW, an ancient weapon of offence, 
made of steel, wood, or other elastic 
matter; which, after being bent by 
means of a string fastened to its two 
ends, in returning to its natural state 
throws out an arrow with prodigious 

The use of the bow is, without all 
doubt, of the earliest antiquity. It has 
likewise been the most universal of all 
weapons, having obtained amongst the 
most barbarous and remote people, who 
had the least communication with the 
rest of mankind. 

The bow is a weapon of offence 
amongst the inhabitants of Asia, Africa, 
and America, at this day; and in Eu- 
rope, before the invention of fire-arms, a 
part of the infantry was armed with 
bows. Lewis XII. first abolished the 
use of bows in France, introducing, in 
J 2 


( 60 ) 


their stead, the halhert, pike, and broad-' 
sword. The long-bow was formerly in 
great use in England, and many laws 
were made t'> encourage tlie practice 01 it. 
Tlie parliament under Henry VII. com- 
plaints! of tlie disuse of long-bows, 
heretofore the safeguard and defence of 
this kingdom, and the dread and terror 
of its enemies. 

Cross How is likewise an ancient 
weapon uf offence, of the eleventh cen- 
tury. Philip II. surnamed the Con- 
queror, introduced cross-hows into 
f ranee. In this reign Richard I. of 
l'.n land, '• s killed liy a cross-bow at 
tl.e siege of Chalus. 

1j()v\ MAN. See Archer. 

BOWYER, the man who made o: 
repaired the military bows was SO called. 

BOXES, in military affairs, are of 
several sorts, and for various purposes. 

A cutting B>x, a box wherein chop- 
ped straw and cut hay may he kept. troop of cavalry intended for 
service or parade, ought to have a cut- 
ting box I elodging to it, and one man 
constantly employed, all day, at it in 
chopping hay, straw, &c. Forage of all 
kinds should lie cut and mixed together. 
Among the G rmans, every trooper 
carries a double feed of chopped straw 
and corn mingled together, which is 
never touched hut by express order of 
the commanding officer. 

Battery-BoxES. See Battery. 

Cartpuch-llox.ES. See Cartouch. 

AViT-Boxes arc made of iron, and 
fastened one at each end of the navej to 
prevent the arms of the axle-tree, about 
which the boxes turn, from causing too 
much friction. 

I^b-Boxes, such as are filled with 
small shot For grape, according to the 
size of the gun they are to he fired out of. 

/foot/- Boxes, with lids, for holding 
grape-shot, &c. Each calibre has its 
own, distinguished by marks of the cali- 
bre on the lid. 

There are wooden boxes which con- 
tain ammunition carried upon the lim- 
hers and cars for field ordnance; also 
boxes to contain the reserve ammuni- 
tion as it conies from the Laboratory. 
The shot, shells, cartridges, &c. are 
packed in these boxes, according to their 
natures and descriptions, so as to prevent 
any confusion; and the ends of the boxes 
are marked in letters to shew what they 

BOYAUj in fortification, is a particu- 

lar trench separated from the others, 
which, in winding about, incloses dif- 
ferent spaces of ground, and runs pa- 
rallel with the works of the place, that 
it may not be enfiladed. When two at- 
tacks are made at once, one near to the 
other, the boyau makes a communica- 
tion between the trenches, and serves as 
a line of contravallation, not only to 
hinder the sallies of the besieged, but 
likewise to secure the miners. 

BUACES, in a military sense, are a 
kind of armour for the arm: they were 
formerly a part of a coat of mail. 'I he 
straps which are worn across the shoul- 
ders, in order to suspend the breeches, 
are also called Braces. 

BRACKETS, in gunnery, are the 
cheeks of the travelling carnage of guns 
and howitzers; they are made of strong 
wooden planks. This name is some- 
times given to that part of a large mor- 
tar-hed, where the trunnions are placed, 
for the elevation of the mortar: they 
are sometimes made of wood, and more 
frequently of iron, of almost a semi- 
circular figure, well fastened with nails 
and strong plates. 

BRACONS, Fr. in carpentry, small 
stakes of wood which are assembled 
with the cross-beams in the Hood-gates 
of large sluices. 

BRADS, a kind of nails used in 
building, which have no spreading 
heads, as other nails have. They are 
distinguished by ironmongers in the 
following manner: joiners' brads, floor- 
ing brads, bntten brads, bill brads or 
quarter heads } &c. 

BRAGUE, Fr. a kind of mortoise, or 
joining of pieces together. 

BRANCARD ou civiere, Fr. a hand- 
barrow, or litter. This word literally 
means shaft. It is sometimes used as a 
machine to carry sick or wounded sol- 
diers upon. The difference between 
brancard and civiere is that the first is 
only a frame; and the second, being 
bo.ude 1 inside, and raised round, it can be 
used for the conveyance of earth, sand, &c. 

BRAN (ill-:, Fr. branch. This word 
is peculiarly adapted to the covert-way, 
ditch, horn-works, and to every part of 
a fortification, and signifies the long 
sides of the different works which sur- 
round a fortified town or camp. See 
Mine and Gallery. 

Branche d'un prqjet de guerre, of- 
fensive ou defensive, Fr. This term 
comprehends the various designs and 

B R E 

( 61 ) 

B R I 

means which are embraced to carry 01 
offensive or defensive measures. 

Branche de riviere, Fr. a branch of 
a river. 

Brunche also signifies, as with us, the 
various divisions of a department, as 
civil and military branches. 

BRAND, an ancient term for a 
sword ; so called by the Saxons. 

BRANDINS, Fr. See Chevrons. 

BRAQUEMART, Fr. a broad short 
sword, which is usually worn on the let' 
side, and is properly a cutlass. 

BRAQUER, Fr. to bring up any 
thins, so that it may be used immedi- 
ately: hence Braquer le canon, to bring 
cannon to bear. 

BRAS de mer, Fr. an arm of the sea. 

BRASSER la matiere, Fr. to mix the 
different ingredients which are required 
for the making of gunpowder or other 
combustible matter. 

BRASSARTS,JV.thin plates of beaten 
iron which were anciently used to cover 
the arms above the coat of mail. 

BRAVOURE, Fr. According to the 
author of the French Military Dictionary, 
this word signifies any act of courage and 
valour by which the enterprizing cha- 
racter of a man is distinguished. 

BRAYETTE, Fr. See Torre cor- 

BRAZING, the soldering or joining 
two pieces of iron, by means of thin 
plates of brass melted between the two 
pieces to be joined. 

BREACH, (brtche, Fr.) a gap, or 
opening, in any part of the works of 
a fortified place, made by the artillery 
or mines of the besiegers, preparatory to 
the making of an assault. 

A practicable Breach, (brtche prac- 
ticable, Fr.) an opening made into the 
wall of a fortified place, through which 
soldiers may enter. 

To repair a Breach, to stop or fill up 
the gap with gabions, fascines, &c. and 
prevent the assault. 

To fortify a Breach, to render it in- 
accessible with chevaux-de-frize, crow's- 
feet, &c. 

To make a lodgment in the Breach. 
After i he besieged are driven away, the 
besieiieis secure themselves against any 
future attack in the breach. 

To clear the Breach, to remove the 
ruins, that it may be the better defended. 

BREAK-o/^ a term used when ca- 
valry is ordered to diminish its front — 
similar to rile-off in the infantry. It is 

also used to signify wheeling from line; 
as break iNG-off to the left, for wheeling 
to the left. 

To Break-o^ (rompre, discontinuer, 
Fr.) also signifies to desist suddenly: as 
to BfiEAK-o/f negociations. 

To Break a horse, (dresser un cheval, 
Fr.) to render a horse manageable. 

To tinEAh-ground, (ouvrir la tranchte, 
Fr.) to make the first openingof the earth 
to form entrenchments, as at the com- 
mencement of a siege. It applies also 
to the sti iking of tents, and quitting the 
ground on which any troops had been 

BREAST-PLATE, a piece of defen- 
sive armour worn on the breast. 

BREAST-ziw/r. See Parapet. 

BRECHE, Fr. any opening which is 
made by force. It is also used among the 
French, to signify a successful charge 
upon a bodv of men. 

BREECH of a gun, the end near the 
vent. See Cannon. 

BRETESQUE, Fr. a public place 
in a town wherein proclamations are 
usually made; also a port or portal of 
defence in the rampart, or wall of a 

BRETESSE, Fr. embattled; garnish- 
ed or furnished with battlements. 

BRETESSE, Fr. the battlement of 
a wall. 

B REVET- rarc/c is a rank in the army 
higher than that for which pay is re- 
ceived. It gives precedence (when corps 
are brigaded) according to the date of 
the brevet commission. 

The Brevet, a term used to express 
general promotion, by which a given 
number of officers are raised from the 
rank of captain, upwards, without any 
additional pav, until they reach the rank 
of major-general; when, by a late regula- 
tion, they become entitled to a quarterly 

BREVET, Fr. commission, appoint- 
ment. All otiicers in the old French 
service, from a cornet or sub-lieutenant 
up to a marshal of J7ance,were styled of- 
ficiers a brevet. 

Brev ets d'assurance ou de retenued'ar- 
gcnt, Fr. certain military and civil ap- 
pointments granted by the old kings of 
France, which were distinguished from 
other places of trust, in as much as every 
successor was obliged to pay a certain 
sum of money to the heirs of the de- 
ceased, or for the discharge of his debts. 

BRICKS, substances composed of an 

B R I 

( 62 ) 

B R I 

enrthv matter, which are hardened by 
art : they may be very well considered 
as artificial stcne. Bricks are of very 
great antiquity, as appears from sacred 
history, the Tower of Babel being built 
with them; and it is said the remains are 
still visible. The Greeks and Romans, 
&c. generally used bricks in their build- 
ings, witness the Pantheon, &c. In the 
east they baked their bricks in the sun. 
The Romans used them unburst, having 
first left them to dry in the air for three, 
four, or five years. 

The best bricks must not be made of 
any earth that is full of sand or gravel, 
nor of such as is gritty or stony; but of 
a greyish marie, or whitish chalky clay, 
or at least of reddish earth. But if 
there is a necessity to use that which is 
sandy, choice should be made of that 
which is tough and strong. 

The best season for making bricks is 
the spring; because they will be subject 
to crack, and be full of chinks, if made 
in the summer : the loam should he 
well steeped or soaked, and wrought 
with water. They are shaped in a mould, 
and, after some drying in the sun or 
air, are burnt to a hardness. This is 
our manner of making bricks; but whe- 
ther they were always made in this man- 
ner admits a doubt. We are not clear 
what was the use of straw in the bricks 
for building in Egypt, or why in some 
parts of Germany they mix saw-dust in 
their clay for bricks. 

We are in general tied down by cus- 
tom to one form, and one size; which 
is truly ridiculous : 8 or 9 inches in 
length, and 4 in breadth, is our general 
measure : but beyond doubt there might 
be other forms, and other sizes, intro- 
duced very advantageously. Bricks, with- 
out any particular form or shape, are 
used in the north of England to make 
up the public roads, &c. particularly 
those in the neighbourhood of Sheffield, 
Wakefield, and Leeds. 

Compass Bricks are of acircular form; 
their use is for steening of walls; we have 
also concave, and semi-cylindrical, used 
for different purposes. 

Grey-Stocks are made of the purest 
earth, and better wrought: they are used 
in front in building, being the strongest 
and handsomest of this kind. 

P/We-BtucKS are made of the same 
tarth, or worse, with a mixture of dirt 
fro.ii the streets, and being carelessly 
put out of hand, are therefore weaker 

and more biittle, and are only used out 
of sight, and where little stress is laid on 

Red-Stocks are made of a particular 
earth, well wrought, and little injured by 
mixture: they are used in fine work, and 

Hcdgcrlcy-TlRiCKS are made of a yel- 
lowish coloured loam, very hard to the 
touch, containing a great quantity of 
sand : their particular excellence is, that 
they will bear the greatest violence of 
fire without hurt. 

BRIDGES, in military affairs, are of 
several sorts and denominations, viz. 

Rkj/i-Bridges are made of large 
bundles of rushes, bound fast together, 
over which planks are laid, and fas- 
tened: these are put in marshy places, 
for the army to pass over on any emer- 

Pendant or hanging Bridges are 
those not supported by posts, pillars, or 
hutments, but hung at large in the air, 
sustained only at the two ends. 

Diaw-B ridge, that which is fastened 
with hinges at one end only, so that the 
other may be drawn up (in which case 
the bridge is almost perpendicular) to 
hinder the passage of a ditch, &c. — 
There are others made to draw back 
and hinder the passage ; and some that 
open in the middle; one half of which 
turns away on one side, and the other 
half to the other, and both again join at 

F/i/ing-BRivcz is generally made of 
two small bridges, laid one over the 
other, in such a manner that the upper- 
most stretches out by the help of certain 
cords running through pullies placed 
along the sides of the upper bridge, 
which push it forwards, till the end of it 
joins the place it is intended to be fixed 
on. They are. frequently used to sur- 
prise works, or out-posts, that have only 
narrow ditches. 

Bridge of boats is a number of 
common boats joined parallel to each 
other, at the distance of 6" feet, till they 
reach across the river; which being 
covered with strong planks, and fastened 
with anchors and ropes, the troops march 

Bridge of communication is that made 
over a river, by which two armies, or 
forts, which are separated by that river, 
have a free communication with one 

Floating-BmoGZ, abridge resembling 

B R I 

( 63 ) 

B R I 

« work in fortification, which is called 
a redoubt; consisting of two boats 
covered with planks, that are solidly 
framed, so as to bear either horse or 
artillery. Bridges of this kind are fre- 
quently used. 

Poh/om-Bridge, a number of tin or 
copper boats placed at the distance of 7 
or 8 feet asunder, each fastened with 
an anchor, or a strong rope that goes 
across the river, running through the 
rings of the pontons. They are covered 
with baulks, and then with chesses or 
pianks, for the army to walk over. See 

Cask, or Barrel Bridge, a number 
of empty casks that support baulks and 
planks, made as above into a bridge, 
where pontons, &c. are wanting. Ex- 
perience has taught us that 5 tuns of 
empty casks will support above water 
9000 pounds: hence any calculation may 
be made. 

Bridges are made of carpentry or 
masonry. The number of arches of a 
bridge is generally made odd; either 
that the middle of the stream or chief 
current may flow freely without inter- 
ruption of a pier; or that the two 
halves of the bridge, bv gradually rising 
from the ends to the middle, may there 
meet in the highest and largest arch ; 
or else, for the sake of grace, that 
being open in the middle, the eye in 
observing it may look directly through, 
as we always expect to do in looking 
at it; and without which opening we 
generally feel a disappointment in view- 
ing it. 

If the bridge be equally high through- 
out, the arches, being all of a height, 
are made of one size, which causes a 
great saving of centering. If the bridge 
be higher in the middle than at the 
ends, let the arches decrease from the 
middle towards each end, but so that 
each half have the arches exactly alike, 
and that they decrease in span propor- 
tionally to their height, so as to be al- 
ways the same kind of figure. Bridges 

of which is highly spoken of; the model ie 
at the Office of Ordnance, in Pall-Mail. — 
Bridges have sometimes been built in 
commemoration of great battles, such as 
those of Jena, Austerlitz, &e. in Paris. 

Names of all the Terms peculiar to 
Bridges, fyc. 

Abutment. See But merit. 

Arch, an opening of a bridge, through 
or under which the water, &c. passes, 
and which is supported by piers or hut- 
ments. Arches are denominated cir- 
cular, elliptical, cycloids), caternarian, 
equilibria!, gothic, &c. according to their 
figure or curve. 

Archivolt, the curve or line formed 
by the upper sides of the voussoirs or 
arch-stones. It is parallel to the intra- 
dos or under side of the arch, when the 
voussoirs are all of the same length: 
otherwise not. 

By the archivolt is also sometimes un- 
derstood the whole set of voussoirs. 

Banquet, the raised foot-path at the 
sides or the bridge next the parapet. 

Battardeau, or } a case of piling, &c. 

Coffer-dam, $ without a bottom, 
fixed in the river, water-tight, or nearly 
so, in order to lay the bottom dry for 
a space large enough to build the pier 
on. When it is fixed, its sides reaching 
above the level of the water, the water 
is pumped out of it, or drawn off by 
engines, &c. till the space be dry: and 
it is kept so by the same means, until 
the pier is built up in it, and then the 
materials of it are drawn up again. 
Battardeaux are made in various man- 
ners, either by a single inclosure, or by 
a double one, with clay or chalk rammed 
in between the two, to prevent the 
water from coming through the sides: 
and these inclosures are also made either 
with piles only, driven close by one an- 
other, and sometimes notched or dove- 
tailed into each other; or with piles 
grooved in the sides, driven in at a dis- 
tance from one another, and boards let 
down between them in the grooves. 

Butments are the extremities of a 

rather be of few and large bridge, by which it joins to, or abuts upon 

arches, than of many and small ones 
if the height and situation will allow 
of it. 

Several bridges have lately been con- 
structed of cast iron, as those of Sunder- 
land, Colebrook Dale, &c. — A portable 
iron bridge is constructing under the im- 
mediate direction of Major By, of the 
corps of Royal Engineers, the principle 

the land, or sides of the river, &c. 

These must be made very secure, quite 
immovable, and more than barely suffi- 
cient to resist the drift of its adjacent 
arch; so that, if there are not rocks or 
very solid banks to raise them against, 
they must be well reinforced with proper 
walls or returns, &c. 

Caisson, a kind of chest, or flat-bot- 

B R I 

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B R I 

tomed boat, in which a pier is built, 
then sunk to the bed of the river, and 
the sides loosened and taken off from 
the bottom, by a contrivance for that 
purpose: the bottom of it being left 
under the pier as a foundation. It is 
evident therefore, that t lie bottoms of 
the caissons must be made very strong 
and tit for the foundations of the piers. 
The caisson is kept afloat till the pier 
be built to the height of low-water 
mark ; and for that purpose its sides 
must either be made of more than thai 
height at (irst, or else gradually raised 
to it, as it sinks by the weight of the 
work, so as always to keep its top above 
water : and therefore the sides must be 
made very strong, and kept asunder by 
cross timbers within, lest the great pres- 
sure of the ambient water crush the 
sides in, and so not only endanger the 
work, but also drown the workmen 
within it. The caisson is made of the 
shape of the pier, but some feet wider 
on every side, to make room for the 
men to work ; the whole of the sides 
are of two pieces, both joined to the 
bottom quite round, and to each other at 
the salient angle, so as to be disengaged 
from the bottom, and from each other, 
when the pier is raised to the desired 
height, and sunk. It is also convenient 
to have a little sluice made in the bot- 
tom, occasionally to open and shut, to 
sink the caisson and pier sometimes by, 
before it be finished, to try if it bottom 
level and rightly; for by opening the 
sluice, the water will rush in and fill it 
to the height of the exterior water, and 
the weight of the work already built 
will sink it; then by shutting the sluice 
again, and pumping out the water, it 
will be made to float again, and the rest 
of the work may be completed. It must 
not however be sunk except when the 
sides are hi«h enouiih to reach above 
the surface of the water, otherwise it 
cannot be raised and laid dry again. — 
Mr. Labeyle tells us, that the caissons 
in which he built Westminster bridge, 
contained above 150 load of fir timber, 
of 40 cubic feet each, and were of more 
tonnage or capacity than a 40-»un ship 
of war. 

Centers are the timber frames elect- 
ed in the spaces of the arches to turn 
them on, by building on them the vnus- 
soirs of the arch. As the center serves 
as a foundation for the arch to be built 
upon, when the arch is completed, that 

foundation is struck from under it, to 
make way for the water and navigation, 
and then the arch will stand of itself 
from its curved figure. The center 
must be constructed of the exact figure 
of the intended arch, convex, as the 
arch is concave, to receive it on as a 
mould. If' the form be circular, the 
curve is struck from a central point by 
a radius; if it be elliptical, it should be 
struck with a double chord, passing over 
two pins fixed in the focusses, as the 
mathematicians describe their ellipses: 
and not by striking different pieces or 
arcs of circles from several centers : 
for these will form no ellipsis at all, but 
an irregular mis-shapen curve made up 
of broken pieces of different circular 
arches; but if the arch be of any other 
form, the several abscissas and ordinates 
should be calculated ; then their corre- 
sponding lengths, transferred to the cen- 
tering, will give so many points of the 
curve; by bending a bow of pliable mat- 
ter, according to those points, the curve 
may be drawn. 

The centers are constructed of beams 
of limber, firmly pinned and bound to- 
gether, into one entire compact frame, 
covered smooth at top with planks or 
boards to place the voussoirs on; the 
whole supported by off-sets in the sides 
of the piers, and bv piles driven into the 
bed of the river, and capable of being 
raised and depressed by wedges con- 
trived for that purpose, and for taking 
them down when the arch is completed. 
They should also be constructed of a 
strength more (ban sufficient to bear the 
weight of the arch. 

In taking the center down, first lower 
it a little, all in a piece, by easing 
some of the wedges; then let it rest a 
few days to try if the arch maki s any 
efforts to fall, or any joints open, or any 
stones crush or crack, cvc. that the 
damage may be repaired before the 
center is entirely removed, which is not 
to be done till the arch ceases to make 
any visible e fforts. 
Chest. See Caisson, 
Coffer-dam. ^ee Battardeau. 
Drift, "i of an arch, is the push or 
Shoot, or > forte which it exerts in the 
Thrust, j direction of the length of 
the bridge. This force arises from the 
perpendicular gravitation of the stones 
of the arch, which being kept from de- 
scending by the form of the arch, and 
the resistance of the pier, exert their 

B R I 

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B R I 

force in a lateral or horizontal direction. 
This force is computed in Prop. 10, of 
Mr. Hutton's Principles of Bridges, 
where the thickness of the pier is deter- 
mined that is necessary to resist it, and 
is greater the lower the arch is, ceteris 

Elevation, the orthographic projec- 
tion of the front of a bridge, on the ver- 
tical plane, parallel to its length. This 
is necessary to shew the form and di- 
mensions of the arches and other parts, 
as to height and breadth, and therefore 
has a plain scale annexed to it, to mea- 
sure the parts by. It also shews the 
manner of working up and decorating 
the fronts of the bridge. 

Extrados, the exterior curvature, or 
line of an arch. In the propositions of 
the second section of Professor Hutton's 
Principles of Bridges, it is the outer or 
upper line of the wall above the arch, 
but it often means only the upper or ex- 
terior curve of the voussoirs. 

Foundations, the bottoms of the piers, 
&c. or the bases on which they are built. 
These bottoms are always to be made 
with projections, greater or less, accord- 
ing to the spaces on which they are 
built. Agreeable to the nature of the 
ground, depth and velocity of water, 
&c. the foundations are laid, and the 
piers built after different manners, either 
in caissons, in battardeaus, on stilts with 
starlings, ccc. for the particular method 
of doing which, see each under its re- 
spective term. 

The most obvious and simple method 
of laying the foundations and raising the 
piers up to the water-mark, is to turn 
the river out of its course above the 
place of the bridge, into a new channel 
cut for it near the place where it makes 
an elbow or turn ; then the piers are 
built on dry ground, and the water 
turned into its old course again; the 
new one being securely banked up. This 
is certainly the best method, when the 
new channel can be easily and conve- 
niently made. It is, however, seldom 
or never the case. 

Another method is, to lay only the 
space of each pier dry till it be built, by 
surrounding it with piles and planks 
tlriven down into the bed of the river, 
so close together as to exclude the water 
from coming in ; then the water is 
pumped out of the enclosed space, the 
pier built in it, and lastly the piles and 
planks drawn up. This is coffer-dam 

work, hut evidently cannot be practised 
if the bottom be of a loose consistence, 
admitting the water to ooze and spring 
up through it. 

When neither the whole nor part of 
the river can be easily laid dry as above, 
other methods are to be used; such as 
to build either on caissons or on stilts, 
both which methods are described under 
their proper words; or yet by another 
method, which hath, though seldom, 
been sometimes used, without laying the 
bottom dry, and which is thus: the pier 
is built upon strong rafts or gratings ot 
timber, well bound together, and buoyed 
up on the surface of the water by strong 
cables, fixed to the other floats or ma- 
chines till the pier is built; the whole is 
then gently let down to the bottom, 
which must be made level for the pur- 
pose: but of these methods, that of 
building in caissons is best. 

But before the pier can be built in any 
manner, the ground at the bottom must 
be well secured, and made quite good 
and safe, if it be not so naturally. The 
space must be bored into, to try the con- 
sistence of the ground ; and if a good 
bottom of stone, or firm gravel, clay, 
&c. be met with, within a moderate 
depth below the bed of the river, the 
loose sand, &c. must be removed and 
digged out to it, and the foundation 
laid on the firm bottom on a strong 
grating; or base of timber made much 

- 1 

broader every way than the pier, that 
there may be the greater base to press 
on, to prevent its being sunk. But if a 
solid bottom cannot be found at a con- 
venient depth to dig to, the space must 
then be driven full of strong piles, whose 
fops must be sawed off level some feet 
below the bed of the water, the sand 
having been previously dug out for that 
purpose; and then the foundation on ; 
a grating of timber laid on their tops as 
before: or when the bottom is not good, 
if it be made level, and a strong grating 
of timber, 2, 3, or 4 times as large as 
the base of the pier be made, it will 
form a good base to build on, its great 
size preventing it from sinking. In 
driving the piles, begin at the middle, 
proceed outwards all the way to the 
borders or margin; the reason of which 
is, that if the outer ones were driven 
first, the earth of the inner space would 
be thereby so jammed together, as not 
to allow the inner piles to be driven : 
and besides the piles immediately under 

B R I 

( 66 ) 


the pier?, it is also %ery prudent to drive 
in a single, doulile, or triple row of them 
round, and close to the frame of the 
foundation* cutting them off a little 
nbove it, to secure it from slipping aside 
out of its place: and to hind the ground 
under the pier firmer, for, as the safety 
of the whole bridge depends on the 
foundation, too much care cannot be 
used to have the bottom made quite se- 

Jcttcc, the border made round the 
Stilts under a pier. See Starling. 

Impost is the part of the pier on which 
the feet of the arches stand, or from 
which they spring. 

Key-stone, the middle voussoir, or the 
arch-stone in the top or immediately 
over the center of the arch. The length 
of the key-stone, or thickness of the 
nrchivolt at top, is allowed to be about 
l-15th or 1-iGth of the span by the best 

Orthography, the elevation of a bridge 
or front view, as seen at an infinite dis- 

Parapet, the breast-wall made on the 
top of a bridge to prevent passengers 
from failing over. In good bridges, to 
build the parapet but a little part of its 
height close or solid, and upon that a 
balustrade to above a man's height, has 
an elegant effect. 

Piers, the walls built for the support 
of the arches, and from which they 
spring as their bases. They should be 
built of large blocks of stone, solid 
throughout, and cramped together with 
iron, which will make the whole as one 
solid stone. Their faces or ends, from 
the base up to high-water mark, should 
project sharp out with a salient angle, to 
divide the stream: or perhaps the bot- 
tom of the pier should be built flat or 
square up to about half the height of 
low-water mark, to allow a lodgment 
against it for the sand and mud, to go 
over the foundation; lest, by being kept 
bare, the water should in time under- 
mine, and so ruin or injure it. The 
best form of the projection for dividing 
the stream, is the triangle; and the 
longer it is, or the more acute the sa- 
lient angle, the better it will divide it, 
and the less will the force of the water 
he against the pier; but it may he suf- 
ficient to make that angle a right one, 
as it will make the work stronger; and 
in that case the perpendicular projec- 
tion will be equal to half the breadth or 

thickness of the pier. In rivers, an 
which large heavy craft navigate and 
pass the arches, it may, perhaps, he bet- 
ter to make the ends semicircular: tor, 
although it does not divide the water so 
well as the triangle, it will both better 
turn off and hear the shock of' the craft. 

The thickness of the piers should be 
such as will make them of weight, or 
strength, sufficient to support their in- 
terjacent arch, independent of any other 
arches; and then, if the middle of the 
pier he run up to its full height, the cen- 
tering may be struck to be used in ano- 
ther arch before the haunches are filled 
up. The whole theory of the piers may 
be seen in the third section of Professor 
Hut ton's Principles of Bridges. 

They should be made with a broad 
bottom on the foundation, and gradually 
diminishing in thickness by off-sets up to 
lower water-mark. 

Piles are timbers driven into the bed 
of the river for various purposes, and 
are either round, square, or flat like 
planks. They may be of any wood 
which will not rot underwater; but oak 
and fir are mostly used, especially the 
latter, on account of its length, straight- 
ness, and cheapness. They are shod 
with a pointed iron at the bottom, the 
better to penetrate into the ground, and 
are bound with a strong iron-band or 
ring at top, to prevent them from being 
split by the violent strokes of the ram 
by which they are driven down. 

Piles are either used to build the 
foundations on, or they are driven about 
the pier as a border of defence, or to 
support the centers on; and in this case, 
when the centering is removed, they must 
either be drawn up, or sawed off very 
low under water; but it is perhaps bet- 
ter to saw them olFand leave them stick- 
ing in the bottom, lest the drawing of 
them out should loosen the ground about 
the foundation of the pier. — Those to 
build on, are either such as are cut off 
by the bottom of the water, or rather a 
few feet within the bed of the river : or 
else such as are cut off at low water 
mark, and then they are called stilts. 
Those to form borders of defence are 
rows driven in close by the frame of a 
foundation to keep it firm, or else they 
are to form a case or jettee about the 
stilts, to keep the stones within it, that 
are thrown in to fill it up: in this case 
the piles are grooved, driven at a little 
distance from each other, and plank piles 


( 67 ) 

B R I 

let into tfc grooves between them, and 
driven d' wn a ' so ' li ^ tne whole space is 
surrounded. Besides using this for stilts, 
it is sp net ' nies necessary to surround a 
stoneP' er with a starling or jettee, and 
fill i' up with stones to secure an injured 
pic from being still more damaged, and 
tlit whole bridge ruined. The piles to 
sjpport the centers may also serve as a 
border of piling to secure the founda- 
tion, cutting them off low enough after 
the center is removed. 

Pile-driver, an engine for drivingdown 
the piles. It consists of a large ram 
or iron sliding perpendicularly down 
between two guide posts; which being 
lifted up to the top of them, and there 
let fail from a great height, comes down 
upon the top of the pile with a violent 
blow. It is woiked either with men or 
horses, and either with or without wheel 
work. That which was used at the 
building of Westminster bridge, is per- 
haps the best ever invented. 

Pitch of an arch, the perpendicular 
height from the spring or impost to the 

Plan, of any part, as of the founda- 
tions, or piers, or superstructure, is the 
orthographic projection of it on a plane 
parallel to the horizon. 

Push, of an arch. See Drift. 
Salient angle, of a pier, the projec- 
tion of the end against the stream, to 
divide itself. The right-lined angle best 
divides the stream, and the more acute, 
the better for that purpose; but the 
right angle is generally used, as making 
the best masonry. A semicircular end, 
though it does not divide the stream so 
well, is sometimes preferable in large 
navigable rivers, as it carries the craft 
off, or bears their shocks better. 
Shoot, of an arch. See Drift. 
Springers are the first or lowest 
stones of an arch, being those at its 
feet, and bearing immediately on the 

Starlingn, or Jetties, a kind of case 
made about a pier of stilts, &c. to secure 
it, and is particularly described under 
the next word, Stilts. 

Stilts, a set of piles driven into the 
space intended for the pier, whose tops 
being sawed level off, above low-water 
mark, the pier is then raised on them. 
Thrust. See Drift. 
Voussoirs, the stones which immedi- 
diately form the arch, their undersides 
constituting the intiados. The middle 

one, or key-stone, should be about 
l-15th or l-16th of the span, as has 
been observed ; and the rest should in- 
crease in size all the way down to the 
impost; the more they increase the bet- 
ter, as they will the better bear the 
great weight which rests upon them 
without being crushed ; and also will 
bind the firmer together. Their joints 
should also be cut perpendicular to the 
curve of the intrados. For more infor- 
mation, see Professor Hutton's Prin- 
ciples of Bridges,N ewcastle, 1772,in8vo. 

Bri dge, in gunnery, the two pieces of 
timber which go between the two tran- 
soms of a gun-carriage, on which the 
coins are placed, for elevating the piece. 
See Carriage. 

BRIDLE-«rw Protect, a guard used 
by the cavalry, which consists in having 
the sword-hilt above the helmet; the 
biade crossing the back of the head, the 
point of the left shoulder, and the 
bridle-arm; its edge directed to the left, 
and turned a little upwards in order to 
bring the mounting in a proper direction 
to protect the hand. 

BRIDON or Bridoox, the snaffle and 
rein of a military bridle ; which acts in- 
dependent of the bit and curb at the 
pleasure of the rider. 

BRIGADE, in military affairs, im- 
plies a party or division of a body of 
soldiers, whether horse, foot, or artil- 
lery, under the command of a brigadier. 
There are, properly speaking, three sorts 
of brigades, viz. the brigade of an army, 
the brigade of a troop of horse, and the 
brigade of artillery. A brigade of the 
army is either foot or dragoons, whose 
exact number is not fixed, but generally 
consists of 3 regiments, or 6 battalions: 
a brigade of horse may consist of 8, 10, 
or 12 squadrons; and that of artillery, 
of five guns and one howitzer, with 
their appurtenances. The eldest brigade 
takes the right of the first line, the se- 
cond of the second line, and the rest in 
order; the youngest always possessing 
the center. The cavalry and artillery 
observe the same order. 

Brigade Major, an officer appointed 
bv the brigadier, to assist him in the 
r.jmagement of his brigade. The most 
experienced captains are generally nomi- 
nated to this post. According to the 
regulations published by authority, a 
brigade-major is attached to the bri- 
gade, and not to any particular briga- 
dier-general, as the aide-de-camp is. 
K 2 

B R I 

( 63 ) 

B R G 

Brigade-majors must be taken from 
the regular forces, and must not be el- 
fective field officers. If they are sub- 
alterns, they take rank in tlu brigade or 
garrison, in which they are serving, as 
junior captains. 

BfLiGADE-Major-Genernl. The niili- 
tary commands in Great-Britain being 
divided into districts, an office has been 
established for the sole transaction of 
brigade duties. Through this office all 
milt rs from the commander-in-chief to 
the generals of districts relative to corps 
of officers, <slc. must pass. This ap- 
pointment is now absorbed in that ol 
assistant adjutant-general. 

Brigade of Engineers. A brigade of 
engineers may consist of only two or 
three officers, who are attached to an 

To Brigade, (embrigader, Fr.) to 
make any given number of regiments, 
• or battalions, act together for the pur- 
poses of service. 

BRIGADE, Fr. according to the 
French, signifies the re-union of several 
squadrons or battalions, under the com- 
mand of one colonel, who has also the 
rank of brigadier-general in the army. 

Brigade de boulangers, Fr. It was 
Usual in the old French service to bri- 
gade the bakers belonging to the army. 
Each brigade consisted of one master 
and three boys. 

Irish Brig ade,(/« brigade Irelandaise, 
Fr.) Irish regiments which once served 
in France, Spain, and Naples. 

BRIGADIER, a military officer, 
whose rank is next above that of a colo- 
nel, appointed to command a corps, con- 
sisting of several battalions or regi- 
ments, called a brigade. This title in 
England is suppressed in time of peace, 
but revived in actual service in the field. 
Every brigadier marches at the head of 
bis brigade upon duty. 

Brigadier, (Brigadier, Fr.) a certain 
rank which is given to a mounted sol- 
dier. He is next to the quarter-master. 

BRIGADIER des armies,Yr. This 
corresponds with our term Brigadier- 
General. A brigadier-general ranks 
above a colonel, and has the command 
of a brigade of cavalry, dragoons, or in- 

Brigadier cPZquipage, Fr. a sort of 
head commissary or wagon-master-ge- 

BRIGAND, Fr. a free-booter ; every 
soldier, who, contrary to orders and the 

acknowledged usages of w. r> commits 
acts of plunder. 

BRIGANDINE or Brigaltine, in 
alicient military history, a coat if mail, 
or kind ot defensive armour, coisistiug 
of tin; so called from the troops by 
which it was first worn, who were cdled 
Bi igands, and were a kind of light-ari\ed 
irregular foot, much addicted to plun- 
der. The brigandine is frequently con- 
founded with the jack; sometimes with 
the habergeon, or coat of plate mail. 

BRIGUE, Fr. a plot, or conspiracy 
which is formed against a commanding 
officer, to deprive him of his situation. 

BRINGER, a term used iq the re- 
cruitiug branch of the British service, to 
signify a person who produces a man or 
boy, within the regulated age, that is 
willing to enlist. He is allowed one 
guinea for his trouble. 

Bringers-w/.>, an antiquated military 
expression, to signify the whole rear 
rank of a battalion drawn up, as being 
the hindmost men of every file. 

BRTN d'estoe, Fr. quarter-staff. 

BoisJeBiUN, fr. solid timber. 

BRINS d'est, Fr. large sticks or 
poles resembling small pickets, with irou 
at each end. They are used to cross 
ditches, particularly in Flanders. 

BRISER les jfers, Fr. to break the 
fetters; to obtain liberty. 

BRISE, Fr. in sluices, a beam that is 
placed, swipe fashion, on the top of a 
large pile, upon which it turns. 

Brise-com, Fr. a break-neck place; as 
a defect in a staircase, &c. 

BRisE-g/ace, Fr. starlings; literally 
an ice-breaker, after a thaw. 

Lit BRISE, Fr. a folding bed. 

BRISURE, in fortification, is a line 
of 4 or 5 fathoms, which is allowed to the 
curtain and orillon, to make the hol- 
low tower, or to cover the concealed 

BROADSIDE, in a sea-fight, implies 
the discharge of all the artillery on one 
side of a ship of war. 

BROAD-SWORD, a sword with a 
broad blade, chiefly designed for cut- 
ting; not at present much used in the 
British service, except by some few regi- 
ments of cavalry and Highland infantry. 
Among the cavalry, this weapon has in 
general given place to the sabre. 

The principal guards with the broad 
sword are: 

The inside guard, (similar to carte in 
fencing,) which is formed by directing 


( 69 ) 


your poin* 11 a mie about 6 inches higher 
than vou antagonist's left eye, the hilt 
opposif your own breast, the finger 
nails t' rne d upwards, and the edge of the 
sworr to the left. 

T'e outside guard, (resembling tierce,) 
in vhich by a turn of the wrist from the 
iVnier position, the point of the sword 
ji directed ahove your antagonist's right 
eye, and 'he edge turned to the right, to 
protect the outside of your body from 
the attack. 

The medium guard, which is a posi- 
tion between the inside and outside 
guard, seldom used, as it affords very 
little protection. 

The hanging guard, (similar to prime 
and seconde,) in which the hilt of your 
sword is raised high enough to view 
your opponent under the shell, and the 
point directed towards his body. 

The St. George's guard, which pro- 
tects the head, and differs from the last 
described, only in raising the hand some- 
what higher, and bringing the point 
nearer to yourself. 

The swords worn by officers of the 
infantry being constructed either for 
cutting or thrusting, it is necessary for 
gentlemen to be acquainted both with 
the method of attacking and defending 
with the broad-sword and with the ra- 
pier. Those who have not the opportu- 
nity of regular lessons from a professed 
teacher, may obtain much useful infor- 
mation from a work entituled the Art of 
Defence on Foot, with the Broad-Sword, 
&c. in which the spadroon or cut and 
thrust sword play is reduced to a regu- 
lar system. 

BROCHOIR, Fr. a smith's shoeing 

BRODEQUINS, Fr. buskins or half 
boots. They are generally worn by 
light armed troops. 

BROKEN-oWra. A horse is said to 
be broken down, when he is shook in the 
shoulders, hurt in the loins, or lame 
about the feet from hard riding or work- 
ing. The malady generally lies in the 
feet or back sinews. 

Broken-winded, {poussif, Fr.) sub- 
ject to a difficulty in breathing. 

BROKERS, persons who act between 
two trafficking parties. 

Arwy-BRGkF.ii-, persons who former- 
ly acted between army agents and indi- 
viduals wishing to purchase, sell, or ex- 
change commissions. In 1806, a clause 
was introduced into the Mutiny Bill to 
prevent this species of traffic. 

BROND. See Brand. 

BRONZE, Fr. bronze ; brass. 

d' armes, Fr.) an affectionate and en- 
dearing term which is used among mili- 
tary men, from the commander-in-chief 
of an army to the lowest drum-boy in- 
clusive. Soldiers ought, in fact, to con- 
stitute a family within themselves. The 
cause they have to defend, and the dan- 
gers they must encounter, are so many 
motives for mutual attachment, especi- 
ally in a foreign country. 

BROUETTE, Fr. a "wheelbarrow. 

B BOUILLON, Fr. a rough copy; 
day book. 

BROWNBILL, the ancient weapon 
of the English foot, resembling a battle- 

BRUGNE. The hauberk was some- 
times so called. 

BRULOT, Fr. a fire-ship. 

BRUNT, (choc, Fr.) the principal 
shock of the enemy in action. 

BRUSQUER une attaque, Fr. to open 
the trenches in the nearest approaches 
to a place, completing the works from 
the front towards the rear. This un- 
dertaking is extremely hazardous, unless 
the object invested, or attacked, be ill- 
garrisoned, have a narrow front to be- 
siege, or the ditches be dry, &c. 

Brusquer V affaire, Fr. to attack 
suddenly, and without attending to any 
regular rule of military manoeuvre. 

Brusquer une place, Fr. to storm a 

BRUT, Fr. any thing in the rough; 
as stones from the quarry. 

BUCCANEER, Boucanier, {fli- 
bustier, Fr.) in military history, a name 
frequently applied to those famous ad- 
venturers, consisting of pirates, &c. from 
all the maritime nations of Europe, who 
formerly joined together, and made war 
upon the Spaniards in America. 

BUCCINATEUR, Fr. a trumpeter. 

BUCCINE, Fr. a cornet. 

BUCKLER, a piece of defensive ar- 
mour used by the ancients. It was al- 
ways worn on the left arm, and com- 
posed of wicker-work, of the lightest 
sort, but most commonly of hides, forti- 
fied with plates of brass or other metals. 
The shape of it varied considerably, be- 
ing sometimes round, sometimes oval, 
and often nearly square. 

BUDGE-Barre/s. See Barrel. 

BUFF- Leader, in military accoutre- 
ments, is a sort of leather prepared 
from the buffalo, which, dressed with 

B U I 

( 70 ) 


•il, after the manner of a shainoy, 
makes what is generally called buff-skin. 

BUGLE-HORN, the old Saxon horn; 
it is now used by all the light infantry 
in the British service, and also by the 
horse artillery, and some regiments of 
light cavalry. 

BUGLER, the person who blows the 

were engines used in former times for 
throwing large stones. 

BUILDING, (edi/ke, Fr.) a fabric 
erected by art. 

Military Buildings are of various 
sorts, viz. powder-magazines, bridges, 
gates, barracks, hospitals, store-houses, 
guard-rooms, ike. 

Regular Building is that whose 
plan is square, the opposite sides equal, 
and all the parts disposed with symme- 

Irregular Building, that whose plan 
is not contained within equal or parallel 
lines, and whose parts are not relative to 
one another in the elevation. 

Insulated Building, that which is 
not contiguous to any other, but is en- 
compassed with streets, open squares, 
tec. or any building which stands in a 
river, on a rock surrounded by the sea, 
marsh, &c. 

Engaged Building, one surrounded 
with other buildings, having no front to 
any street or public place,,nor any com- 
munication without, but by a common 

J nl erred or sialic Building, one 
whose area is below the surface of the 
place where it stands, and of which the 
lowest courses of stone are concealed. 

In buildi)ig there are three things to 
be considered, viz. commodity or con- 
veniency; secondly, firmness or stabi- 
lity; thirdly, delight. 

To accomplish which ends, Sir Henry 
Wotton considers the whole subject 
under two heads, namely, the seat or 
situation, and the work. 

J. As for the seat, cither that of the 
whole is to be considered, or that of its 

2. As to the situation, regard is to be 
had to the quality, temperature, and sa- 
lubrity, or healthiness of the air; that it 
be a good healthy air, not subject to 
foggy noisomeness from adjacent fens 
or marshes; also free from noxious mi- 
neral exhalations ; nor should the place 
want the sweet influence of the sun- 

beams, nor be wholly desti U te of the 
breezes of wind, that will faii< n d purge 
the air; the want of which wou<j render 
it like a stagnated pool, and vv) U |d be 
very unhealthy. 

In the foundationsof buildings, \*uru- 
vius orders the ground to be dug ii), to 
examine its firmness; that an apparent 
solidity is not to be trusted, unless ire 
whole mould cut through be sound ano 
solid : it is true, he does not say to what 
depth it shouid be dug; but Palladio de- 
termines it to be a sixth part of the 
height of the building. 

The great laws of walling are:— 
1. That the walls stand perpendicular 
on the ground-work, the right angle be- 
ing the foundation of all stability. 2. 
That the largest and heaviest mate rials 
be the lowest, as more proper to sustain 
others than to be sustained themselves. 
3. That the work diminish in thickness, 
as it rises, both for the ease of weight, 
and to lessen the expense. 4. That 
certain courses, or lodges, of more 
strength than the rest, be interlaid, like 
bones, to sustain the wall from total 
ruin, if some of the under paits chance 
to decay. 5. Lastly, that the angles be 
firmly bound, they being the nerves of 
the whole fabric. These are sometimes 
fortified on each side the comers, even 
in brick buildings, with square stones; 
which add both beauty and strength to 
the edifice. 

BU1NDES, Fr. a shield used by the 
Turks and Tartars when they fight with 

BULLETIN, Fr. any official account 
which is given of public transactions. 
See Gazette. 

Bulletin also signifies any account 
which is given of the stale of a person's 
health, &c. Likewise a specific account 
of military transactions; hence Bulletin 
de I'arnite. 

BULLETS, {balks, boulets, Fr.) are 
leaden balls, wherewith all kinds of 
small fire-arms are loaded. The diame- 
ter of any bullet is found, by dividing 
1.G706 by the cube root of the number, 
which shews how many of them make a 
pound ; or it may he done in a shorter 
way. From the logarithm . 2228756 of 
of 1.6706 subtract continually the third 
part of the logarithm of the number of 
bullets in the pound, and the difference 
will lie the logarithm of the diameter 

Thus the diameter of a bullet, where- 


( n ) 


of 12 weigh a pound, is found by sub- 
tracting .3597270, a third part of the 
logarithm of 12, from the given lo- 
garithm .2228756, or, when the lo- 
garithm is less than the former, an unit 
must he added, so as to have 1.2228756, 
and the difference .8631486 will be the 
logarithm of the diameter sought, which 
is .7297 inches; observing that the num- 
ber found will always be a decimal, 
when the logarithm, which is to be sub- 
tracted is greater than that of one 
pound; because the divisor is greater 
than the dividend in this case. 

Hence, from the specific gravity of 
lead, the diameter of any bullet may be 
found from its given weight: for, since 
a cube foot weighs 11325 ounces, and 
678 is to 355 as the cube 1728 of a foot, 
or 12 inches, is the content of the 
sphere, which therefore is 5929.7 ounces; 
and since spheres are as the cubes of 
their diameters; the weight 5929.7 is to 
16 ounces, or a pound, as the Cube 1728 
is to the cube of the diameter of a 
sphere which weighs a pound; which 
cube therefore is 4.66263, and its root 
1.6706 inches, the diameter sought. 

The diameter of musket bullets dif- 
fers but l-50th part from that of the 
musket bore; for if the shot but just 
rolls into the barrel, it is sufficient. 
Government allows 11 bullets in the 
pound for the proof of muskets, and 14 
in the pound, or 29 in two pounds, for 
service; 17 for the proof of carbines, 
and 20 for service; and 2S in the pound 
for the proof of pistols, and 34 for ser- 

Bullet, ball or shot, have various 
denominations according to the use that 
is made of them, viz. 

Hollow Bullets, or shells, of a cy- 
lindrical shape. These have an open- 
ing and a fuze at the end, by which fire 
is communicated to the combustibles 
within, and an explosion takes place, 
similar to that occasioned by the blow- 
ing up of a mine. 

Chain Bullets. See Chain Balls. 

Brunch Bullets, two balls joined to- 
gether by an iron bar. 

Two-headed Bullets, sometimes 
called angles, are two halves of a bullet 
which are kept together by means of a 
bar or chain. 

B\JLLOCK-Se?jeant, Ind. a non-com- 
missioned officer in India who has the 
care and superintendance of the bul- 
locks on service. 

BULWARK, the ancient name fof 
bastion or rampart. 

BUNGALOW, Lid. a house with a 
thatched roof. The rent of a bungalow 
is from forty to fifty rupees per month. 
But those persons, who have ready 
money, generally build themselves, and 
when they leave the place, especially if 
in the military service, they either sell 
their bungalows, or let them. The rent 
is sometimes as high as sixty or eighty 
rupees; and the expense of building is 
from 1000 to 1200 rupees. 

BURDEN, > in a general sense im- 

BURTHEN, S plies a load or weight, 
supposed to be as much as a man, horse, 
&c. can well carry. A sj^und healthful 
man can raise a weight equal to his own, 
can also draw and carry'oOlb. a mode- 
rate distance. An able horse can draw 
3501b. though in length of time 300 is 
sufficient, Hence all artillery calcula- 
tions are made. One horse will draw as 
much as 7 men, and 7 oxen will draw as 
much as 11 or 12 horses. Burthen, in 
a figurative sense, means impost, tax, &c. 

Beast of Burden, {bete de somme, 
Fr.) an animal that is used to carry 
loads of every kind. 

BUREAU, Fr. office. 

Bureau de la Guerre, Fr. War-Of- 

Bureau du Timbre,T?r. Stamp-Office. 

BURGANET or Burgonet, Fr. a 
kind of helmet used by the French. 

BURIALS, as practised by the mili- 
tary, are as follow, viz. The funeral of 
a field-marshal shall be saluted with 3 
rounds of 15 pieces of cannon, attended 
by 6 battalions, and 8 squadrons. 

That of a general, with 3 rounds of 
11 pieces of cannon, 4 battalions, and 6 

That of a lieutenant-general, with 3 
rounds of 9 pieces of canon, 3 battali- 
ons, and 4 squadrons. 

That of a major-general, with 3 rounds 
of 7 pieces of cannon, 2 battalions, and 
3 squadrons. 

That of a brigadier-general, 3 rounds 
of 5 pieces of cannon, 1 battalion, and 
2 squadrons. 

That of a colonel, by his own battali- 
on, or an equal number by detachment, 
with 3 rounds of small arms. 

That of a lieutenant-colonel, by 300 
men and officers, with 3 rounds of small 

That of a major, by 200 men and 
officers, with 3 rounds of small arms. 

C A B 

( 73 ) 


That of a captain, by his own com- 
pany, or 70 rank and lile, with 3 rounds 
of small arms. 

That of a lieutenant, by 1 lieutenant, 
1 serjeant, 1 drummer, 1 lifer, and Sfl 
rank and tile, with 3 rounds. 

That of an ensign, by an ensign, a 
serjeant, and drummer, and '27 rank and 
lile, with 3 rounds. 

That of an adjutant, surgeon, and 
quarter-master, the same party as an 

That of a serjeant, by a serjeant, and 
19 rank and lile, with 3 rounds of small 

That of a corporal, musician, private 
man, drummer, and fife, by 1 serjeant, 
and 13 rank and file, with 3 rounds of 
small arms. 

All officers, attending the funerals of 
even their nearest relations, shall not- 
withstanding wear their regimentals, and 
only have a black crape round their left 

The pall to be supported by officers 
of the same rank with that of the de- 
ceased : if the number cannot he had, 
officers next in seniority are to supply 
their place. 

The order of march to be observed in 
military funerals is reversed with re- 
spect to rank. For instance, if an offi- 
cer is buried in a garrison town or from 
a camp, it is customary for the officers 
belonging to other corps to pay his re- 
mains the compliment of attendance. In 
which case the youngest ensign marches 
at the head immediately after the pall, 
and the general, if there be one, in the 
rear of the commissioned officers, who 
take their posts in reversed order ac- 
cording to seniority. The battalion, 
troop, or company, follow the same rule. 

The expense for a regimental burial 
is to be charged against the captains of 
the respective troop-, or companies. 

BURR, in gunnery, a round iron ring, 
which serves to rivet the end of the 
bolt, so as to form a round head; also a 
broad iron ring for a lance. 

BURRF.L-s/m/, small bullets, nails 
and stones discharged from any piece of 

BUSC d'icluse, Fr. the salient point 
which is made by two flood-gates that 
are shut; presenting an angle towards 
the body ol' water which it sustains. 

BUTER, /•'/•. to support a wall, or to it from bellying out, by means 
of an arch or buttress. 

BUTIERE, Fr. a species of large 
fire-arm, which was formerly used 
among the French to fire point-blank. 

BUTIN, Fr. hootv or pillage. 

BUTMENTS. See Bridges. 

BUTT, in gunnery, is a solid earthen 
parapet, to fire against in the proving of 
guns, or in practice. 

Butt or Butt-end, {couche, Fr.) 
that extremity of a firelock which rests 
against the shoulder when it is brought 
up to a position of levelling, or when it 
rests upon the hand. 

BUTTON, in gunnery, a part of the 
cascable, in either a gun or howitzer, 
and in the hind part of the piece, made 
round in the form of a ball. See 

BUTTRESS. Sec Counterfort. 

BUZE, a wooden, or ieaden pipe, to 
convey the air into mines. 

BY-PROFITS, {tour du baton, Fr.) 
certain advantages or emoluments which 
are gained by individuals over and ahove 
their regular salaries or wages. Thej 
are also called By-gains. 

/^ABANE, Fr. a flat-bottomed boat 
with a deck, used on the river Loire 
for the accommodation of passengers. 

CABAS, Fr. a basket made of rushes, 
which is used in Languedoc and Rous- 
sillon, for the purpose of conveying stores 
and ammunition. 

CABASSET, Fr. a piece of armour 
which was formerly used by foot-soldiers 
to cover the head. A slight kind of 

CABESTAN, Fr. See Capstan. 

CABINET, (cabinet, Fr.) a private 
room in which consultations are held. 

Cabinet Council, a council held with 
privacy and unbounded confidence. — 
Hence Cabinet minister. 

CABLE ou Chable, Fr. a large rope 
which is used in the French artillery. 
This word is likewise used, in French, to 
signify all kinds of ropes that are neces- 


( 7» ) 

C A I 

sary in dragging, or raising loads, or 
things of bnrthen. 

CABOCHE, Fr. a long-headed nail. 
CABOOSE, Fr. the cooking-place of 
a ship. 

CABOTAGE, Fr. coasting. 

CABOTER, Fr. to coast. 
CABRER, Fr. to rear as a horse does 
when he is improperly checked, &c. 

CABRIOLET, Fr. a light low chaise. 

CABROUET, Fr. a cart. 

CABROUETTIER, Fr. a carman or 

CACADE, Fr. a word used among 
the French to signify an unlucky enter- 
prize in war, occasioned by an ill-con- 
certed measure for the prosecution of it, 
and by ignorance or want of courage in 
its execution. 

CADENCE, in tactics, implies a very 
regular and uniform method of marching: 
it may not be improperly called mathe- 
matical marching; for after the length of 
a step is determined, the time and dis- 
tance may be found. 

Cadence or Cadency, in cavalry, is an 
equal measure or proportion, which a 
horse observes in all his motions. 

CADET, among the military, is a 
young gentleman, who applies himself 
to the study of fortification and gun- 
nery, &c. and who sometimes serves in 
the army, with or without pay, till a 
vacancy happens for his promotion. 
There is a company of gentlemen cadets 
maintained at Woolwich, at the King's 
expense, where they are taught all the 
sciences necessary to form a complete 
officer. Their number has lately been 
increased, and commissions are given to 
them when qualified. The proper signi- 
fication of the word is, younger brother. 
See Academy. 

Gebtlkm ah -Cadet, a term applied to 
every youth belonging to the company 
of cadets, consisting of one hundred in- 
dividuals, who are educated at the Royal 
Military College at Great Marlow, in the 
county of Bucks, and also to the com- 
pany of cadets at Woolwich. — For parti- 
culars, see vol.i. p. 116, Regimental Com- 

CADET, Fr. differs in its signification 
from the term as it is used in our lan- 
guage. A cadet in the French service 
did not receive any pay, but entered as 
a volunteer in a troop or company, for 
the specific purpose of becoming master 
of military tactics. 

Cadet, Fr. likewise means any offi- 
cer that is junior to another. 

CADRE, Fr. literary a frame; this 
word is used in France to denote the 
proposed establishment of a regiment. 

,E«-CADRER, Fr. to place an officer 
or soldier in some particular regiment. 

CiEMENT, ) among engineers, a 

CEMENT, > strong sort of mortar, 
used to bind bricks or stones together 
for some kind of moulding; or in ce- 
menting a block of bricks for the carv- 
ing of capitals, scrolls, or the like. — 
There are two sorts, i. e. hot cement, 
which is the most common, made of 
resin, bees-wax, brick-dust, and chalk, 
boiled together ; the bricks to be ce- 
mented with this mixture must be made 
hot in the fire, and rubbed to and fro 
after the cement is spread, in the same 
manner as joiners do when they glue two 
boards together. Cold cement, made of 
Cheshire cheese, milk, quick lime, and 
whites of eggs. This cement is less 
used than the former, and is accounted 
a secret known but to very few brick- 

CiESTUS, in military antiquity, was 
a large gauntlet, composed of raw hides, 
used by pugilists at the public games. 

CAFFTAN, the name of a vest worn 
among the Turks. 

CAGE, a machine which was for- 
merly used in this island for the security 
of a prisoner of war. Rymer gives a sin- 
gular account respecting the imprison- 
ment of the Countess of Baghun, or 
Buchan, a Scotch prisoner, in the reign 
of Edward I. A.D. 1306.— The sister of 
Robert Bruce was prisoner at the same 
time. This cage was built of lattice- 
work, constructed with stout posts and 
bars, and well strengthened with iron. 
It was so contrived, that the prisoner 
might have the convenience of a privy, 
and it was placed in one of the turrets of 
the castle of Berwick upon Tweed. So 
much for the chivalry of those times ! 
and the homage said to have been paid 
to the fair sex ! 

CAGE de la bascule, Fr. a space 
into which one part of the draw-bridge 
falls, whilst the other rises and conceals 
the gate. 

CAHUTE, Fr. a small hut or cabin 
which soldiers make to defend them 
against the inclemency of the wea- 

CAIC, CAIQUE, Fr. a galley boat, 

C A L 

( 74 ) 

C A L 

CAILLOUX, Fr. small pebbles used 
in paving aqueducts, grottoes, &c. 

C \LMACAN, an officer among the 
Turks, nearly answering to our lieute- 

CAISSE, Fr. a sort of wooden box in 
which the necessary charge tor the ex- 
plosion of a line is deposited. 

Caisse, Fr. die military chest, con- 
taining the necessary funds for the pay- 
ment of a troup or company, regiment or 
arm v. / 

Caisse also signifies a drum. 

CAISSIER, Fr. a treasurer; any 
person entrusted with regimental monies; 
a paymaster. 

CAISSON, (caisson, Fr.) a wooden 
frame or chest, made square, the side 
planks about two inches thick : it may be 
made to contain from 4 to 20 loaded 
shells, according to the execution they 
are to do, or as the ground is firmer or 
looser. The sides mu^t be high enough, 
that when the cover is nailed on, the 
fuzes may nut be damaged. Caissons 
are buried under ground at the depth 
of 5 or 6 feet, under some work the 
enemy intends to possess himself of; and 
when he becomes master of it, fire is put 
to the traiu conveyed through a pipe, 
which inflames the shells, and blows up 
the assailants. Sometimes a quantity 
of loose powder is put into the chest, 
on which the shells are placed, sufheieut 
to put them in motion, and raise them 
above ground; at the same time that the 
blast of powder sets fire to the fuze in 
the shells, which must be calculated to 
burn from 1 to 2\ seconds. When no 
powder is put under the shells, a small 
quantity of mealed powder must be 
strewed over them, having a communi- 
cation with the saucisson, in order to 
convey the fire to the fuzes. 

Caisson signifies also a covered 
wagon, to carry bread or ammunition. 

CALATRAVA, a Spanish military 
order, so called from a fort of that 

The knights of Calatrava bear a cross; 
gules, fleur-de-lissed with green, ore. 

CALCULATION, in military affairs, 
is the art of computing the amplitudes 
of shells, time of flight, projectile curve, 
velocity of shots, charges of mines, &c. 
together with the necessary tables for 

Military Calculation, (calcul mili- 
taire, Fr.) a consideration of things and 
events in a military manner; a view of 

all the geographical bearings, political 
relations, and effective forces for or 
against a country, &c. 
CALF, Fr. creek. 

La Cai.e, Fr. a punishment among 
the French, which is inflicted when one 
soldier, or sailor, wounds another mali- 
ciously. The culprit is lied to the, yard- 
arm, and suddenly plunged into the sea, 
and hauled up again. It corresponds, 
in s>>me degree, with our keel-hauhng. 
Cai.e, on fond de cale, Fr. ship's hold. 
CALER, Fr. in architecture, to place 
a piece of thin wood under a stone, in 
order to determine the width of the seam 
or joint that i« to be filled. 
CALFATER, Fr. to calk. 
CALIBER, in gunnery, signifies the 
same as the bore or opening; and the 
diameter of the bore is called the dia- 
meter of its caliber. This expression 
regards all pieces of artillery. 

CALiBFR-cowjDasses, ) the name of a 
CALUPzn-compasses, ) particular in- 
strument used by gunners, for measuring 
the diameters of shot, shells, &o. as also 
the cylinders of cannon, mortars, and 
howitzers. They resemble other com- 
passes, except in their legs, which are 
arched, in order that the points may 
touch the extremities of the arch. To 
find the true diameter of a circle, they 
have a quadrant fastened to one leg, and 
passing through the other, marked with 
inches and parts, to express the diameter 
required: the length of each ruler or 
plate is usually between the limits of 6 
inches and a foot. On these rulers are 
a variety of scales, tables, proportions, 
&c. such as are esteemed useful to be 
known by gunners. The following ar- 
ticles are on the completest gunners- 
callipers, viz. 1. The measure of con- 
vex diameters in inches. 2. Of concave 
ditto. 3. The weight of iron shot from 
given diameters. 4. The weight of 
iron shot from given gun bores. 5. 
The degrees of a semicircle. 6. The 
proportion of troy and avoirdupois 
weight. 7. The proportion of English 
and French feet and pounds. 8. Factors 
used in circular and spherical figures. 
9. Tables of the specific gravity and 
weight of bodies. 10. Tables of the 
quantity of powder necessary for proof 
and service of brass and iron guns. 11. 
Rules for computing the number of shot 
or shells, in a finished pile. 12. Rule con- 
cerning the fall of heavy bodies. 13. Rules 
for raising water. 14. Rules for firing 

C A L 

( 75 ) 

C A M 

artillery and mortars. 15. A line of 
inches. 16. Logarithmetic scales of 
numbers, sines, versed sines and tangents. 
17. A sectoral line of equal parts, or the 
line of lines. 18. A sectoral line of 
plans, and superficies. 19. A sectoral 
line of solids. 

CALIBRE, Fr. See Caliber. 

Calibre, Fr. signifies, in a figurative 
sense, cast, weight or character ; as un 
homme de ce calibre, a man of this cast, or 

CALIBRER, Fr. to take the measure- 
ment of the caliber of a gun. 

CALIVER, an old term for an arque- 
buse or musket. 

CALOMNIERE, Fr. a pop-gun. 

CALOTE, Fr. a species of skull-cap 
wbich officers and soldiers wear under 
their hats in the French cavalry, and 
which is proof against a sabre or sword. 
Calotes are usually made of iron, wick, 
or dressed leather, and every officer 
chuses the sort he likes best. Those deli- 
vered out to the troops are made of iron. 

The CALOTE, a term used in the 
French service for the Lieutenants' 
Court, at which the first lieutenant of 
the regiment, for the time being, always 
presided. The form of a calote shews 
its connexion with the English expres- 
sion Round Robin, (which see ;) the lat- 
ter taking its allusion from a circle, and 
the former from the sphere. 

Its object was to watch over the con- 
duct of the subalterns : and the presi- 
dent instructed young men, on their ar- 
rival, in all the private regulations of 
the corps, as also in the general rules 
necessary for going through the service 
with honour. 

It took cognizance, as a court of 
honour, of all disputes and quarrels in 
which the laws of honour, or of good 
breeding, had been violated. Our regi- 
mental committees, in some degree, re- 
semble the Calote, especially with re- 
gard to the expulsion of an officer, or 
the sending of him to Coventry. 

Calote spherique, Fr. the section of 
a sphere, having a circle for its basis. 

Calote also signifies a tonsure, or 
that back part of the head which is 
shaved to denote a person in orders, ac- 
cording to the rites of the Romish church. 

CALOTIN, one who has the tonsure. 
This term has been generally used by the 
French, especially the soldiery, since the 
commencement of the Revolution, in de- 
rision of the priesthood; and is one of 

the many proofs of contempt into which 
every sort of religion has fallen, and to 
which the immorality of the nation may 
be attributed. 

CALQUER, Fr. to take oft' a counter- 
part of any drawing or design, by friction 
or impression. 

CALQUING, 1 (calquer, Fr.) tbe art 

CALKING, S »f tracing any kind of 
a military drawing,&c. upon some plate, 
paper, &c. It is performed by covering 
the backside of the drawing with a black 
or red colour, and fixing the side so 
covered upon a piece of paper, waxed 
plate, &c. This done, every line in the 
drawing is to be traced over with a 
point, by which means all the outlines 
will be transferred to the paper or plate, 

CALTROPS, pieces of iron having 
four points, so disposed that three of 
them always rest upon the ground, and 
the fourth stands upwards in a perpen- 
dicular direction. Each point is three or 
four inches long. They are scattered 
over the ground and passages where the 
enemy is expected to march, especially 
the cavalry, in order to embarrass their 

CAMARADE, Fr. See Comrade. 

CAMBRE, on Cambrure, Fr. the bend- 
ing of a piece of timber, or the curve of 
an arch. 

CAMBRER, Fr. to vault; to bend. 
Also to fit pannel squares, boards, and 
other pieces of timber to curved dimen- 
sions, by means of fire, &c. 

CAMION, Fr. a species of cart or 
dray with three wheels, which is drawn 
by two men, and serves to convey can- 
non-balls, &c. These carts are very 
useful in fortified towns. 

It is also called petit tombereuu, small 

CAMISADE or Camisatjo, Fr. in 
military transactions, an attack by sur- 
prise, either during the night, or at 
break of day, when the enemy is sup- 
posed to be asleep, or off" his guard; it is 
so called from the soldiers wearing their 
shirts outside, in order to know one an- 
other in the darkness. 

CAMOUFLET, Fr. in war, a kind of 
stinking combustible blown out of paper 
cases into the miners' faces, when thev 
are at work in the galleries of the coun- 

Camouflf.t also signifies the sudden 
explosion of a pistol, &c. wbich takes 
place when miners encounter one ah- 


( ro ) 


otlicr; hence donner Ic camouftet, to take 
another by surprise, or (ire at him unex- 

CAMP, the extent of ground oc- 
cupied by an army pitching its tents 
when in the field, and upon which all it* 
baggage and apparatus are lodged. It 
is marked out by the quarter-master-ge- 
neral, who allots to every regiment its 
ground. The extent of the front of a 
regiment of infantry is 200 yards, in- 
cluding the two battalion guns, and 
depth 320, when the regiment contains 
9 companies, each of 100 private men, 
and the companies' tents in two rows; 
but when the companies tents stand in 
one row, and about 70 private men to 
each row, the front is then but 155 yards. 
A squadron of horse has 120 yards in 
front, and 100 for an interval between 
each regiment. 

The nature of the ground must also 
be consulted, both for defence against 
the enemy, and for supplies to the 
army. It should have a communication 
with that army's garrisons, and have 
plenty of water, forage, fuel, and either 
rivers, marshes, hills, or woods to cover 
it. An army always encamps fronting 
the enemy, and generally in two parallel 
lines, besides a corps de reserve, about 
500 yards distant from each other; the 
horse and dragoons on the wings, and 
the foot in the center. Where and how 
the train of artillery is encamped, see 
Park of artillery, and Encampment of a 
regiment if artillery, under the word 

In a siege, the camp is placed all along 
the line of circumvallation, or rather in 
the rear of the approaches, out of can- 
non-shot; the army faces the circumval- 
lation, if there be any. 

There is one thing very essential in the 
establishing a camp, and which should be 
particularly attended to, if the enemy is 
near, which is, that there should not only 
be a commodious spot of ground at the 
head of the camp, where the army, in 
case of surprise, may in a moment be 
under arms, and in condition to repulse 
the enemy; but also a convenient field 
of battle at a small distance, and of a 
sufficient extent for them to form ad- 
vantageously, and to move with facility. 

The arrangement of the tents in camp 
is nearly the same all over Europe, 
which is to dispose them in such a man- 
ner, that the troops may form with safety 
and expedition. 

To answer this end, the troops arc 
encamped in the same order as that in 
which they are to engage, which is by 
battalions and squadrons; hence, the 
post of each battalion and squadron in 
the line of battle must necessarily be at 
the head of its own encampment. Gus- 
tavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, was the 
first who formed encampments according 
to the order of battle. 

By this disposition, the extent of tha 
camp from right to left, of each battalion 
and squadron, will be equal to the front 
of each in line of battle: and conse- 
quently, the extent from right to left of 
the whole camp, should be equal to the 
front of the whole army when drawn up 
in line of battle, with the same intervals 
between the several encampments of the 
battalions and squadrons, as are in the 

There is no fixed rule for the inter- 
vals : some will have no intervals, some 
small ones, and others are for intervals 
equal to the front of the battalion or 
squadron. The most general method is, 
an interval of 60 feet between each bat- 
talion, and of 3G feet between each 

Distribution of the front and depth of 
the Camp for a battalion of infantry. 
The present mode of encampments dif- 
fers from what was formerly adopted. 
The front of the camp for a battalion of 
10 companies of 60 men each, is at pre- 
sent 400 feet, and during the late wars 
only 360 feet; the depth at present 
759 feet, and during the late war 960. 
The front of the camp of a battalion of 
10 companies of 100 men each is at 
present 668 feet, and formerly only 592. 
The breadth of the streets from 45 to 
55 feet, excepting the main street, which 
is sometimes from 60 to 90 feet broad. 

Of the Camp of a battalion by a nez$ 
method. This is, by placing the tents 
in 3 rows parallel to the principal front 
of the camp ; which is suitable to the 
3 ranks in which the battalion is drawn 
up: the tents of the first row, which 
front the camp, are for the men of the 
front rank : the tents of the second row 
front the rear, and are for the men of 
the second rank ; and the tents of the 
third row, which front the center row, 
are for the men of the rear rank. 

When two field-pieces are allowed to 
each battalion, they are posted to the 
right of it. Gustavus Adolphus, king 
of Sweden, was the first who ordered 


( 77 ) 


two field-pieces to each battalion, which 
are generally light 6 pounders. 

Camp of Cavalry. The tents for the 
cavalry, as well as for the infantry, are 
placed in rows perpendicular to the 
principal front of the camp ; and their 
number is conformable to the number 
of troops. The horses of each troop are 
placed in a line parallel to the tents, 
with their head towards them. 

The number of tents in each row is 
regulated by the strength of the troops, 
and the number of troopers allotted to 
each tent is 5 : it follows, that a troop 
of 30 men will require 6 tents, a troop 
of 60 men 12 tents, and a troop of 100 
men '20 tents. The tents for the caval- 
ry are of the same form as those of the 
infantry, but more spacious, the better 
to contain the fire-arms, accoutrements, 
saddles, bridles, boots, &c. See Tents. 

Distribution of the front and depth of 
a Camp of Cavalry. Supposing the re- 
giment to consist of 2 squadrons, of 3 
troops each, and of 50 men in each 
troop, the extent of the front will be 
450 feet, if drawn up in 2 ranks; but 
if drawn up in 3 ranks, the front will be 
only 300 feet, the depth 220, and the 
breadth of the back streets 30 feet, and 
the other streets 46 feet each. In the 
last war 600 feet were allowed each re- 
giment of cavalry in front, 774 feet for 
the depth, and the breadth of the streets 
as above. 

The standard-guard tents are pitched 
in the center, in a line with the quarter- 
master's. The camp-colours of the ca- 
valry are also of the same colour as the 
facings of the regiments, with the rank 
of the regiment in the center : those of 
the horse are square, like those of the 
foot; and those of the dragoons are 
swallow-tailed. The dung of each troop 
is laid up behind the horses. 

Camp duty consists in guards, both 
ordinary and extraordinary: the ordi- 
nary guards are relieved regularly at a 
certain hour every day (generally about 
9 or 10 o'clock in the morning); the 
extraordinary guards are all kinds of 
detachments commanded on particular 
occasions for the further security of the 
camp, for covering the foragers, for con- 
voys, escorts, or expeditions. 

The ordinary guards are distinguished 
into grand guards, standard, and quarter 
guards; rear guards, picket guards, and 
guards for the general officers ; train of 
artillery, bread wagons, paymaster ge- 

neral, quarter-master general, majors of 
brigade, judge advocate, and provost 
marshal guards. 

The number and strength of the grand 
guards and out-posts, whether of cavalry 
or infantry, depend on the situation of 
the camp, nature of the country, and the 
position of the enemy. The strength 
of general officers guards is limited. 

Camp maxims are, 1. The principal 
rule in forming a camp, is to give it the 
same front the troops occupy in order 
of battle. 

2. The method of encamping is by 
battalions and squadrons, except the 
royal regiment of artillery, which is en- 
camped on the right and left of the park 
of artillery. 

3. Each man is allowed 2 feet in the 
ranks of the battalion, and 3 feet in the 
squadron: thence the front of a batta- 
lion of 900 men, formed 3 deep, will be 
600 feet; and the front of a squadron 
of 150 men, formed 2 deep, will be 225 

4. The depth of the camp when the 
army is encamped in 3 lines, is at least 
2750 feet; that is, 750 feet for the 
depth of each line, and 250 feet for the 
space between each of those lines. 

5. The park of artillery should always 
be placed on a dry rising ground, if any 
such situation offers; either in the center 
of the front line, or in the rear of the 
second line; with all the train horses 
encamped in the rear of the park. 

6. The bread-wagons should be sta- 
tioned in the rear of the camp, and as 
near as possible to the center, that the 
distribution of bread may be rendered 

7. When the commander in chief 
encamps, it is generally in the center 
of the army ; and the town or village 
chosen for his residence is called head- 

8. That general is inexcusable, who, 
for his own personal accommodation, 
makes choice of quarters that are not 
properly secured, or lie at too great a 
distance to have an easy communication 
with the camp. 

9. If the ground permits, the troops 
should be encamped as near to good 
water as possible. 

10. When there are hussars, they are 
generally posted near the head-quarters, 
or in the front of the army. 

11. The ground taken up by the en- 
campment of an army should be equally 

C A M 

( 78 ) 

C A M 

distributed, and, if possible, in a straight 
line; as the whole will have more grace; 
for a crooked line, and an inequality of 
disposition, afford a very unpleasing 
view, both of the camp and of the troops 
when they are under arms. 

12. Cleanliness is essentially neces- 
sary to the health of a camp, especially 
when it is to remain for any length of 
time. To maintain this, the privies 
should be often filled up, and others 
opened; at least every 6 days. The 
offal of cattle, and the carcasses of dead 
horses, should be buried very deep; and 
all kinds of corrupt effluvia, that may 
infect the air and produce epidemical 
disorders, should be constantly removed. 

Choice of Camps. 1. At the begin- 
ning of a campaign, when the enemy is 
at too great a distance to occasion any 
alarm, all situations for camps that are 
healthy are good, provided the troops 
have room, and are within reach of wa- 
ter, wood, and provisions. More ground 
should be allowed to the troops in sta- 
tionary camps, than in tempurary ones. 

2. Camps should be situated as near 
as possible to navigable rivers to facili- 
tate the conveyance of all manner of 
supplies; for convenience and safety 
are the principal objects for camps. 

3. A camp should never be placed too 
near heights from whence the enemy 
may overlook it ; nor too near woods, 
from whence the enemy may surprise it. 
If there are eminences, not commanded 
by others, they should be taken into the 
camp ; and when that cannot be done, 
they should be fortified. 

4. The choice of a camp depends in 
a great measure on the position of the 
enemy, on his strength, and on the na- 
ture and situation of the country. 

5. A skilful general will avail himself 
of all the advantages for a camp, which 
nature may present, whether in plains, 
mountains, ravines, hollows, woods, 
lakes, inclosures, rivers, rivulets, &c. 

6. The disposition of the troops in 
camp should depend on the nature and 
situation of the ground; as there are 
occasions which require all the infantry 
to encamp on the right, and the cavalry 
on the left; and there are others which 
require the cavalry to form in the cen- 
ter, and the infantry on the wings. 

7. A camp should never be formed on 
the banks of a river, without the space 
of at least 2 or 3,000 feet, for drawing 
out the army in order of battle: the 

enemy cannot then easily alarm th« 
camp, by artillery and small arms from 
the other side. 

8. Camps should never be situated 
near rivers that are subject to be over- 
flowed, either by the melting of the 
snow, or by accidental torrents from the 
mountains. Marshy grounds should also 
be avoided, on account of the vapours 
arising from stagnant waters, which in- 
fect the air. 

9. On the choice of camps and posts, 
frequently depends the success of a 
campaign, and even sometimes of a war. 

Camp guards. They are of two 
sorts : the one serves to maintain good 
order within the camp; and the other, 
which is stationed without the camp, 
serves to cover and secure it against the 
enemy. These guards are formed of 
both infantry and cavalry ; and in pro- 
portion to the strength of the army, 
situation of the camp, and disposition of 
the enemy. Sometimes it is required, 
that these guards should consist of the 
8th part of the army ; at others, of the 
3d part; and when an attack from the 
enemy is apprehended, even of the half. 

Manner of stationing the Camp 
guards. It is of the utmost conse- 
quence to station the guards in such 
places, as may enable them to discover 
easily whatever approaches the camp. 

2. The guards of the cavalry are ge- 
nerally removed farther from the camp, 
than those of the infantry; but never 
at so great a distance, as to endanger 
their being cut off: within cannon-shot 
is a very good distance. They are often 
stationed in highways, in open places, 
and on small heights; but they are 
always so disposed as to see and com- 
municate with one another. 

3. The vedettes to the out-posts must 
be double; for should they make a dis- 
covery, one may be detached to inform 
the officer commanding the out-post, and 
the other remain on duty; they should 
not be at too great a distance from their 
detachment; probably, about 50 or 60 
paces will be sufficient. 

4. The guards of infantry have dif- 
ferent objects, and are differently sta- 
tioned : their duty is, to receive and 
support the guards of cavalry in cases 
of need; to protect the troops sent out 
for wood, forage, or water ; in short to 
prevent any approaches from the small 
parties of the enemy. Some are sta- 
tioned in the churches of the neigh- 

C A M 

( 79 ) 

C A M 


bouring villages, in castles, houses, and 
in passages and avenues of woods; 
others are stationed on the borders of 
rivulets, and in every place necessary to 
secure the camp. Guards tliat are sta- 
tioned in churches, steeples, in woods, 
or among trees, castles, and houses, 
should, if possible, be seen from the 
armv, or at least from some grand guard 
in its neighbourhood, that signals may 
be readily perceived and repeated. 

5. The guards of infantry are gene- 
rally fixed ; that is, they have the same 
post both day and night, except such as 
are to support and protect the guards of 
cavalry, and to cover the forage grounds. 
All out-guards should have intrenching- 
tools with them. 

6. The guards of cavalry have gene- 
rally a day-post and a night-post; the 
latter is seldom more than 4 or 500 
paces from the camp ; one third should 
be mounted, one third bridled, and one 
third feeding their horses; but when 
near the enemy, the whole guard should 
be kept mounted during the night. 

7. The security and tranquillity of a 
camp depending upon the vigilance of 
the guards, the officers who command 
them cannot be too active in preventing 
surprises : a neglect in this particular is 
often of fatal consequence. Though 
an officer must, at all times, be strictly 
attentive to every part of the service, 
yet he should be more particularly 
watchful in the night than in the day. 
The night is the time most favourable 
for surprises; as those who are not on 
duty, are generally asleep, and cannot 
immediately afford assistance; but in 
the day time, the attention of all the 
troops is turned to the movements of 
the enemy ; they are sooner under 
arms, sooner in readiness to march, and 
in much less danger of being thrown 
into confusion. It ought also to be 
remembered, that the officer of the 
quarter-guard and the advanced sen- 
tries should never permit any person in 
coloured clothes to pass the front line 
of the camp, or in any shape enter it, 
without being minutely questioned as to 
his situe-tion in life, &c. For this end, 
he should be conducted to the quarter- 
guard, there to give in writing the ne- 
cessary information. Those who wish 
to be better acquainted with the nature 
and mode of encampments, may read 
Mr. Lochee's useful Essay on Castrame- 

Concerning the healthiness of the 
different seasons of a campaign, the in- 
genious Dr. Pringle has the following 
observations. The first three weeks are al- 
ways sickly; after which the sickness 
decreases, and the men enjoy a tole- 
rable degree of health throughout the 
summer, unless they get wet clothes. 
The most sickly part of the campaign 
is towards the end of August, whilst the 
days are still hot, but the nights cold 
and damp with fogs and dews; then, if 
not sooner, the dysentery prevails; and 
though its violence is over by the begin- 
ning oi" October, yet the remitting fever, 
gaining ground, continues throughout 
the rest of the campaign, and never en- 
tirely ceases, even in winter quarters, 
till the frost begins. He likewise ob- 
serves, that the last 14 days of a cam- 
paign, if protracted till the beginning of 
November, are attended with more 
sickness than the two first months of 
the encampment. As to winter expe- 
ditions, though severe in appearance, he 
tells us they are attended with little 
sickness, if the men have strong and 
good shoes, warm quarters, fuel, and 
provisions enough. 

CAMP-Colour-men, men who carry 
the camp-colours. Each regiment has 
generally 6, and sometimes 1 per com- 
pany; they always march with the 
quarter-master, to assist in making the 
necessary preparations against the ar- 
rival of the regiment in a new encamp- 
ment. They also carry the triangles 
when a soldier is to be flogged. 

CAMP-Fight, (combat en champ chx, 
Fr.) When an engagement takes place 
within certain lines of a camp or in- 
closed position, it is called a camp-fight. 
Camp-fight was also formerly used to 
signify combat. 

Fly i7ig-C amp, or army, generally 
means a strong body of horse and foot, 
commanded for the most part by a 
lieutenant-general, which is always in 
motion, both to cover its own garrisons, 
and to keep the enemy's army in conti- 
nual alarm. It is sometimes used to 
signify the ground on which such a body 
of men encamp. 

Camp -utensils, hatchets, shovels, mat- 
tocks, blankets, camp-kettles, canteens, 
tents, poles, and pins: each company 
has 10 shovels and 5 mattocks; each 
tent 1 hatchet, 2 blankets, 1 camp-ket- 
tle, with its linen bag; and each soldier 
1 canteen, 1 knapsack, and 1 havre-sack. 

C A M 

( 80 ) 


C/iMV-discases, are chiefly bilious fe- 
vers, malignant fevers, fluxes, scurvy, 
rheumatism, &c. 

Camp is also used by the Siamese and 
some other nations in the East Indies, 
to express the quarters where the per- 
sons from different countries, who come 
to trade with them, usually reside. 

CAMP d'assemblce, Fr. the first ground 
which is taken when troops are encamp- 
ed on the opening of a campaign. 

Camp a cheval, Fr. a ground of en- 
campment across which any river runs, 

Camp d'ecousu, Fr. a ground of en- 
campment, which is occupied by dif- 
ferent regiments, without any attention 
being paid to a regular line, &c. 

Camp desemparc, Fr. a ground upon 
which the enemy has been encamped 
the preceding day, or during the course 
of the one on which the ground is re- 

Camp detendu, Fr. a ground of en- 
campment upon which the tents are 
struck, either for the purpose of engag- 
ing the enemy, of marching from him, 
or of making any particular movement. 

Camp en echelons, Fr. a ground of 
encampment which is taken up in such 
a manner, that the different regiments 
lie obliquely in advance one to the other. 
By means of this disposition the flanks 
nearest to the enemy are supported by 
those that are farther from him, and are 
not exposed to have their wing turned. 

CAMP^xe, Fr. a regular, or stationary 

Camp bien ordonn'c, Fr. a well regu- 
lated camp. 

Camp d 'instruction, ou de discipline, 
Fr. a ground of encampment which is 
occupied for the purpose of training 
troops, &c. 

Camp momentani, Fr. a ground of en- 
campment which is taken for a short in- 

Camp de. passage,Yr. ground taken for 
the purpose of passing through a coun- 
try, crossing a river, &c. 

Camp de plaisancc, Fr. a camp which 
is taken for the purposes of parade. 

Camp de position, Fr. ground taken to 
enable an army to act offensively, or de- 
fensively, against any opposing force. 

Camp rctrunch'c, Fr. an entrenched 
camp. See Camp. 

Camp tendu, Fr. a ground of encamp- 
ment, where tents, &c. are regularly 

Camp volant, Fr. a flying camp, one 
which is formed and broken up from 
day to day. 

Camp de Mars, Fr. apiece of ground 
in the vicinity of Paris, where troops 
are occasionally exercised, and public 
festivals kept. 

CAMPAGNE, Fr. campaign. 

Se mettre en Campagne, Fr. to take 
the field. 

Tenir la Campagne, Fr. to keep the 
field, or remain encamped. 

CAMPAIGN, in military affairs, the 
time every year that an army continues 
in the field, in war time. The word is 
also used for an open country before 
any town. &c. 

CAMPEMENT, Fr. an encampment. 
This word is also used to denote a de- 
tachment sent before the army to mark 
out the ground for a camp. 

CAMPER, Fr. to encamp. 

CAMPUS Maii, an anniversary as- 
sembly which was observed by our an- 
cestors on May-day, when they mutually 
pledged themselves to one another for 
the defence of the country against 
foreign and domestic foes. Of this de- 
scription was the famous Champ de Mai 
when Bonaparte assembled the troops 
and citizens of Paris in 1815. 

Campus Martins, a public place so 
called among the llomaus, from Mars, 
the God of War. 

Champ de Mai, Fr. See Campus 

CANAL de lumilre, Fr. the aperture, 
or touch-hole, which leads from the pan 
to the barrel of a fire arm. 

CANAL, {canal, Fr.) that part of a 
stone, or wooden aqueduct, through 
which the water passes. 

CANAPSA, Fr. knapsack; more 
properly an old leathern bag or satchel, 
which a beggar or soldier's boy carries. 

Canapsa also means the individual 
who carries the bag. 

CANARDER, Fr. to pelt, to shoot; 
to fire from any secret place. 

CANEVAS, Fr. canvass ; rough 

CANIVEAUX, Fr. a strong pave- 
ment which runs across a street where 
wagons pass. 

CANNIPERS. See Callipers. 

CANNON, or pieces o/Ordnance, in 
the military art, imply machines having 
tubes of brass, or iron. They are 
charged with powder and ball, or some- 
times cartridges, grape and tin-shot, &o. 


C 81 ) 


The length is distinguished by three 
parts; the first re-in force, the second 
re-inforce, and the chace: the first re- 
inforce is 2-7 ths, and the second l-7th 
and a half of the diameter of the shor. 
The inside hollow, wherein the powder 
and shot are lodged, is called the bore, 

History o/"Cannon' or pieces nfOr.D- 
nance. They were originally made of 
iron bars soldered together, and fortified 
with strong iron hoops; some of which 
are still to he seen, viz. one in the tower 
of London, two at Woolwich, and one in 
the royal arsenal at Lisbon. Others 
were made of thin sheets of iron rolled 
up together, and hooped; and on emer- 
gencies they were made of leather, with 
plates of iron or copper. These pieces 
were made in a rude and imperfect man- 
ner, like the first essays of many new 
inventions. Stone balls were thrown 
out of these cannon, and a small quantity 
of powder used on account of their 
weakness. These pieces have no orna- 
ments, are placed on their carriages by 
rings, and are of cylindrical form. When 
or by whom they were made, is uncer- 
tain: however, we read of cannon being 
used as early as the 13th century, in a 
sea engagement between the king of 
Tunis and the Moorish king of Seville. 
The Venetians used cannon at the siege 
of Claudia Jessa, now called Chioggia, 
in 1366, which were brought thither by 
two Germans, with some powder and 
leaden balls; as likewise in their wars 
with the Genoese in 1379. Our glorious 
king Edward III. made use of cannon at 
the battle of Cressy in 1346. On this 
occasion the English had 4 pieces of 
ordnance planted upon a height, which 
caused such a panic in the French troops, 
that Edward defeated Philip of Valois, 
who commanded his army in person, 
without experiencing much opposition. 
Cannon was employed at the siege of 
Calais in 1347. Pieces of ordnance 
were made use of by the Turks at the 
siege of Constantinople, then in pos- 
session of the Christians, in 1394, or in 
that of 1452, that threw a weight of 
10061b. hut they generally burst, either 
the first, second, or third shot. Louis 
XII. had one cast at Tours, of the same 
size, which threw a ball from the Bastille 
to Charenton. One of those fatuous 
cannon was taken at the siege of Dieu, 
in 1546, bv Don John de Castro, and is 
in the castle of St. Juk;d da Barra, 10 
miles from Lisbon; its length is 20 feet 

7 inches, diameter at the center 6 feet 3 
inches, and discharges a ball of 10001b. 
It has neither dolphins, rings, nor but- 
ton, is of a curious kind of metal, and 
has a large Indostan inscription upon it, 
which says it was cast in 1400. 

Ancient am/present names o/'Cannon. 
Formerly they were dignified with un- 
common names; for in 1503 Louis XII. 
had 12 brass cannon cast, of an uncom- 
mon size, called after the names of the 
12 peers of Fiance. The Spanish and 
Portugueze called them after their 
saints. The emperor Charles V. when 
he marched before Tunis, founded the 
12 Apostles. At Milan there is a 70- 
pounder, called the 1'imontelle; and one 
at Bois-le-duc, called the Devil. A 60- 
pounder at Dover castle, called Queen 
Elizabeth's Pocket-pistol. An 80-pounder 
in the tower of London (formerly in 
Edinburgh castle) called Mounts-meg. 
An 80-pounder in the royal arsenal at 
Berlin, called the Thunderer. An 80- 
pounder at Malaga, called the Teirible. 
Two curious 60-pounders in the arsenal 
at Bremen, called the Messengers of bad 
news. And lastly an uncommon 70- 
pounder in the castle of St. Angelo at 
Rome, made of the nails that fasteued 
the copper plates which covered the an- 
cient Pantheon, with this inscription 
upon it: Ex claris trubulibus por tints 

In addition to the above curiosities, 
there are two leather field pieces in the 
Tower, and one in the armoury at Malta; 
there is also a very singular old piece of 
brass ordnance in the island of Rhodes, 
about 20 feet in length, with a chamber 
5 feet long, to contain the charge of 
powder, which screws on at the breech 
ot the gun. The calibre of the piece is 
24 inches, carrying a spherical stone 
ball, and seems to have been used at a 
very early period. There is likewise an 
ancient piece of brass ordnance, sup- 
posed to be Turkish, in St. James's Park, 
brought home from one of the arsenals 
in Alexandria, when the British troops, 
under the command of Lord Hutchinson, 
conquered the French in Egypt. 

In the beginning of the loth century 
the uncommon names of Terrib'e, Devil, 
&c. were generally abolished, and the 
following more universal ones took 
place, viz. 

rounders. Cwt. 

Cannon royal, or 1 




— 48 

about 90 


( 82 ) 

C A N 

Bastard cannon, ) 
or i carthoun j 
•* carthoun 
Whole culverins 
Demy culverins 

Slowest sort ~ 
ordinary =r 
largest size rz 
Basilisk := 

Serpentine — 

Aspik — 


= 3ti 

= 21 
= 18 
— 9 

= G 











= 43 

=: 4 
— 2 

= G 

= GO 

= 8, 2, Hi 1 

Moyens, which carried a ball of 10 or 12 

ounces, &c. 
Rabinet, which carried a ball of 10 


These curious names of beasts and 
birds of prey were adopted, on account 
of their swiftness in motion, or of their 
cruelty; as the falconet, falcon,, 
and culverin, ccc. for their swiftness in 
flying; the basilisk, serpentine, aspik; 
dragon, syren, &c. for their cruelty. See 
the Latin poet Forcastarius. 

At present cannon, or pieces of ord- 
nance, take their names from the weight 
of the ball they discharge: thus a piece 
that discharges a ball of 24 pounds, is 
called a 24-pounder; one that carries a 
ball of 12 pounds, is called a 12-pouuder; 
nnd so of the rest, divided into the fol- 
lowing sorts, viz. 

Ship-guns, consisting in 42, 32,24, 18, 
12, 9, 6, and 8 pounders. 

Garrison-guns, in 42, 32, 24, 18, 12, 
9, and G pounders. 

Battermg-guns, in 24, 18, and 12 

Field-pieces, in 18, 12, 9, G, 3, 2, If, 
1, and \ pounders. 

The British seldom use any of lower 
calibre than G in the field. 

The metal of which brass cannon is 
made, is in a manner kept a secret by 
the founders: yet, with all their art and 
6ecrecy, they have not hitherto found 
cut a composition that will stand a hot 
engagement without melting, or at least 
being rendered useless. Those cast at 
Woolwich bid fairest towards this 
amendment. The respective quantities 
which should enter into this composition, 
is a point not decided; every founder 
has his own proportions, which are pecu- 
liar to himself. The most common pro- 
portions of the ingredients are the fol- 

lowing, viz. To 2401b. <>f metal fit for 
casting, they put G8lb. of copper, 52lb. 
of brass, and 12lh. of tin. To 42001b. 
(if metal lit for casting, the Germans put 
3687 |j of copper, 204$$lb. of brass, and 
S07|flb.of tin. Others again use 1001b. 
of copper, Gib. of brass, and 9lb. of tin; 
and lastly, others, 1001b. of copper, 101b. 
of brass, and 15lb. of tin. With respect 
to iron guns, their structure is the same 
as that of the others, and they generally 
stand the most severe engagements, be- 
ing frequently used on ship-board. Seve- 
ral experiments have taught us that the 
Swedish iron guns are preferable to all 

Cannon is now generally cast solid, 
and th« cavity bored afterwards by a 
very curious machine for that purpose, 
where the gun is placed in a perpendicu- 
lar position; but of late these machines 
have been made to bore horizontally, 
and much truer than those that bore in 
a vertical form. This new machine was 
was first invented at Strasburgh, and 
greatly improved by Mr. Verbruggen, a 
Dutchman, who was bead founder at 
the royal foundery at Woolwich, where 
probably the best horizontal-boring ma- 
chine in Europe has been lately fixed; 
it both bores the inside, and turns and 
polishes the outside at once. 

Kunus of the several parts of a Can- 

The grand divisions exterior are as 
follows, viz. First re-inf'oree is that part 
ofa gun next the breech, which i'- made 
-tronger to resist the force of pow- 

Second re-inforce. This begins where 
the first ends, and is made something 
smaller than the first. 

The chace is the whole space from 
the trunnions to the muzzle. 

The muzzle, properly so called, is the 
part from the muz/.le astragal to the end 
of the piece. 

Small divisions exterior. 

The. cascable, the hindermost part of 
the breech, from the base-ring to the 
end of the button. 

The cascabte-uslragal is the diminish- 
ing part between the two breech-mould- 

The neck of the cascable is the nar- 
row space between the breech-moulding 
and the button. 

The breech is the solid piece of metal 
behind, between the vent and the extre- 
mity of the base-ring, and which termi- 


( 33 ) 


nafes the hind part of the gun, exclusive 
of t lie cascable. 

The breech-mouldings are the eminent 
parts, as squares or rounds, which serve 
only tor ornaments to the piece, &c. 

The base-ring and ogee are orna- 
mental mouldings: the latter is always 
in the shape of an S, taken from civil 
architecture, and used in guns, mortars, 
and howitzers. 

The vent-field is the part from the 
vent to the first re- in force astragal. 

The vent astragal and fillets are the 
mouldings and fillets at or near the 

The charging ci/linder is all the 
space from the chace-astragal to the 

The first re-inforce ring and ogee are 
the ornaments on the second re-inforce. 

The fintt re-inforce astragal is the 
ornament between the first and second 

The chace girdle is the ornament 
close to the trunnions. 

The trunnions are two solid cylindri- 
cal pieces of metal in every gun, which 
project from the piece, and by which it 
is supported upon its carriage. 

The dolphins are two handles, placed 
on the second re-inforcte ring of brass 
guns, resembling the fish of that name: 
they serve for mounting and dismount- 
ing the guns. 

The second re-inforce ring and ogee 
are the two ornaments joining the trun- 

The second re-inforce astragal is the 
moulding nearest the trunnions. 

The chace-astragal and fillets, the two 
last-mentioned ornaments jointly. 

The muzzle-astragal and fillets, the 
joint ornaments nearest the muzzle. 

The muzzle-mouldings, the ornaments 
at the very muzzle of the piece. 

The swelling of the muzzle, the pro- 
jected part behind the muzzle-mould- 

Interior parts. 

The mouth, or entrance of the bore, is 
that part where both powder and ball 
are put in, or the hollow part which re- 
ceives the charge. 

The vent, in all kinds of fire-arms, is 
commonly called the touch-hole: it is a 
small hole pierced at the end, or near 
it, of the bore or chamber, to prime the 
piece with powder, or to introduce the 
tube, in order, when lighted, to set fire 
to the charge. 

The chamber is the -place where the 
powder is lodged, which forms the 

Tools for loading and firing Cannon 
are rammers, sponges, ladles, worms, 
handspikes, wedges, and screws. 

Coins, or wedges, to lay under the 
breech of the gun, in order to elevate or 
depress it. 

Handspikes serve to move and to 
lay the gun. 

Ladles serve to load the gun with 
loose powder. 

Rammas are cylinders of wood, 
whose diameters and ares are equal to 
those of the shot: they serve to ram 
home the wads put upon the powder 
and shot. 

Sponge is fixed at the opposite end of 
the rammer, covered with lamb-skin, 
and serves to clean the gun when fired. 

Screics are used to field-pieces in- 
stead of coins, by which the gun is kept 
to the same elevation. 

Tools necessiny for proving Cannon 
are, a searcher with a reliever, and a 
searcher with one point. 

Searcher is an iron, hollow at one end 
to receive a wooden handle, and on the 
other end has from 4 to 8 flat springs of 
about 8 or 10 inches long, pointed and 
turned outwards at the ends. 

The Reliever is an iron flat ring, with 
a wooden handle, at right angles to it. 
When a gun is to be searched after it 
has been fired, the searcher is intro- 
duced; and turned every way, from end 
to end, and if there is any hole, the 
point of one or other of the springs gets 
into it, and remains till the reliever, 
passing round the handle of the searcher, 
and pressing the springs together, re- 
lieves it. 

When there is any hole or roughness 
in the gun, the distance from the mouth 
is marked on the outside with chalk. 

The other searcher has also a wooden 
handle, and a point at the fore end, of 
about an inch long, at right angles to 
the length: about this point is put some 
wax mixed with tallow, which, when in- 
troduced into the hole or cavity, is press- 
ed in, when the impression upon the 
wax gives the depth, and the length is 
known by the motion of the searcher 
backwards and forwards: if the fissure 
be 1-ninth of an inch deep, the gun is 
rejected. See Instruments. 

N. B. The strength of gunpowder 
having been considerably increased by 


( 81 ) 


the late Lieutenant General Sir William 

Congreve, of the Royal Artillery, the 

quantity for service lias heen somewhat 

reduced; that for proof remaining as 


r , i Bull. See Balls. 

Cannon { .,, , c „ „ c„„„. 
I Shot, hee shot. 

Cannon-B«aAW.?. See Gabions. 

To nail C a n NON. See N a t l. 

Cannon. Tlie author of Maxima, page 125, says, " Le canon 
est le dernier moyen des rois, (ultima 
ratio region,) comme I' insurrection est le 
dernier moyen des pcuples. Les maux 
qui en resultent sont certains, Its remedes 
douteux ; il est done aussi insensi que 
coupable, de ne fas ipuiser toutes les res- 
sources de la moderation et de la patience 
avant ePe'n venira ces-crueltes extrimites." 
This sound doctrine holds good with re- 
spect to king and people. Let the social 
compact which ought to hind the ruler 
and the ruled he honestly followed, and 
there will he little occasion for can- 

CANNONADF, the direction of the 
powers of artillery against some distant 
ohject intended to he seized or destroy- 
ed, as the troops in battle, battery, for- 
tress, or out-work. 

To Cannonade, (cautioner, Fr.) to 
fire against any thing with cannon, or 
pieces of ordnance. 

CANNONEER, (canonnier, Fr.) the 
person who manages the gun. See 

CANON, Fr. See Cannon. Cannon 
also means in French the barrel of any 
fire-arm, great or small. 

Canon chambr'e, Fr. a piece that has 
not heen well cast, and could not he 
used without danger, on account of the 
defective cavities which exist in the 
body of the metal. 

Canon secret, Fr. one, or several 
pieces of ordnance placed on a battery, 
unperceived by the enemy. These are 
used by the besieged for the defence of 
breaches, and by the besiegers to oppose 
a sortie. 

Canon d la Sualois, Fr. a piece of 
ordnance adopted by the French, and 
so called from the Swedish pieces, of 
which it is an imitation. It is very con- 
venient in long marches, as being very 
light. The weight at most o^olb. the 
ball 4lb. weight. 

Canon double, Fr. See lieveil matin. 

Canon Ruyi; Fr. a rifle gun. See 


CANON Bit, that part of the bit 
which is let into the horse's mouth. 

CANONNADE, Fr. See Cannon- 

CANONNTERE, on Embrasure, Fr. 
an opening which is made in the parapet 
of a work for the purpose of pointing 
cannon against any particular object. 

Canon nieiie, Fr. a sort of shed co- 
vered over with canvass for the accom- 
modation of soldiers and sutlers. 

CANONNER, Fr. to fire against 
any fortified place or body of armed 
men with heavy ordnance, ixc. 

CANONS de goutiere, Fr. in archi- 
tecture, the extremities or mouths of 
copper or leaden pipe*, which serve tO 
carry off the water from aroof,&C 

Military CANT terms, familiar ex- 
pressions which obtain currency among 
military men, when they are employed 
in garrison, or elsewhere. These phrases 
are too numerous to be recited, especi- 
ally as they prevail differently in differ- 
ent corps. The Guards, for instance, 
have phrases peculiar to themselves. 
Instead of no parish business, theGuards 
say 7io pipe clay, when they wish to put 
an end to regimental discussion; and in- 
stead of scabbarding a soldier, as in the 
infantry of the line, or booting him, as in 
the cavalry, theycallitfarrrngauaaO, ecc. 

CANTABRES, Fr. soldiers held in 
high lepute at the time of the Romans: 
and, in fact, the renown of the gallant 
Cantabres was such, that a great number 
of the Spanish provinces reckoned it a 
great honour to be comprehended w ithin 
the limits of ancient Cantabria. In the 
year 1745, Lewis XV. formed a regiment 
of Cantabres, which since were called 
Royal Cantabres. 

CANTABRUM, a standard intro- 
duced during the reign of the Roman 
Emperors, and which differed from the 
vexillum. This latter was a large 
standard, distinguished by its particular 
colour and motto; whereas the canta- 
bruni was only a small flag, with its par- 
ticular colour also, and used as a signal 
for the troops to rally. 

CANTEEN, a suttling-house for the 
convenience of officers and soldiers; 
also a machine made of wood or leather 
with compartments for several utensils, 
generally used by officers. The tin ves- 
sels used by the soldiers on a march, 
&c. to carry water or other liquor in, 
each holding about 2 quarts, are also 
called canteens. 


( 85 ) 


To CANTER, (aller au petit-galop, 
Fr.) to go a hand-gallop, or three- 
quarter speed. See Hand. 

CANTINE, IV. See Canteen. 
Cantine is sometimes used among the 
French to signify the meat, &c. that is 
ready drest. 

CANTiNIER, Ft. the person who 
keeps a canteen, booth, or suttling 

To CANTON, (cantonner, Fr.) to 
disperse troops into winter or summer 

CANTONMENTS are distinct situ- 
ations, in towns and villages, where the 
different parts of an army lie as near to 
each other as possible,' and in the same 
manner as they encamp in the held. 
The chief reasons for cantoning an army 
are, first, when the campaign begins 
carlv; on which occasion, in cantoning 
your troops, two objects demand atten- 
tion, viz. the military object, and that of 
subsistence: the second is, when an ar- 
my lias finished a siege early, the troops 
are allowed to repose till the fields pro- 
duce forage for their subsistence: the 
third reason is, when the autumn proves 
rainy, and forage scarce, the troops are 
cantoned to protect them from the bad 

CANVASS-BAGS. See Bags, Sand- 
Bags, &c. 

CAPA-AGA, an old and experienced 
officer of the Seraglio, who has the 
charge of instructing and superintending 
the Ichonoglans ; which office he fulfils 
with the utmost severity, in order to ac- 
custom them to subordination and dis- 
cipline, and that they may be the bet- 
ter qualified to command in their turns. 

CAPARISON. Under this term is 
included ihe bridle, saddle, and housing 
of a military horse. 

CAPE du batardeau, Fr. a roof 
sloping on both sides, which covers the 
upper part of the batardeau constructed 
in the ditch at the salient angle of a 
bastion. A small turret about six or 
,seven feet high is erected in the center 
of the cape, to prevent desertion. 

CAPELINE, a kind of iron helmet 
worn by the cavalry, under John, Duke 
of Britauy. 

C/i n Ef LETT!, a Venetian militia, 
composed of Sclavonians, Dalmatians, 
Albanians, Mo'lachians, and formerly 
reckoned the best troops in the service 
of the state of Venice. 

CAPICULY, otherwise called Jani- 

zaries, the first corps of the Turkish in- 

CAPITAINE en pied, Fr. an officer 
who is in actual pay and does duty. 

Capitaine reforme, Fr. a reduced 

Capitaine general des vivres, Fr. 
the person who has the chief manage- 
ment and superintendance of military 
stores and provisions. 

Capii aixe des guides, Fr. a person 
appointed to direct the roads by which 
the armv is to march: he must be well 
versed in topography, is under the di- 
rection of the quarter-master general, 
and is obliged to provide guides for all 
general officers, detachments, and con- 

Capitaine des charrois, Fr. captain 
of the wagon-train. 

Capitaine general des chariots de 
munition, Fr. the person who commands 
the whole of the ammunition wagons, 
and zcagon-train. 

Capitaine des mulets, Fr. His func- 
tions are the same as those of the capi- 
taine des charrois, with this difference, 
that he sometimes has a hundred, or a 
hundred and fifty mules under his ma- 
nagement : this branch of service is of 
great importance when the war is carried 
on in a mountainous country, where the 
progress of the caissons is rendered verv 

Capitaine des ouvriers, Fr. one who 
commands the carpenters, wheelwrights, 
and other workmen in the artillery; and 
among the engineers, he superintends 
the workmen employed by those corps. 

Capita i nes conducteurs d'artillerie, 
Fr. persons entrusted in the armies and 
fortified towns with the particular details 
of the functions of the Captain General. 

Capitaine des portes, Fr. a commis- 
sioned officer who resides in a garrison 
town, and whose sole duty is to receive 
the keys of the gates from the Governor 
every morning, and to deliver them to 
hini every night, at appointed hours. 

CAPITAL, in fortification, is an ima- 
ginary line which divides any work into 
two equal and similar parts. It signifies 
also, a line drawn from' the angle of a 
polygon to the point of the bastion, or 
from the point of the bastion to the mid- 
dle of the gorge. 

CAPITAN, Fr. an unconscionable 
vaunter, who boasts of incredible acts of 
bravery, although he be a real coward. 
A capitan also signifies in harsher Ian- 


( 86 ) 


guage, a coward; every military man 
who has been once found guilty of cow- 
ardice is ruined beyond recovery. 
CAPITOUL, Fr, chief magistrate of 


lb CAPITULATE, to surrender any 
place, or body of troops, to the enemy, 
on certain stipulated conditions. 

CAPITULATION, in military af- 
fairs, implies the conditions on which the 
garrison of a place besieged agrees to de- 
liver it up, &c. 

CAPITULATION, Fr. is sometimes 
used to denote an agreement which is 
made on enlisting upon certain terms 
or conditions. The capitulations of the 
foreign corps that have been taken into 
the British service are of this descrip- 

CAPONNIERE, in fortification, is a 
passage made from one work to another, 
of 10 or 12 feet wide, and about 5 feet 
deep, covered on each side by a parapet, 
terminating in a glacis. Capon niers are 
sometimes covered with planks and earth. 
See Fortifk atjon. 

Dt'/Hi-CAPONMEitr., Fr. a passage 
which is made in the bottom of a dry 
ditch, and which is only defended to- 
wards the enemy by a parapet or glacis. 
Its object is to protect the branch or 
passage belonging to the ditch which is 
directly in front. 

CAPORAL, Fr. corporal. 

CAPOTE dc faction, Fr. a large 
great coat with a hood or cowl, which is 
worn by sentinels in bad weather. 

CAPS, in gunnery, are made of lea- 
ther, and used for the same purpose 
that tampions were, to prevent rain or 
rubbish from collecting in the bore of 
the guns and howitzers. There are also 
canvass caps for similar purposes used for 

CkP-Sguarcs. See Carriages. 

Cap-a-pef. implies being clothed in 
armour from head to foot, or fully ac- 

CAPSTAN, ) a strong massy piece 

CAPSTERN, > of timber in the form 
of a truncated cone, having its upper 
part, called the drum-head, pierced with 
a number of square holes, for receiving 
the levers. By turning it round, several 
actions may be performed that require 
an extraordinary power. 

CAPTAIN is a military officer, who 
is the commander of a troop of horse or 
dragoons, or of a company of foot or 
artillery. The name of captain was the 

first term made use of to express the 
chief or head of a company, troop, or 
body of men. He is both to march and 
fight at the head of his company. Cap- 
tains of artillery and engineers ought to 
be more masters of the attack and defence 
of fortified places than either a captain 
of infantry or cavalry; because they 
must be good mathematicians, and un- 
derstand the raising of all kinds of bat- 
teries, to open the trenches, to conduct 
the sap, to make mines and fougasses, 
and to calculate their charges. They 
ought farther to be well acquainted with 
the power of artillery, the doctrine of 
the military projectile, and the laws of 
motion, together with the system of me- 
chanics ; and should be good draughts- 
men. A captain has, in most services, 
the power of appointing his own Ser- 
jeants and corporals, but cannot by his 
own authority reduce or break them; 
neither can he punish a soldier with 
death, unless he revolts against him on 

Captain General. By the constitu- 
tion, the King is Captain General of all 
the forces of Great Britain. This term 
implies the first rank, power, and autho- 
rity known in the British army. His 
Majesty was pleased to delegate this rank, 
and the powers annexed to it, to his Royal 
Highness the Duke of York, in 1799. 

C apt Aix-Lieutenant, formerly the 
commanding ofticer of the colonel's troop 
or company in every regiment, in case 
the colonel is absent, or he s;ivcs up the 
command of it to him. This rank has 
been abolished in the British army. 

Captain reformed, one who, upon a 
reduction of the forces on the termina- 
tion of war, loses his company, yet 
keeps his rank and pay, whether on duty 
or not. 

Captain on half pay is one who 
loses his company on the reduction of 
an army, and retires on half-pay, until 
seniority puts him into duty and full pay 

Captain en second, or second captain, 
is one whose company has been broke, 
and who is joined to another, to serve 
under the captain of it. 

Captain, (Capitaine, Fr.) In the high- 
est acceptation of the term, this word sig- 
nifies a man of great talents, genius, and 
perseverance, who can undertake the ma- 
nagement of a whole army and conduct 
it to victory; few such men exist. Hence 
Un grand capitaine, a great captain, as 


( 37 ) 


the Duke of Wellington has been justly 

Captains of halberts, or black-fulls, 
certain persons who, during the reign oi 
our ancient kings, and as late down as 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth, had the 
charge and direction of a body of men 
called Halberts and Black-bills, who were 
always in the heat of a battle. In the 
armies of king Henry VIII. Mary, and 
Elizabeth, there were a great number of 

According to some writers, the deno- 
mination of captain and lieutenant, ap- 
plied to officers commanding small bodies 
of men, equivalent to our troops and 
companies, was scarcely introduced into 
our armies before the reign of Henry 
VII. and VIII. where we find them borne 
by the officers commanding the yeomen 
of the guard and the band of gentlemen 
pensioners, and their occasional repre- 

CAPTIVE, (captif, Fr.) a prisoner of 

CAPTIVI, the name given by the 
Romans to their prisoners of war, who 
were generally loaded with chains, and 
placed near the colours. The captive 
kings had their heads shaved, and were 
sent to Rome, to enhance the splendour 
of the triumph. 

CAPTURE, Fr. any seizure or cap- 
ture which is made against the enemy. 

CAQUE de poudre, Fr. a term syno- 
nimous to a tun or barrel of powder. 

CAR, in military antiquity, a kind of 
small carriage; figuratively, used by the 
poets for a chariot: it is mounted on 
wheels, representing a stately throne, 
used in triumphs and on other solemn oc- 

CAR-taker to His Majesty; a sine- 
cure which is enjoyed by the entering 
clerk at the Pay-office, value 39l. per 
annum net. 

Car, {char, on chariot a deux roues, 
Fr.) a carriage with two wheels, fitted 
up with boxes to contain ammunition, 
and to carry artillery men chat are at- 
tached and formed into brigades, For the 
purpose of accompanying field ordnance. 
This car is considered an important im- 
provement in artillery equipment, and 
was first introduced into the service by 
the Hon. W. W. Pole, when clerk of the 
ordnance. It is now universally used 
for all natures of field ordnance, instead 
ot the covered ammunition wagons with 
low wheels, which are not constructed 

upon a principle equal to move with the 
same rapidity as the guns themselves. 
An improvement has lately been made 
in the principle of the wheel-car, by a 
spare gun-carriage, of the nature of the 
guns attached to the brigade, being sub- 
stituted to carry the spare wheels, &c. 
before mentioned. 

CARABINE, Fr. a carbine. 

CARABINIERS, Fr. One complete 
regiment of carabiniers was formed 
during the monarchy of France, out of 
the different corps of cavalry. They were 
usually distributed among other bodies 
of troops, and it was their duty to charge 
the advanced posts of the enemy. See 

CARABINS, Fr. these were light 
armed horsemen, who sometimes acted 
on foot. They were generally stationed 
in the outposts, for the purpose of ha- 
rassing the enemy, defending narrow 
passes, &c. In action, they usually 
fought in front of the dragoons, or upon 
the wings of the first line. Their name 
is derived from the Arabian word Karab, 
which signifies, generally, any warlike 

CARACOLE, a semi-circular motion 
or half wheel, chiefly applied to that 
used either by individuals, or squadrons 
of cavalry, to prevent an enemy from 
discovering where they intend to make 
their attack. 

CARACOLER autour d'une troupe 
ennemie, Fr. to hang upon the flanks of 
an enemy, in order to take him by sur- 
prize, or otherwise perplex him. 

CAPtACORE, an Indian vessel be- 
longing to the island of Borneo. 

CARAVAN, (caravanne, Fr.) from a 
Turkish word, which signifies a troop of 
travellers, pilgiiin*, or merchants, form- 
ed in a body, and who journey across the 
deserts, under an escort commanded by 
a chief who is called an Aga. There are 
guides attached to the caravans, who 
direct them to encamp near those places 
where water can be procured. With re- 
gard to other provisions, the travellers 
take care to provide a large quantity, 
which they share with the Arabs, in case 
they should appear in great numbers; 
but if the escort are confident of their 
superiority, they will engage and some- 
times give a severe drubbing to those in- 
truders. The appellation of caravanne 
is also given to the first voyages op 
cruizes which the knights of Malta are 
obliged to undertake before they become 


( 88 ) 


graduates, or can be promoted to the 
commanderies of tlie order. 

CARAVELLE, IV. caravel; a small 
expeditious Portugueze vessel, square 
Itemed, and with lateen sails. 

CARBINE, a fire-arm, somewhat 
smaller than the firelock of the infantry, 
and used by the cavalry. 

CARBINEERS, OTcarabineers,horse- 
men armed with carbines, who occasi- 
onally act as infantry. All regiments 
of light-armed horse were Formerly called 
carbineers; but since the establishing of 
hussars and chasseurs, they have iost 
that denomination, and now all the fo- 
reign heavy cavalry are called carbi- 

CARCAMOUSE, Mouton, Marmou- 
tun, Fr. the battering-ram which was used 
by the ancients. 

CARCAN, Jr. an iron collar. 

CARCASS, (carcasse, Fr.) a composi- 
tion of combustibles. Carcasses are of 
two sorts, oblong and round: the uncer- 
tain flight of the first sort has almost ren- 
dered them useless. They are prepared 
in the following manner: boil 12 or 1511). 
of pitch in a glazed earthen pot; mix with 
that Sib. of tallow, 30lb. of powder, 
till>. of salt-petre, and as many stopins 
as can be put in. Before the composi- 
tion is cold, the carcass musj be filled; 
to do which, smear your hands with 
oil or tallow, and fill the carcass one third 
full with the above composition; then 
put in loaded pieces of gun or pistol 
barrels, loaded grenades, and fill the 
intervals with composition; cover the 
whole over with coarse cloth, well sewed 
together, keeping it in a round form. 
Then put it into the carcass, having a 
hollow top and bottom, with bars run- 
ning between them to hold them toge- 
ther, and composed of four slips of iron 
joined at top, and fixed at the bottom, 
at equal distances, to a piece of iron 
which, together with the hoops, when 
filled, form a complete globular body. 
When quite finished and cold, the car- 
cass must be steeped in melted pitch, 
and then instantly immerged in cold 
water. Lastly, bore three or four holes 
at top, and fill the same with fuze com- 
position, covering the holes with pitch 
until used. Carcasses are thrown out 
of mortars, and weigh from 50 to230lbs. 
according to the size of the mortars out 
of which they are to be thrown. There 
are other carcasses for the sea-service, 
which differ from a shell only in the com- 

position, and in the 4 holes from which 
it burns when fired. 

Oblong Carcasses are obsolete in the 
British service, and the round carcasses 
are applicable for howitzers as well as 
mortars. The 13-inch round carcass 
weighs about 212lb. 10-inch P6lb. 8- 
inch -18lb. and 5^-inch l(3lb. Carcasses 
are seldom or ever fired from guns and 
carronades in the land service, or in the 
sea service excepting in bomb vessels, 
and then only from mortars. 

After the first invention of bombs, 
that of carcasses and grenades naturally 
followed. They are said to have been 
first used in 1594, and afterwards by the 
Bishop of Minister, at the siege of Groll, 
in 1672, where the Duke of Luxemburg 

CARELET, Fr. See Semeli.e. 

C A RENE, Fr. all the parts of a ship 
under water. 

CARIPI, a kind of cavalry in the 
Turkish army, which to the number of 
1000 are not slaves, nor bred up in the 
seraglio, like the rest, but are generally 
Moors, or renegado Christians, who have 
obtained the rank of horse-guards to the 
Grand Signior. 

CARMAGNOLE, Fr. a name given 
to the French soldiers who first engaged 
in the cause of republicanism. It comes 
from a place in Italy, situate in Pied- 
mont, near the Po. 

CARMINE, a bright scarlet colour 
which is used in plans of fortification, 
and serves to describe those lines that 
have mason work. 

C A RNAG E, {carnage, Fr.) the slaugh- 
ter which takes place in consequence of 
a desperate action between two bodies 
of armed men. 

CARNEY, a disease in horses by 
which their mouths become so furred and 
clammy that they cannot feed. 

C aRNOUSE, the base ring about the 
breech of a gun. 

CAROLUS, a broad piece of gold of 
King Charles the First, made then for 
20 shillings, and since current at 23. 

CAROUSAL, (Carrousel, Fr.) in mili- 
tary history signifies a magnificent enter- 
tainment, exhibited by princes or other 
great personages, on some public occa- 
sion, consisting of cavalcades of gentle- 
men, richly dressed and equipped, after 
the manner of the ancient cavaliers, di- 
vided into squadrons, meeting in some 
public place, and performing justs, tour- 
naments, ccc. It also signifies among 

C A It 

( 89 ) 


the French, from whom the term is 
taken, the place where tournaments, &c. 
were formerly exhibited. Thus the 
Place Carrousel in Paris, which is con- 
tiguous to the palaces of the Louvre 
and the Tuileries, was appropriated to 
this purpose as late down as the sixteenth 
century. According to Madame Genlis, 
this place received its appellation from 
the feasts and torn nana. lis which were 
exhibited by order of Louis the XlVtli, 
to please iiis mistress Madame de la 

CARQUOIS, Fr. a quiver. 

CARRE, Fr. square. 

CARREYU, Fr. in a military sense, 
the ground. Voucher sur It currcuu, Fr. 
to lay low ; to knock down. 

Carreac, Fr. a verv ancient sort of 
arrow. The carrcuu was trimmed with 
brass instead of being feathered, and was 
thrown from a buiistu ; whereas the arrow 
was trimmed with feather, and shot from 
a bow. 

Careeai', Fr. a square piece of stone 
which is broader upon the superficies of 
a wall than it is within. 

Carreau de plaucher, Fr. clay made 
into different shapes and sizes, for the 
pavement of floors, &c. : as flat tiles, &c. 

Carreau de Hollonde, Fr. Dutch tile. 

CARREAUX, FV.the bends, or wales 
of a ship. 

CARREFOUR, Fr. a cross-wav. 

CARRELaGK, Fr. »!] works" which 
are made of clay, stone, or marble, are 
distinguished under this term. 

CARRELER, Fr, to pave or cover 
over with square tiles. 

CAlililAGYlru/astcr-gciK ra!, or v.n- 
gon-master-genera!, an office of great 
trust and much labour. Amongst the 
iloinaus he was called Impcdimentorum 
tiiapisler, the master of the impediments 
or hindrances in the wars. 

CARRIAGES, in military affairs, are 
of various kinds, viz. 

Ammunition Limber Care I ages have 
been constructed of late with four wheels, 
fitted up with boxes for the conveyance 
of ammunition, and tocarryartillery men. 
This alteration, or rather improvement, 
possesses many advantages over the com- 
mon ammunition wagon, which i= calcu- 
lated to carry ammunition only. 

Garrison Carriages are those on 
which all &Ofts of garrison pieces are 
mounted. They are made much shorter field carriages. Those for land 
service are carried upon iron trucks, 

and those for sea service upon wooden 
ones. Iron trucks however destroy the 
decks and platforms, which is the only 
objectiim against them. Travelling car- 
riages for the natures of 24 and 1% 
pounders are used upon garrison service, 
or more particularly in the field, where 
platforms cannot be provided. 

N. B. As the trucks of garrison car- 
riages are generally made of cast-iron, 
their axle-trees should havecopper clouts 
underneath, to diminish the friction of 
the iron against the wood. 

Traielling-CARRiACES are such as 
guns are mounted on for sieges, and for 
the field; they are much longer, and dif- 
ferently constructed from garrison-car- 
riages; having 4 wheels, 2 for the car* 
riage, and 2 for the limber, which last are 
only used on marches. Travelling car- 
riages are in many respects very unfit for 
garrison service, though they are fre^ 
quentlv used. 

FYcW-Carriages are both shorter and 
lighter than those before mentioned, 
bearing a proportion to the pieces mount- 
ed upon them. They consist of the na- 
tures of 2i-pounders and 12-pounders, 
for iron guns, mostly used in the field 
against fortified places. The proper car- 
riages under the denomination of field 
carriages are of the natures of 12-pound- 
ers medium and light, 9-pounders, 6- 
pounders heavy and light, 3-pounders 
heavy and light, 8-inch howitzers and 
51-inch heavy and light with iimbers; 
the whole of which are now, upon the 
principle introduced into the service by 
General Lawson, of the Royal Artillery, 
constructed with block trails, and fitted 
with boxes upon the limbers to carry am- 
munition; upon which boxes the artillery 
men are usually seated, in order to ac- 
company the brigades. Tie quantity of 
ammunition carried into the field with 
each nature of carriage is as follows, viz. 

, i medium 12 rounds. 
12-pounders ( ^ ^ ^ 


, ( heavy 43 do. 
o-pounders { ,- , • 10 A 
1 ( light 48 do. 

Q , S heavy 

3-pounders j ^ 

8-inch howitzers none. 
5^-inch { heavy 21 do. 
howitzers ( light 24 do. 
Besides the proportion of ammuni- 
tion which is carried in the limber boxes 
of the field carriages, there are cars or 
limber carriages upon a new principle 


( oo ) 


loaded with ammunition to accompany 
each piece of ordnance. All the Held 
pieces (except iron 84-pounders and Im- 
pounders) are elevat< I by means of a 
screw fixed in thecarriagi s, between the 
cheeks, and to the breech of the guns, 
or how it/cis. The iron 24- pounder and 
12-pounder guns, as also the \\ hole of the 
guns mounted upon garrison, or ship, car- 
riages, are elevated by coins of wood, and 
not hy screws. 

Galloper-( serve for l\ 
pounders. These carriages are made 
with shafts, so as to he drawn without 
a limber. The king of Prussia once 
mounted light S-pounders on these car- 
riages, which answered very well. This 
description of carriage is now obsolete 
in the British service. 

Moanfatn-CAR-RTAGE, a carriage pe- 
culiarly constructed lor the use of the 
artillery in mountainous countries. 

Hoo^^-Carriages are made on the 
same principle as field carriages, which see. 

J'umlucl-C arri age. See Tumbrel. 

Ji/ocA--C arri age, a carriage which is 
made from a solid piece of timber, hol- 
lowed out so as to receive the gun or 
howitzer into the cap-squares; the lower 
part of the cap-square is ht into the 
solid wood, and the gnu or howitzer is 
either elevated or depressed by a screw, 
as in other carriages. The limber for 
this carriage carries two large chests for 
ammunition, and takes four men. The 
pintie of the limber is so constructed as 
to receive the gudgeon of the carriage; 
by which means a greater relief is utYord- 
ed when the carriage passes over rou'di 

Block-C arri ages are also used by the 
horse artillery as curricles. They are 
particularly useful on service. The ori- 
ginal inventor of them was the late Gene- 
ral Sir William Congreve, I\. A. to whom 
the Board of Ordnance was not a little 
indebted for many improvements, and of 
whose services the most unquestionable 
records are preserved. 

DtivV-C ARRiAcr.s are carriages upon 
a very strong construction, with four 
wheels; the two hind wheels being very 
high, and the two fore, or limber wheels, 
being much smaller. These carriages 
are used for transporting heavy guns, 
which cannot be conveyed upon theii 
own carriages. The garrison carriage of 
the gun, so carried, is placed upon th< 
carriage in a very compact maimer for 
travelling. I 

P/tiffarm-C arri agf.± are constructed 
with four wheels, haying a platform fitted 
up to carry one heavy gun or mortar, 
with its carriage or bed, and is of a si- 
milar u*>e with the devil-carriage. 

ZVttcft-C* p.riages are to carry tim- 
ber and other heavy burthens from one 
place to another, at no great distance: 
they serve also to convey guns or mor- 
tars upon a battery, whither their own 
carriages cannot go, and are drawn by 
men as well as horses. 

Povtoon-CARRIAGES. Carriagesof this> 
kind are solely for transporting the pon- 
toon-,; they had formerly but two wheels, 
but are generally now made with four. 
The making use of two-wheel carriages 
for travelling a great way, is contrary 
to sense and reason; because the whole 
weight lying upon the two wheels, must 
make them sink deeper into the ground 
than those of a four-wheel carriage. 

Spare-Gun Carriages have lately 
been introduced into the field artillery 
service, and independent of being spare 
gun carriages, are fitted up to carry 
spare wheels, with a proportion of tools 
and materials for a collar-marker and 
wheeler, who ride upon the carriage. 
One of these carriages is attached to 
each brigade of field ordnance. 

CARRIER, a kind of pigeon, so 
called from its having been used in ar- 
mies, to carry orders from one division 
of an army to another, or intelligence to 
some officer commanding a post, or army, 
at a distance. 

CAR1UERE, Fr. a large spot intend- 
ed for tournaments, races, and other 
exercises; also a quarry. 

Prendre Carriers, Fr. to commence 
the full speed at which cavalry charge. 

M. de Folard says, that the cavalry 
is to start (prendre carriire) from sixty 
paces distance to charge the enemy. 

CARRONADE, a very short pieca 
of iron ordnance, originally made at 
Canon, a river in Scotland, from whence 
the Carron company, or foundery, de- 
rives its name. 

It is different from ordnance in gene- 
ral, h iving no trunnions, and being ele- 
vated upon a joint and bolt. The 
length of the calibre seldom exceeds 
'hue feet; on which account a thin 
projection of metal is cast upon the 
muzzle, to carry the explosion of the 
charge more clear of the sides and rig- 
ging of ships. All carronades have 
cha»»ujers, and much less windage than 


( 91 ) 


guns, by which means they make a con- 
siderable range, and a recoil that is 
almost ungovernable. 

To CARRY, to obtain possession of 
by force; as, To carry the outworks. 

To Carry on, in a military sense to 
prosecute, to continue, as to carry on 
the war. 

CART, (chariot, Fr.) a vehicle mount- 
ed on two wheels, and drawn by one or 
more horses; of which there are several 
sorts, viz. 

Ball Cartridge Carts, constructed to 
draw wiih two horses abreast. They 
are common sized carts with sides, 
which let down occasionally, and have 
wooden tops, covered with canvass, for 
the security of the ammunition. Each 
cart will contain 11,000 hall cartridges, 
and 1000 flints in elevpn half barrels. 

Ibrge-CART*, or IW^p-Wagons, are 
travelling machines hired up for the 
purpose of assisting the artillery in the 
field, and in repairing or replacing any 
iron work, when no other means can he 
obtained. Each cart, or wagon, has four 
wheels — the hind part of the carriage 
has a body in which a pair of small bel- 
lows are fixed. In the front of the 
body are a tire place, and a trough for 
carrying coals and water. There is also 
a box at the hind part of the cart for 
carrying the smith's tools. The two 
front wheels are merely a limber for the 
support of the body of the cart, which 
limber is generally taken oft*, and the 
body supported by a prop, when the 
cart is in actual use. 

Powder-CA rts, for carrying powder 
with the army; they are divided into 4 
parts, by boards of an inch thick, which 
enter about an inch into the shafts 
Each of these caits can only stow 4 bar- 
rels of powder. The roof is covered 
with an oil-cloth, to prevent dampness 
from coming to the powder. These 
carts are not at present used in the 
British service. 

S/ have two strong wheels 
fitted up with rollers, pall, handspikes, 
and ropes, and are used to carry mortars 
or heavy guns from one place to another 
at a small distance, hut chiefly to trans- 
port guns from the water-side to the 
proof-place, and from thence back auain; 
as also to convey artillery to the batte- 
ries in a fortification, &c. 

Tinnbrel-CARTs are carts with two 
wheels, and square bodies, with a can- 
vass painted top, for the conveyance of 

ammunition. These carts are not much 
used in the field artillery service. 

ifa«rf-CARTS are low small carts with 
two wheelsand iron arms. 

T/chcA-Carts are precisely upon the 
same principle with hand-carts, except- 
ing that they have wooden axles, and are 
calculated to carry heavier weights. 
They are found to be useful in carrying 
mortars and their beds, ammunition, &c. 

CARTE is a thrust with a sword at 
the inside of the upper part of the 
body, with the nails of your sword hand 
upward. Low carte is a thrust at the 
inside of the lower half of the body; the 
position of the hand being the same as 
in the former. 

Carte also signifies bill of fare, such 
as is given at a tavern. 

CARTL-btanchc, Fr. a full and abso- 
lute power which is lodged in the hands 
of a general of an army, to act according 
to the best of his judgment, without 
waiting for superior instructions, or or- 
ders. It likewise strictly means a blank 
paper: a paper to be tilled up with such 
conditions as the person to whom it is 
sent thinks proper. 

Carte deiaillee d'un pays, Fr. a cor- 
rect drawinu; of a country, so that all its 
various localities may be seen with a 
bird's eve view. 

CARTF.L, in military transactions, an 
agreement between two states at war for 
the mutual exchange of prisoners. 

CARTEL, Fr. a challenge or rendez- 
vous given by two persons whose inten- 
tions are to tight. 

CARTOUCH, a case of wood about' 3 
inches thick at bottom, bound about with 
marline, holding about 400 musket-balls, 
besides 8 or 10 iron balls of a pound each, 
to be ti red out of a howitzer, for the de- 
fence of a pass, 6vC Cartouches with 
musket-balls are at present not much 
used in the British service. See Grape 

CARTOUCHE, IV. a charge; a car- 

Cartouche, Fr. in geographical, or 
topographical, design, a particular species 
or mode of sketching out with a crow's 
quil", and with Indian ink. This sketch 
is made on the left of one of the lower 
angles; and if there be two sketches, 
the least of the two is always on the 

Cartouche infumante, Cartouche 
jaune, Fr. a discharge given to a soldier 
in the French service in consequence of 
N 2 

C A S 

C 9* ) 


his being rendered unworthy to carry' company wore a camque of a particular 
arm-, after having been degraded and colour, it was easily known at once 
punched. It is printedon vellow paper, what company the delinquent belonged 

to. When the casuqiir was abolished, 
scarfs o( different colours were intro- 
duced in lieu of it. 

I ASCADE,fV. This literally means 
a «ater fall; a cascade. In mining, it 
nullifies the several descents or accents 
which are made. Hence Ckemmur par 
• i make wav by intermediate 
descent*, or ascents. 

CASI *NS, (f«Jcon«, Fr.) holes in 
the form of wells, serving as entrances 
to galleries, or living vent to the ene- 
my's mines. See Fortification. 

CASEMATE, m fortification, a vault, 
or arch of BM W w o rk, in that part of 
the (lank of a bastion which i? next the 
curtain, made to defend the ditch, and 
the face of the opposite bastion. See 

Casemates nouvelles, Fr. arched bat- 
teries which are constructed under all 
the openings of revetments, or ramparts. 
The diriereut forts at Cherbourg are de- 

CARTOUCHBS»in artiliery, are made 
of leather, to sling over the shoulder of 
the gunner, who therein carries the am- 
munition from the magazine or w 3 
for the service of the artillery, when at 
exercise or real service, 

CiRTOUCHFS. on J'ormules, Fr. mili- 
tary paaeea which were given to soldiers 
g jing on furlough. 

CARTOUCHIER, m Portc-Car- 
touche. Fr. a cartouch-bo\. 

I ARTKIDGE, a case of paper, 
parchment or flannel, ritred to the bore 
ot the piece, and holding exactly its 
proper charge. Musket and pistol car- 
t ges are always made of strong paper; 
hetween SO or 40 of which are made 
from 1 pound of powder, including their 
priming. The French musket ball-car- 
tridges are capped with flannel or coarse 

Cartridges for heavy guns are now 
partly made of cured paper onlv, and 
partly of cured paper with flannel h>t- fended by these casemates: the works 
toms. Those for field ordnance are all j which baive been thrown Up during the 
made of flannel, and their nature and ' late war round Dover Castle, come like* 
size suited to the bore, or chamber of I wise under the description. 

pieces fot which they are intended 
Cartridges for small aims. The 

CASERNER une troupe, Fr. to put a 
troop into barracks. 

ball cartridges for wall piece*, muskets, CASERNES, in fortification, large 
carbines and pistols are made of whited buildings for the soldiers of the garrison 
brown paper, on former- of wood. One ' to live in; generally erected between 
sheet of paper will make 6" f>r wall the houses of fortiied towns, and the 

pieces, 12 for muskets, sixteen for car- rampart 

bines, and 24 for pistols. The quantity CaSEBHES, in a general 

Of powder contained in the above car- signify barracks. 

tridges is, for wall pieces, 10 drams, 

musket 6. carbine 4. and pistol 3 drams. 

Blank cartridges for musket*, carbines, 

See Shot, and Labo- 

( ASE-SAot. 


Spheria.I C ±SL-Shot. See Spherical 

and pistols are made of blue paper, to or Siirapml. 
preserve a distinction between ball CASES qf wood are made of wood, 
and blank, and to prevent the pos- the exact size of the different natai 
sibility of accidents happening from the cartridges of powder, for the purpose ot 
ball cartridges being n.ixed with the, carrying the cartridges from the mugav 


Cartridge-Pot, a case of wood car- 
ried by a soldier, which contains his se- 
veral rounds of ball, ink, cartridges. 
When firelocks v<ere first used, cartridge 
boxes were introduced instead 01 the 
bandelet. s; the imperfections of which 
are fully stated by Lord Orrery. See 
Port h. 

CASAQUE, Fr. a kind of coat that 
not sit so tight as the common 

zine, with safety, to the guns, either in 
batteries or on board of ship. There 
are also a number of square deal cases 
used in packing laboratory stores. 

( ASIIEERING, now generally 
spelt, Cashiering, from the French Ca.%ser, 
• to break, signifies a dishonourable dis- 
missal of an officer, or soldier. In the 
ca-e of an officer this punishment ad- 
mits of four degrees. 

The first is simply a dismission from 

coat. This was formerly the regimental I his niiployment; the commauder-in- 
dress of the French troops, and as each 1 chief, or the secretary at war, (should 


( 93 ) 


the former be out of office,) signifying 
bv a letter to him that the king has nu 
further occasion for his services; or by 
the sentence of a court-martial. 

The second mode, which first occurred 
in 1800, when =even o'ficers belonging to 
the 85th regiment of foot were dismissed 
without a trial, is culled displacing; bv 
which an officer is dismissed from same 
particular regiment. 

The third is dismissing an officer 
from the service, and rendering him in- 
capable of serving for the future in any 
military capacity. 

The fourth is dismission with infamy, 
and degradation from the rank of a sol- 
dier and a gentleman, as wus the c.;<-e of 
a member of parliament wiieu colonel 
of a militia regiment. 

CASK, or Casqle, the ancient hel- 
met or armour for the head. 

CASSETTE, Fr. casket; also privy 
purse, as lu Cassette du Rui, the King's 
privy purse. 

CASSI-^srAer, the provost marshal 
in a Turkish army. 

CASSINE, Fr. a house surrounded 
by a ditch. Cassines are verv conveni- 
ent to post small parties in, where they 
will be shelteied from any sudden at- 
tack, and will even make head till the 
nearest detachments can come and re- 
lieve them. 

CASSIONS. See Caissons. 

CASSIS, Fr. casque, or helmet. 

CASTELLATED, (entouri, Fr.) en- 
closed within a building. 

CASTILLE, Fr. a term formerly 
used to signify the attack of a tower or 
castie. It also became a species of mili- 
tary amusement,in which the combatants 
threw snow-balls at one another. In 
1546, a difference took place among; the 
sham-lighters at Roche-Guvoii. and rose 
to such a pitchjthat the DukeD'Enghien 
lost his life in the struggle. This event 
put an end to the game of Castilie, as 
did the melancholy fate of Henry the 
Third of France to tournaments. 

CASTING, in founding guns, implies 
the operation of running an* sort of 
metal into a mould prepared for that 

CASTLE, a fortified place, or strong 
hold, to defend a town or city from an 
enemy. Castles are for the most part 
no higher in antiquity than the con- 
quest; or rather about the middle of 
king Stephen's reign. Castles were 
erected in almost all parts of the king- 

dom, by the several contending parties; 
and each owner of a castle was a kind 
ot petty prince, coining his own moneT, 
and exercising Mvuusgn jurisdiction 
over his people. History informs us 
that 1017 castles were built in this reign. 

The Castle, a figurative name for a 
clo~e iiead-piece, deduced from its in- 
ching and defending the head, as a 
castle did the whole bedv; or a corrup- 
tion from the old French word casquelct, 
a small or light helmet. 

CASTRAMETATJON is the art of 
measuring, or tracing out, the form of a 
'camp on the ground; yet it sometimes 
a more extensive signification, by 
; including all the views and designs of a 
j general; the one requires only the know- 
ledge of a mathematician, the other the 
experience of an old soldier. The an- 
cients were accustomed to fortifv their 
camps by throwing up entrenchments 
round tbein. The Turks, and other 
Asiatic nations, fortify themselves, when 
in an open country, with their wagons 
and other carriages. The practice of 
the Europeans is quite different; for the 
surety of their camp consists in the faci- 
lity and convenience of drawing out 
their troops at the bead of their en- 
campment; for which reason, whatever 
particular order of battle is regarded as 
the best disposition for fighting, it fol- 
lows of course, that we should encamp 
in such a maimer as to assemble and 
parade cur troops in that order and dis- 
position as soon as possible. It is there- 
fore the order of battle that should re- 
gulate the order of encampment; that is 
to say, the post of each regiment in the 
:ine of battle should I e at the head of 
its own encampment; from whence it 
follows, that the extent of the line of 
battle from right to left of the camp 
should be equal to rhe front of the 
troops in Hue of battle, with the same 
intervals in the camp as in the line. Bv 
this means every battalion covers its 
own tents, and the soldiers can all lod.e 
themselves, or turn out in case of neces- a minute's warning. 

It the front of the camp is greater 
than the line, the troops must leave 
large intervals, or expose their flanks: 
if less, the troops will not have room to 
form with the proper intervals. 

The front or principal line of the 
camp is commonly directed to face the 
enemy. See Camp. 

CASUALS, a term seme times adopted 


( 94 ) 


in the general and regimental returns of 
the British army, signifying men chat 

are (fend, (since liist enlisted,) i hat have 
been discharged, or have deserted. The 
term casualties is nunc- generally used, 
and is certainly mine correct. 

CAT, CATTUS, or GATTUS, also' 
CAT-HOI SK, a covered shed, occasion- 
ally fixed "it wheels, and formerly used 
for covering soldiers employed in filling 
up the ditch, preparing the way for the 
moveable tower, or mining the wall. It 
was called cat, because under it soldiers 
lav in watch, like a cat for its prey. 

Castellated CATS, cat- that had cic-! 
nelles or loop-holes, whe ice ihe archers] 
could discharge their annus. Some- 
times under the cover of this machine, 
the besiegers worked a small kind ol 

CAT a' nine tails, a whip with nine 
knotted cords, with winch the British 
soldiers ami sailors are punished. Some- 
times it has uiilv live en ds. 

To Comb I lie Cat, a term used among 
Bailor* and soidie s, signify ing to arrange 
the different coids of a cat o'nine tails 
so as tu make them more uniform. This 
is done by untangling them, and draw- 
ing the while through the fingers. 

CATACOMBS, grottoes, or subter- 
raneous places for the burial of the 
dead; also divisions in a cellar to stow 
wine, &c. in. 

CATADROME, an engine like a 
crane, used by builders in lifting up and 
letting down anv tiieat weights. 

CATAFALCO, in military architec- 
ture, a scaffold of timber, decorated 
with sculpture, painting, cvc. tor sup- 
porting the cothn of a deceased hero, 
during the funeral solemnity. 

CATAMARAN, a sort of floating 
raft, originally used in China, and 
anions: the Portuguese as a fishing boat. 
The Catamarans in India consist of two 
loij.s of wood upon which the natives 
float, and go through the heaviest surf 
to carry or bring letters on shore. 
. This name has also been given to 
case tilled with combustibles, and con- 
trived to remain so low in the water as 
to be almost imueiceptiWe. Thisbeing 
towed to the building, or ship, against 
which the attack is to be directed, is 
left to explode by means of machhit 1 v 
within 1 self, when its operation is some- 
times v<- v destructive. 

CATAPHRACT.tb'e old Roman term 
for a horseman in complete armour. 

CATAPIIRACTA, in the ancient 
military art, a piece of heavy defensive 
armour, formed of cloth or leather, for- 
tified with iron scales or links, where- 
with sometimes only the bieast, some- 
times the whole body, and sometimes 
the horse too was covered 

CATAPHRASTARII, horsemen in 
the Roman army. 

CATAPULTA, in military antiquity, 
tin engine contrived for the throwing 01 
arrows, darts and stones, upon the ene- 
my. Some of these engines were so 
large and of such fort e,that they would 
throw stones of an hundred weight. 
Josephus takes notice of the surprising 
effects of these engines, and says, that 
the stones thrown out of them beat 
down the battlements, knocked off the 
ang es of the tower-, aud b id tone suf- 
ficient to level a very deep file of sol- 

CATATROME. See Crane. 
C VTEJA, a kind of ai row formerly 
in us.' amongst the Teutonians and the 
Gauls, made of very heavy wood. 

CATELLA, a small chain which the 
Romans used to wear about their necks: 
a part of the military recompenses. 

CATERVA, among ancient military 
writers, a term used in speaking of the 
Gaulish or Celtiberian armies, denoting 
a body of 6000 tinned men. The word 
is also used to denote a party of soldiers 
in disarray; in opposition to cohort or 
turma, which signifies in good order. 

(ATI! KITS, in geometry, a perpen- 
dicular, or a hue, or radius falling per- 
pendicularly on another line or surface. 

CATHOLES, holes above the gun- 
room port, through which a ship may 
be heaved astern. 

CATOPTRICS, the science of refle 
vision, or that branch of optics, which 
treats of, or gives the laws of light re- 
flected from mirrors, &C. 

CAVALCADK.a pompous procession 
of horsemen, equipages, &c. by way of 
parade, to »race a triumph, public entry, 
or the like. 

CAVALIER, l'r a horseman. 
Cavalier, a work raised within the 
body of the place, 10 or 12 feet. higher 
than the rest of the works. 

Trench-C av alier, (caru/icr de tran- 
elie'e, Fr.) in the attacks, is an elevation 
which the besiegers make by means of 
earth or gabions, within half-way, or 
two thirds of the glacis, to discover, or 
to enfilade the covert way. 

C A U 

( 95 ) 

C E L 

CAVALOT, Fr. an ancient piece of 
ordnance about 5 French feet in length, 
carrying about 8 or 900 paces, and ge- 
nerally loaded with a ball of 1 pound 
weight, and a pound of gunpowder. 

CAVALQUET, Fr. a particular 
sound of t lie trumpet which is used 
among the French, when troops of horse 
come hear, or pass through, a town. 

CAVALRY, that body of soldiers 
which serves and tights on horseback. 
Under this denomination are included 

Horse, that is, regiments or troops ot 
horse. In England there are, the Horse- 
guards, commonly called the first and 
second regiments of life guards, and the 
Oxford blues; formerly there was the 
rot/al regiment of horse grenadier guards, 
which is now reduced. The first troop 
of horse was raised in 1660. 

Dragoons, which are likewise regi- 
ments of horse, but distinguished from 
the former by being obliged to fight 
both on foot and on horseback. In 
England there are 7 regiments of dra- 
goon-guards, 5 regiments of dragoons, 
and 19 regiments of light dragoons. The 
first regiment of dragoons was raised in 

Light-horse, regiments of cavalry, 
mounted on light, swift horses, whose 
men are of a middling stature, and 
lightly accoutred. They were first raised 
in 1757. 

Hussars, properly Hungarian horse. 
Their uniform is a large furred cap, 
adorned with a cock's feather; those of 
the officers, either with an eagle's or a 
heron's; a very short waistcoat, with a 
pair of breeches and stockings in one; 
short light boots, generally of red or 
yellow leather; with a curious doublet, 
having five rows of buttons, which hang 
loosely on the left shoulder. Their 
arms are a long crooked sabre, light car- 
bines, and pistols. Most of the Ger- 
man powers have troops under this 
name, and so has France; into which 
country they were originally introduced 
under Louis the XIII. and were calied 
Hungarian cavalry. There are also 
several regiments of hussars in the 
British service. 

CAUD1NE Forks, {Fourchettes Cau- 
dines, Fr.) from the Latin Caudina 
Furcte; projecting or forky hills, near 
Caudium, in the country of the Sam- 
nites, where the Roman army was de- 
feated under Titus Veturius and Sp. 
Posthumius, and the prisoners, after 

having been stripped to the waist, 'were 
disgracefully passed under the yoke, and 
sent back to R nne. Bonaparte, in his 
address to his army, previous to the bat- 
tle of Waterloo, made a pointed allusion 
to this event. For the Roman particu- 
lars see Livy, lib ix. cap. v. 

CAVEA TING, in fencing, implies a 
motion whereby a person in an instant 
brings his sword, which was presented 
to one side of his adversary, to the op- 
posite side. 

CAVESSON, Fr. an iron instrument 
fixed to the nostrils of a horse, to curb, 
or render him manageable, through th« 
poin it occasions. 

CAVTN, in military affairs, implies a 
natural hollow, sufficiently capacious to 
lodge a body of troops, and facilitate 
their approach to a place. If it be 
within musket-shot, it is a place of arms 
ready made, and serves for opening the 
trenches, t\ee from the enemy's shot. 

Cavin, Fr. in fortification, a hollow 
way which runs round the works of a 
fortified place, and which answers the 
purpose of a trench. 

CAUTION, an explanation given 
previous to the word of command, by 
which the soldiers are called to atten- 
tion, that they may execute any given 
movement with unanimity and correct- 

CAZEMATTE, (Cazamates,) Place 
basse or Flanc bus. See Casemate. 

CAZEMATE. See Casemate. 

CAZ ERNES, Fr. See Casernes. 

CEILING, the upper part or roof of 
a lower room, or a lay or covering ot 
plaster over laths nailed on the bottom 
of the joists, which bear the floor of the 
upper room, or on joists put up for that 

Ceiling joists or beams, joists put up 
for the purpose of having laths nailed to 
them, which are to be plastered over, for 
a ceiling. 

CElNTRE.Fr. wooden arch to build 
vaults upon. 

CEINTURE, Fr. inclosure, cincture; 
any continuity of wall which surrounds 
a place. Ceinture also signifies the ring 
or circle which goes round the top, or 
base of a column. 

CEINTURE mi lit aire, Fr. a broad 
leathern belt which is worn round the 
waist, and is ornamented with gold or 
silver plates. 

CEINTURONT, Fr. sword-belt. 

CELERES. The life-guards which at- 


( ©6 ) 


tended Romulus, in the infancy of 
Rome, were so called. They were laid 
aside by Numa Pompilius. Celeres are 
properly distinguished from other troops, 
by being lightly armed and acting always 
on foot. The Celeres cannot he consi- 
dered under the same head as Velites. 

CEMENT, i in the general sense of 

C/EMENT, $ the word, signifies any 
composition of a glutinous or tenacious 
nature, proper for binding, uniting, and 
keeping things in a state of cohesion. 

Cfmfnt, in architecture, is a strong 
sort of mortar used to bind or fix bricks 
or stones together for some kind of 
mouldings; or in cementing a block of 
bricks for the carving of capitals, scrolls, 
or the like. 

CENDREE& Tournai, Fr. In the 
neighbourhood of Tournay there is a 
particular hard stone from which lime 
*of a most excellent quality may be made. 
After it has been some time in an oven 
or furnace, it breaks into small particles 
which drop through the grate, and being 
mixed with the ashes, it forms what is 
called Ccndrie de Tounuri ; and is sold 
as soon as it ran be collected together. 

CENOTAPH, a monument erected 
to the honour of a person, without the 
body of the deceased being interred in 
or near it. 

CENSURE, correction, reflection, re- 
proof. Hence vote of censure. 

CI.NTENTER, Fr. the chief, or cap- 
tain of a troop or company which con- 
sists of 100 men. 

CENTER,) in a general sense, sig- 

CENTRE, ^ nifies a point equally 
distant from the extremities of a line, 
surface, or solid. See Fortification. 

Center of attack, (ccntic d'atluquc, 
Fr.) when a considerable front is taken 
before a besieged place, and the lines of 
attack are carried upon three capitals, 
the capital in the middle, which usually 
leads to the half-moon, is styled the 
a titer of attack. 

Center qfa battalion, on parade, isi 
the middle, where an interval is left 
for '.Lie colours; of an encainpniei:', it 
is die main stret t; and on a march, is 
an interval lor the baggage; when it is 
so placed. 

Center of a bast km is a point in the 
middle of tlie gorge of the bastion, from 
whence the capital line commences, and 
which is generally at the inner polygon 
©f the figure. 

Cimek of gravity, in mechanics, is 

that point about which the several parts 
of a body exactly balance each other in 
any situation. 

Center of a conic section is a point 
where all the diameters meet. 

Center of an ellipsis is that point 
where the transverse and conjugate dia- 
meters meet. 

Center of motion, (centre de mouvt' 
iiic/i/, Fr.) is that point which remains 
at rest while all the other parts of the 
body move about it. 

Center of percussion, (centre de 
percustion, Fr.) is that point in which 
the force of the stroke is the greatest 
possible. When the moving body re- 
volves round a fixed point, the center of 
percussion is the same with the center 
of oscillation, and found by the same 
method: but when the body moves in 
a parallel direction, the center of per- 
cussion is the same with the center of 

Center in geometry, that point which 
is exactly in the center of a regular 
figure. For instance, the center of the 
circle is a point from whence all the 
straight lines that are equal within them- 
selves are severally drawn. The center 
of a regular jwlugon is a point, whose 
lines being drawn to the angles of the 
polygon are equal within themselves. 
The same holds good with respect to the 
center of a square, or of a right angle. 
The regular solids, as the globe or sphere 
and the poliedra, have also their several 

CENTESIMATION, in ancient mi- 
litary history, a mild kind of military 
punishment, in cases of desertion, mu- 
tiny, and tlie like, when only every 100th 
man was executed. 

CENTINEL, ^ is a private soldier, 

GENTRY, ] from the guard, posted 
upon any spot of ground, to stand and 
watch carefully for the security of tlie 
said guard, or of any body of troops, 
or post, and to prevent any surprise 
from the enemy. All centincls are to 
he \ery vigilant on their posts; they are 
not to sin<r, smoke, or suffer any noise 
to be made near them. Neither are 
they to sit down, lay their arms out of 
their hand-, or sleep; but keep moving 
about their poets during the two hours 
thev stand, if the weather will allow of 
it. No centry to move more than 50 
paces to the right, and as many to the 
left of his post; and let the weather be 
ever so bad, he must not get under auy 


( 97 ) 


• Other cover, but that of the ccntry-box. 
No cemry can be allowed to go from 
bis post without leave from liis com- 
manding officer ; and, to prevent deser- 
tion or marauding, the centries and 
.vedettes must be charged to let no sol- 
dier pass. 

C ENTINEL perdu, Fr. a soldier posted 
near an enemy in some very dangerous 
post, where he is in perpetual danger of 
being shot or taken. 

CENTRY-6ar,a sort of wooden box, or 
but, to shelter the centinel from the in- 
juries of the weather; but in fortifica- 
tions made of masonry, they are of stone, 
in a circular form. 

CENTURION, a military officer 
among the ancient Romans, who com- 
manded an hundred men. The term is 
now obsolete. 

CENTURY,in a military sense,means 
an hundred soldiers, who were employed 
in working the battering-ram. 

CEPS, IV. stocks, fetters. It also 
means a trap. 

Ceps de Cesar, Fr. Caesar's trap. A 
stratagem which was used by Julius 
Caesar in one of his campaigns, and 
was called Ceps de Cesar, from the 
snare into which the enemy was led. 
Being solicitous to draw their forces 
towards Alexia, he made an avenue 
through a forest, which seemed to be 
the only p:iss through which his army 
could possibly move. They gave into 
the snare, and eagerly pursued Caesar 
into the forest. The latter, however, 
had had the precaution to order a great 
number of trees on each side to be 
sawed within three inches,of the ground, 
and round their several trunks there i\ ere 
various pieces of wood and branches, 
spread in such a manner, that the 
soldiers could not pass without being 
tripped up, and the road consequently 

CERAMICUS, a place so called in 
Athens, surrounded with walls, and 
where the tombs and statues of such men 
as had died in fighting for their country 
were to be seen. Divers inscriptions in 
praise of them bore testimony of then- 

CERCLE, Grand Cercle, Fr. a form 
observed under the old government of 
France, by which it was directed, that 
every evening, at a specific hour, the Ser- 
jeants and corporals of a brigade should 
assemble to receive orders ; the former 
standing in front of the latter. Subse- 

quent to the grand cercle, a smaller one 
was made in each regiment, when gene- 
ral or regimental orders were again re- 
peated to the Serjeants of each corps, 
and from them communicated to the 
officers of the several companies. 

Cercle meurtrier, Fr. a large flat 
piece of iron, one inch thick, which is 
made red hot, and thrown at the assail- 

C ercles goudronnes, {pitched hoops.} 
Old matches, or pieces of old cordage, 
dipped into pitch or tar, and made in 
the shape of a circle, which are placed 
on chafing dishes to light the garrison of 
a besieged town or post. 

C ercles a feux, Fr. two, three, or 
four hoops tied together witb wire, and 
all around which are fixed grenades, 
loaded pistol-barrels, crackers, pointed 
pieces of iron, &c. The whole is coher- 
ed with tow and fire-work: these hoops 
are then driven across the works of the 
besiegers: they are likewise used to op 1 - 
pose an assault; in which case they ar« 
called couronnes foudroyantes. 

CERNER, Fr. to surround. 

Cerxer un ouvrage de fortification, 
une troupe, Fr. to surround any particu- 
lar part of a fortification, troop, or" com- 

CERTIFICAT, Fr. See Certifi- 


CERTIFICATE, a testimonial bear- 
ing witness to the existence of some re- 
quisite qualification, or to the perform- 
ance of some act required by the regula- 
tions of the army, and for which the 
officer who signs is responsible, whether 
he certifies for himself, or for any other 

Military Certiftcates are of vari- 
ous denominations, and consist chiefly 
of the following kinds, viz. 

Certificate from a field officer to the 
commander in chief, .affirming the eligi- 
bility of a young man to hold a commis- 
sion in his Majesty's service. See 
printed forms at the Military Library, 

Certificate of the officer upon honour, 
that he does not exceed the regulation in 
j the purchase of his commission. 

Certificate from a general officer to 
affirm and prove the losses which officers 
may sustain in the field. 

Certificate from colonels of regiments 
' to the board for admission of proper 
'objects to the Hospital at Chelsea. 

Certificate from a magistrate to iden-. 

C E S 

( 08 ) 

C H A 

tify the person of a reeruit, aud to 
affirm, that he has enlisted himself vo- 
luntarily into the service: likewise, that 
the Articlesof War have heen read to him. 

Certificate from regimental surgeons, 
whether men when they join are proper 
und fit objects to be enlisted ; ditto to be 

Certificate of commanding officers for 
•tores, &c. 

Certificate to enable an officer to re- 
ceive his halt-pay. 

Certificate of surgeons and assistant 
surgeons, to prove their having passed a 
proper examination. 

Certificate from the Medical Board to 
ascertain the nature of an officer's 
wounds, enabling him to receive a year's 
pay for the same, or a pension, as the 
case may be. 

CERVELLE, Fr. literally the brain. 
See Mine sans cervelle. 

Cervelle, Fr. This word i$ applied 
to such earth, in digging a ditch, a well, 
or a gallery for a mine, that is not suf- 
ficiently firm to support itself, but must 
be upheld above, and sustained on the 
sides. Whence tare sans cervelle, which 
literally means earth without brains. 

CERVELIER, fr. a kind of helmet 
to protect the head. 

CESSATION, or cessation of arms, in 
a military sense, means a truce, or the 
total abrogation of all military opera- 
tions for a limited time. When a town 
is so closely besieged that the governor 
must either surrender, or sacrifice him- 
self, his garrison and inhabitants to the 
enemy, he plants a white flag on the 
breach, or beats the chamadc to capitu- 
late, when both parties cease firing. 

CESTUS, a thick leathern glove, 
covered with lead, which the ancient 
pugilists used in the course of their vari- 
ous exercises, and especially when they 
fought for the prize of pugilism. The 
Greeks had four different sorts of Ces- 
tuses. The first, which was called 
imantes, was made of the hide of an ox, 
dried but not dressed. The second, 
called myrmecai, was covered with metal. 
The third, named meliqaes, was, made of 
thin leathern thongs; and did not cover 
either the wrist or fingers. The fourth, 
which was called sphueroe, is the thick 
glove which we have mentioned. 

CESTROSPONDONUS, a dart, that 
received its appellation from the sling, 
from which it was thrown: it was point- 
mcL at both cuds. 

CKTRA, a small and very light' 
shield made of the hide of an elephant, 
in use amongst the Africans and Spa- 

CHABLEAU, Fr. a middle-sized rope 
which is used to draw the craft up «f 

CHABLIS, Fr. wind-fallen wood. 

CHACli of a gun generally means 
the whole length of it. See Cannon. 

CHAFFERY, that part of the foun- 
dry where the forges are placed for 
hammering iron into complete bars. 

CHAIN for engineers is a sort of 
a wire chain divided into links of an 
ecpial length, made use of for setting out 
works on the ground, because cords are 
apt to shrink and give way. 

There are several sorts of chain* 
made use of in mensuration; as Mr. 
Rathbone's, of two perches in length: 
others one perch long; some of 1000 
feet in length; but that which is most in 
use amongst engineers is Mr. Gunter's, 
which is 4 poles long, and contains 100 
links, each link being 7 T ^ inches ip 

CiiAiti-shot. See Shot. 

Chains of' iron used across streets. la 
times of war, or civil dissension, thf 
streets of towns have been often defend- 
ed by iron chains drawn across them. 
These chains were attached to portable 
machines, by which the avenues of towns 
and villages are barricaded. 

CHAIN E, ou enceinte, d'un foarrage, 
Fr. a body of armed men thrown 
round the place w here corn and hay ar« 
gathering for the use of an army, to pro* 
tect the foragers against the attacks of 
the enemy. 

Chain r de quartiers, Fr. a regular 
chain or communication which is kept 
up between towns, villages, &c. for tlit» 
safety of an army. 

Chain e, Fr. in masonry, a height 
or elevation which contains several lay* 
or courses of bricks or rubble through- 
out the thickness of walls; also a corbel 
of stone-work. 

Chain e d'arpenteur, Fr. a surveyor's 
line, or measure. 

CHAIN EAU, Fr. pipe of a lead. 

CHAIN ES de pierres, Fr. in the con- 
struction of walls made of rubble, coins, 
or basing stones, which are laid upright 
at given distances, in order to support 

CHAISE, Fr. four pieces of strong 
timber united and put together for the 


( oo > 


^purpose of supporting any particular 
weight, as the bottom of a wind-mill, 

CHALLENGE, a cartel, or invita- 
tion to a duel, or other combat. 

Challenge is also a term applied 
to an objection made against any mem- 
ber of a court-martial, on the seme of 
real or presumed partiality. The pri- 
soner, however, in this case, must as- 
sign his cause of challenge ; of the re- 
levancy, or validity of which the mem- 
bers are themselves the judges; so that 
peremptory challenges, though allowed 
in civil cases, are not acknowledged in 
military law. The privilege of chal- 
lenging belongs equally to the prisoner 
and the prosecutor. 

CHALOUPE, Fr. a small vessel which 
is capable of accompanying ships, or of 
making short sea voyages. 

CHAMADE, in a military sense, 
means a signal made by the enemy, ei- 
ther by beat of drum, or sound of trum- 
pet, when they have any matter to pro- 
pose; such as to bury their dead, &c. 
See Parley - . 

CHAMAILLER, Fr. to fight at 
close quarters, or hand to hand, in full 

CHAMBER of a cannon, mortar, &c. 
the space where the powder lies, and is 
much narrower than the rest of the cy- 
linder. These chambers are of different 

Chamber of a mine, that place where 
the charge of powder is lodged, to blow 
up the works over it. It is generally of 
a cubical form. See Mine. 

Chamber of a battery is a place sunk 
\inder-ground for holding powder, loaded 
shells, and fuzes, where they may be out 
of danger, and preserved from rain or 

CHAMBRE, Fr. chamber, signifies 
among the French a hollow space or 
chasm which is sometimes discovered in 
pieces of ordnance after they have been 
cast. Whenever this happens, the piece 
is condemned. 

This term is now used to express the 
bottom part of the bore of a gun, womb 
of a mortar, or barrel of a musket, 
which is concave, and either round or oval. 

Chambre de port, Fr. a French sea- 
tenn, signifying that part of a harbour 
which is most retired, as an inward 
bason, a back-water, and where ships may 
be repaired and careened, &c. It is also 
called darsine. 

Chambre cCtcluse, Fr. a sort of canaj, 
or reservoir of water, which remains be- 
tween the two flood-gates of a dam; 

CHAMBREE, Fr. a military phras* 
among the French, to signify several per- 
sons lodged in the same room, barrack, 
or tent. 

CHAMFRAIN, Fr. an armour used 
to protect the horse: it was made either 
of metal or of boiled leather, and covered 
the front part of the animal's head, in 
the shape of a mask. A round, sharp 
pointed piece of iron was fixed on th» 
center of it. The chamfrainoi theComte 
de Saint Pol, (1449,) at the siege of 
Harjleur, under Charles VII. was valued 
at 30,000 crowns of the then currency; 
that of the Count de Foix, at the taking 
of Bayonne, was worth 15,000 gold 

CHAMP CLOS, Fr. camp list, in th« 
first centuries and even long after, was a 
privileged spot, granted by royal assent, 
under the authority of the laws of the 
country, where such individuals who had 
a difference or an affair of honour to set- 
tle, were admitted to private combat. 
The place allotted for tournaments was 
also called Champ clos. 

CHAMP de bataille,Fv. field of battler 
the ground on which two armies meet. 

Champ de Mars, Fr. the Field of Mars, 
an open place in the neighbourhood of 
Paris, where troops were frequently re- 
viewed by the kings of France, and in 
which the public festivals have been ob-. 
served since the Revolution. 

CHAMPION, he who undertook to 
settle the difference of contending ar- 
mies, by single combat. A warrior who 
fights in support of a cause, whether his 
own or another person's. 

It is likewise an honorary title which 
descends to the male issue of a particular 
family in England. The champion of 
England is drunk to at every coronation, 
and receives a golden cup from his new 

CHAMPION, Fr. champion. Among 
the French, this word signifies a brave 
soldier, or military man. 

CHANDELIERS, in military affairs, 
constituteakind of movable parapet, con- 
sisting of wooden frames, on which fas- 
cines are laid to cover the workmen when 
at work on the trenches. They are made 
of various sorts and sizes. 

CHANFREIN, Fr. shafferoon; a 
piece of black cloth, or black nodding 
plumes upon a horse's forehead. It also 

C H A 

( 100 ) 

C H A 

signifies the forehead itself; also a set of 
feathers for a horse on a solemn day. 

Chantuein rfc cheoal Harma, Fr. 
the front-stall, head-piece, or forehead- 
piece of a barbed horse. 

SHAFFRON, armour tor a horse's head. 

CHANGE, Fr. a word given when 
troops are on a march, directing the men 
to shift the firelock from one shoulder to 
the other; sloping arms. 

GHANTE-p/eure, Fr. an outlet made 
in the wall of a building which stands 
near a running stream, in order to let 
the water that overflows pass freely in 
and out of the place. 

CIIANTIER, Fr. a timber-yard; it 
also signifies the scalfolding in a dock- 
yard upon which shipwrights work. 

Chantier, Fr. a square piece of 
wood, which is used for the purpose of 
raising any thing. It serves to place 
barrels of gunpowder in a proper man- 
ner, and frequently to try pieces of ord- 
nance instead of frames. 

CHAFE, the metalline part put on the 
end of a scabbard, to prevent the point 
of the sword or bayonet from piercing 

CHAPE, Fr. a barrel containing an- 
other barrel, which holds gunpowder. It 
likewise means a composition of earth, 
horse-dung, and wad, that covers the 
mouth of a cannon, or mortar. 

CHAPELET, Fr. a piece of flat 
iron with three tenons or ends of timber, 
which is fixed to the end of a cannon. 

Cuapellt ilc fa; Fr. iron hat, or 

CHAPERON, Fr. a cap with a pad, 
and a pointed tail hanging behind, in 
use only a few centuries back. These 
caps were made of different sorts of 
stuffs, and of two different colours. At 
the time of the famous League, which 
ended when Henri/ of Navarre mounted 
the French throne, the opposite factions 
were distinguished by the colour of their 
chaperons. The same had taken place at 
the time of the disturbances between the 
Dukes of Orleans, or Burgundy, and of 

Chaperon, Fr. a pistol holster. 

OHAPITEAUX, Fr. two small boards 
which are joined together obliquely, and 
serve to cover the touch-hole of a piece 
of ordnance. 

CHAPLAIN, (chapelain, Fr.) he that 
perforins divine sen ice in a chapel; a cler- 
gyman that oiliciates in domestic worship. 

Chapt ws-Gcncral, a situation made 
out by order of the Duke of York, when 
commander in chief, for the government 
of brigade and regimental chaplains. 
The chaplain general is responsible to 
head-quarters tor the recommendation 
and good conduct of all such persons. 

CHAPLAINSHIP, (cAapelainie, Fr.) 
the office or business of a chaplain; also 
the possession or revenue of a chapel. 

CHAR, ) a job, or small piece of 

CHARE,) work; hence, chare-wo- 
man; also an old word for chariot, now 
called car. 

CHARACTER, in a general sense, 
implies any mark used for representing 
either ideas, or objects. 

Military Characters, ) are 

Mathematical CHARACTERS, ) cer- 
tain marks invented for avoiding pro- 
lixity, and more clearly conveying the 
thoughts of the learned in those sci- 
ences; the chief of which are as follow: 

+ is the mark of addition, and when 
placed between two numbers, shews 
that the latter is to be added to the for- 
mer, thus 5 + 3=8 is five, add three, 
make eight. 

— is the mark of subtraction, thus : 
5 — 3=2 is from five, take three, there 
remain two. 

The qualities called negative, are 
those which have the mark — before 
them without any preceding number; 
but such a mode of writing is asserted 
by Mr. Baron Mcseres, in his use of the 
negative sign, and by Mr. Frend, in his 
excellent Treatise on Algebra, to be 
neither useful nor proper. 

-f- in algebra is the sign of the real 
existence of the quality it stands before, 
and is called an affirmative, or positive 
sign. It is also the mark of addition, 
and signifies, that the numbers, or 
quantities on each side of it are added 

— this is the note of negation, ne- 
gative existence, or non-entity. It is 
the sign of subtraction, and signifies 
that the numbers, or quantities which 
come after it, are to be taken from the 
numbers, or quantities which stand be- 
fore it. 

N. B. + signifies a positive or affirm- 
ative quantity, or absolute number; 
but — signifies a fictitious or negative 
number or quantity. Thus — 8, is 8 
times less than nothing. So that any 
number or quantity, with the sign x 
being added to the same number, or 





101 ) 

C H A 

■quantity with the sign — , their sum will 
be equal to nothing. Thus 8 added 
to — 8 is equal to 0, but — 8 taken 
from x 8, is equal to 16. 

X is the sign of multiplication. It 
signifies into, or multiplied by. 

-f- is the mark of division, and signi- 
fies, that the numbers, or quantities be- 
fore it are to be divided by the numbers 
after it. 

~ are the signs of equality,and signify, 
that the quantities and numbers on the 
one side of it are equal to the quantities 
and numbers on the other. 

»s/ is the sign of radicalitf, and shews 
(according to the index of the power 
that is set over or after it) the square, 
cube or other root, that is extracted, or 
is to be so, out of any quantity. 

ly is the sign of the cube root, and 
signifies the extraction of it, as in the 
square root above. 

■ff- is the sign of continued, or geome- 
trical proportion. 

: : is the mark of geometrical pro- 
portion disjunct, and is usually placed 
between two pair of equal ratios; as 

3 : 6 : : 4 : 8, shews, that 3 is to 6, as 

4 to 8. Ov a : b: : d: e, and are thus 
read, as a is to b, so is d to c, &c. 

> or C_ are signs of majority; thus 
c > b expresses that a is greater than b. 

< or _Z3 are signs of minority; and 
when we would denote that a is less than 
b, we write a < b, or a _3 b, Ike. 

± signifies more or less such a quantity, 
and is often used in extraction of roots, 
completing of squares, &c. 

Artillery-Cn araciers, most generally 
used, are as follow : 

C. qr. lb. which signify centners, or 
hundreds of 112 pounds, qr. quarters of 
28 pounds, lb. pounds. Thus a piece of 
artillery with 14 : 3 : 16, is 14 hundred 
3 quarters, and 16 pounds. 

Pr. signifies pounder. Thus 2 1 pr. is 
a 24 pounder. 

T. C. qr. lb. signifies tuns, centners, 
quarters, pounds; and 28 lb. is one 
quarter; 4 qr. is one centner, or 112 
pounds: and 20 C. is one ton. 

lb. oz. dr. mean pounds, ounces, and 
drams : 16 dr. is one ounce, and 16 oz. 
is one pound. 

lb. oz. dwts. gr. are pounds, ounces, 
penny-weights, and grains; of which 
24 gr. make one penny-weight, 20 dwt. 
make one ounce, and 12 oz. one pound 
of troy-weight. 

Characters in fire-works, are the 

M Means meal-powder. 

3 Corned powder. 

•0- Saltpetre. 

Z Brimstone. 

C Z Crude Sulphur. 

C 4- Charcoal. 

C S Sea-coal. 

B R Beech raspings. 

S X Steel or iron filings. 

B X Brass-dust, 

G x Glass-dust. 

T x Tanner's dust, 

C I Cast-iron. 

C A Crude antimony. 

36 Camphor. 

A Y Yellow amber. 

L S Lapis calaminaris. 

(Tj Gum. 

B L Lamp-black. 

G I Ising-glass. 

W Spirit of wine. 

5 T Spirit of turpentine. 

PO Oil of spike 

Characters used in the arithmetic 
of infinities, are dots over letters, denot- 
ing the character of an infinitesimal, or 
fluxion. Thus, the first fluxions of x, 

y, x, being marked thus, x, y, z ; the 

second are x, y, z; and the third 

x, y, z. 

Geographical Characters are °, 
', ", '", ike. which signify degrees, mi- 
nutes, seconds, thirds. Thus 40°, 35', 
18", 55'", is read 40 degrees, 35 minutes, 
18 seconds, 55 thirds. It is also used in 
the elevation of pieces of artillery. 

CHARBON, Fr. See Aigremore. 
■ CHARDONS pour monter a I'assaut, 
Fr. cramp-irons used by scaling parties. 
Previous to the cramp-iron being known, 
the soldiers, to prevent their slipping in 
the attempt of storming a rampart, used 
to take off one shoe. At present they 
use the cramp-iron, or chardon de fer, 
which is fixed over the shoe by means of 
a strap witfi a buckle, or is screwed in 
the heel. We do not imagine this second, 
method to be so safe as the other, espe- 
cially when the attempt is extremely 

i Chardon3, Fr. iron points in the 
shape of a dart, which are placed on the 
top of a gate, or wall, to prevent per- 
sons from getting over it. 

CHARGE, in gunnery, implies the 


( 102 ) 


Quantity of powder, shot, hall, shells, 
grenadoes, ike. with which a gun, mor- 
tar, or howitzer, is loaded. 

Tlie usual charge of powder for heavy 
and medium guns, is one third the 
weight of the shot for round and for 
case shot; that for light field guns is 
only one fourth the weight of the shot. 
Howitzers, 8-inch, are fired with Slbs. of 
powder; 5| inch, heavy, .with Slbs., and 
5$ inch, light, with 111). The charge for 
spherical case-shot is the same as for 
the guns and howitzers. Charges for 
mortars are determined by the range re- 
quired. The charge of powder, for sea 
service, is one fourth the round shot's 
weight for case, and one third for round 

Charge is also the attack of cavalry; 
and charge bayonet is a word of com- 
mand given to infantry, to rush on the 
enemy whom they are to charge at the 
point of the bayonet. To sound a charge 
\> the sound of the trumpet as a signal 
for cavalry to begin the attack. 

Charge, in military law, is the spe- 
cification of any crime, or offence, for 
which a commissioned, a non-commis- 
sioned officer, or soldier is tried before 
a court-martial. In all charges of this 
nature, the time and place, when and 
where the crime or offence was commit- 
ted, must he set forth with accuracy 
and precision. 

CHARGE, Fr. The French techni- 
cally use this term in two different 
senses, viz. charge precipitin, and charge 
it volonte. Charge precipitin is given 
when the four times are expressly mark- 
ed, as churgcz vos armes y un, deur, 
quatre ; and applies chiefly to the drill. 
Charge a volonte is executed in the 
same manner as the charge precipitin, 
with this difference, that the soldiers do 
not wait for the specific words. 

Charge de mine, Fr, the disposition 
of a certain quantity of powder, which 
is used for the explosion of a mine. 

CHARGED cylinder, in gunnery, im- 
plies that part of the chace of a gun, 
which contains the powder and ball. 

CHARGER bat/onclte, Fr. to charge 

CHARGER, (cheval de guerre, Fr.) 
any horse belonging to an officer on which 
he rides in action or parade, ike. 

Chargers (chargeoirs, Fr.) are either 
bandoleers, or little flasks that contain 
powder for loading or priming. 

CHARGER, Fr. to load a piece of 
ordnance, or a lire-arm. 

Charger une mine, Fr. to place the 
quantity of gunpowder necessary for the 
explosion of a mine. 

Charger avec Forme blanche, Fr. to 
charge with fixed bayonet, or sword in 

CHARGES mihtairea, Fr. military 
commissions and appointments. 

CHA RI AGE, Fr. land-carriage. The 
French also say Charroi. 

CHARIER du canon, Fr. to convey 
ordnance. It is likewise used to ex- 
press the carriage of ammunition and 
military stores. 

CHARIOT, a car, in which men of 
arms were anciently placed. These 
were armed with scythes, hooks, ike. 

CHARIOT, Fr. wagon. 

Chariot coOT3ert,Fr. a covered wagon. 

Chariot a porter corps, Fr. a wagon 
upon four wheels, which is used for the 
carriage of a piece of ordnance that i* 
not mounted. 

Chariot a riddles, Fr. a four-wheel -% 
ed wagon with railing round its sides. 
It is used in the conveyance of cannon 
balls, shells, and ammunition. 

Chariots de guerre, Fr. armed cha- 

Cii a riots (Tu tie artnee,Yr. wagon-train. 

Chariots d'artiuerie, Fr. artillery- 

Chabiots de$ vivres, Fr. provision 

Chariots d\mtils, a pioniers et 
tranchans, Fr. wagons to carry pioneers 
tools, ike. for the attack, or defence, of 

CHARPENTE, Fr. carpentry. 

ClIARPENTIER, Fr. a carpenter. 

Charpentier $oldat, Fr. an enlisted 
man who is employed in carpentry work 
for military purposes. 

CHARPIE, Fr. lint; such as is used 
in dressing wounds. 

CIIARRONS, Fr. wheelwrights. 

CHARROYER, Fr. to convey any 
thing in carts or wagons. 

CHART, or sea-CnART, is a hydro- 
graphical map, or a projection of some 
part of the earth's superficies in piano, 
for the use of navigators and geogra- 

P/ajic-Chart is a representation of 
some part of the superficies of the ter- 
raqueous globe, in which themeridians 
are supposed parallel to each other, the 
parallels of latitude at equal distances, 
and consequently the degrees of latitude 
and longitude every where equal to each 

C H A 

( 105 ) 

C H A 

.Chart of reduction is that where the 
meridians are represented by right lines, 
inclining towards each other; thence it 
appears by construction, that these 
charts must correct the errors of the 
plane ones. But since these parallels 
should cut the meridians at right angles, 
and do not, they are defective, inasmuch 
as they exhibit the parallels inclined to 

Mercators-CiiAT.i is that where the 
meridians are straight lines parallel to 
each other, and equidistant: these pa- 
rallels are also straight lines, and paral- 
lel to each other; but the distance be- 
tween increases from the equinoctial to- 
wards each pole, in the ratio of the 
secant of the latitude to the radius. 

Globular-Cu art, a meridional pro- 
jection, wherein the distance of the eye 
from tlie plane of the meridian, upon 
which the projection is made, is supposed 
to be equal to the sine of the angle of 
45°. This projection comes the nearest 
of all to tiie iiature of the ijobe, because 
the meridians therein are placed at equal 

Chorograp/uc-CH arts are descrip- 
-tions of particular countries. 

Hetiographic-C harts, descriptions of 
the body of the snn, and of the macula? 
or spots observed in it. 

Selenographic-C harts, particular de- 
scriptions of the spots of the moon, her 
appearance and macula?. Hevelius has 
written verv accurately on Selenography. 

Te/fgrap/tic-Cn arts are descriptions 
of the telegraph on paper. 

Topograph ic-C a arts are specific de- 
lineations of military positions, in any 
given tract of country. Companies of 
topographers have been formed among 
the French, for the purpose of accurately 
and expeditiously pointing out to gene- 
rals and commanding officers, all the re- 
lative points of locality, &C. 

Magna CHART A, the great charter, 
originally signed by King John, contain- 
ing a number of laws ordained in the 
ninth year of Henry III. and confirm- 
ed by Edward I. comprehending and ex- 
hibiting, in honest English, the sum of 
till the written laws of England; parti- 
cularly that invaluable and exclusive 
privilege which every Englishman, in a 
civil or military -capacity enjoys, of be- 
ing tried by his peers. Even the dread- 
ful crime of high-treason, or an attempt 
to destroy one's lawful sovereign, must 
pass through the ordeal of a jury. Com- 

mitment for a breach of privilege against 
the House of Commons, is, however, 
considered, by some persons, as an ex- 
ception; but the question is at issue. 

CHARTAGNE, Fr. a strong en- 
trenchment, most generally concealed 
from the view of the enemy, and which 
is used in woods and forests, for the de- 
fence of important passages. 

CHASE-g?«j,a gun in the fore-part of 
a ship which is fired upon those that are 
pursued. Bailey calls chase guns the 
guns in the head or stern of a ship; the 
latter, however, are generally called 
stern chasers. 

Chase of a gun. See Chace. 

To CiiASE, to pursue. 

CHASSE, Fr. in mechanics, the vi- 
brating motion which puts a body in 

CiiASsz-Coquins, Fr. See Baxdou- 

Chasse, Fr. a charge of coarse pow- 
der which is thrown into the hottom of 
the cartouche, to facilitate the explosion 
of the fire-work it contains. 

CHASSER, Fr. to drive away; to 
force an enemy to quit a position, &c. 

Chasser, Fr. among workmen, to 
lasten together pieces of joinery by 
driving them home with a mallet, &c. 

CHASSEURS, Fr. light infantry men, 
forming a select body upon the left of a 
battalion, in the same manner that gre- 
nadiers are posted on the right. They 
must be particularly active, courageous, 
and enterprising. 

Chasseurs, Fr. See Hunters. 

Cjiasseurs a cheval, Fr. a species of 
light troops in the French service. 

CHASSIS, Fr. a square platform 
made of wood, which is used in min- 

Chasms tie gallerie, Fr. beams of difv 
ferent lengths, which the miners use to 
support the earth in proportion as they 
advance into the gallery. These beams 
support other transversal ones which 
prevent the earth from falling down; the 
whole is called chassis du mineur. 

Chassis a secret, Fr. a particular 
method of drawing lines upon a sheet 
of paper, and folding it in such a man- 
ner, that when the words which are 
written in the intervals are read, ther 
appear incomprehensible, except to th« 
person who is provided with a corre- 
spondent sheet, and who by placing it 
upon the one received, unravels the sig- 
nification of its contents.. 


( 104. ) 


Chassis, Fr. sash; frame; case. 

Chassis defer, Fr. iron frame work. 

Chassis dc mine, Fr. frames which 
are made for the galleries in a mine. 

CHASSOIR, Fr. cooper's driver. 

CHAT, Fr. a piece of iron having one, 
two, or three very sharp prongs, 
claws; arranged in a triangular shape, 
when it has three prongs. This piece of 
iron is fixed to a shaft. It is used in 
the examination of a piece of ordnance, 
and by being introduced into the bore, 
shews whether it be honey-combed, da- 
maged, or otherwise defective. 

There is another species of chat which 
differs a little from the one we have just 
described. It consists of two branches 
of iron, that are tixed to the end of a 
piece of the same metal, and have, each 
of them, two steel prongs or claws. One 
of these branches contains a hinge with 
a spring so fixed, that when the chat is 
put into the bore, the least cavity re- 
leases the spring, and the defect is in- 
stantly discovered. Master-founders, 
who by DO means like the invention, call 
the common chat Ic (liable, the devil; 
and they distinguish the one with two 
branches, by terming it la malice du 
diuble, the malice of the devil. 

Chat, Fr. a kind of turret formerly 
in use amongst the French, for the con- 
veyance of the troops who were going to 
besiege a town. 

CHATEAU, Fr. a small castle which 
stands by itself", and is sometimes occu- 
pied by a troop or company of soldiers 
who mean to hold out. 

Chateaux des liuvrcs, Fr. small forts, 
or covered batteries, which are built on 
the shore close to sea-ports, in order to 
protect the shipping that may lie off. 

CHATELET, Fr. in former times a 
small castle or fortress. The officer 
who had the command of it was called 
Chatelain. At present a place of con- 
finement, in Pans, is so called. 

CHATIMENT, Fr. punishment, 

CHATFE, Fr. a small two masted 

CHATTER les pieces, Fr. to search, 
to probe, or examine pieces of ordnance 
with a chat, in order to discover whe- 
ther there ate any defects within the 
bore of a cannon. 

CHAUDE-C/*asse, Fr. running after 
a prisoner. 

CHAUDEMENT, Fr. hotly ; warmly. 

CHAUDIERES, Fr. are vessels made 

use of in military magazines, to boil 
pitch in for various purposes. 

CHAUDUON, Fr. a kettle; a 

CHAUFFA6E militairc, Fr. a ration 
of wood or other fuel. 

CHAUFFE, Fr. a spot where the 
wood is collected and burnt in a foun- 
dry. The chauffe stands three feet un- 
der the side of the furnace, the flames 
which issue from it spread over every 
part of the inside of the furnace, and by 
their intense heat dissolve the metal. 

CHAUFFER I'anticliambre, Fr. a figu- 
rative term used among the French, to 
Minify in waiting, or dancing attend- 

Chauffer une troupe, une forleresse, 
Fr. to keep up a hot and continual dis- 
charge of ordnance or musketry against 
an armed body of men, or fortified place. 

Chauffer, Fr. to heat; to warm. 

Chauffer la tranchee, Fr. to com- 
mence an attack by filing into an ene- 
my's trenches. 

CHAUFFERIE, Fr. a kind of forge. 

CHAUFFOIR, Fr. a wanning place. 

CHAUFOUR, Fr. a lime-kiln. 

CHAUFOURNIER,Fr.a lime-maker. 

CHAUSSE-^rflprs, Fr. are what we 
call crow's feet or caltrops; they con- 
sist of nails with 4 or 5 points, of which 
one always stands upward, above the 
level of the ground; each point is 4 or 5 
inches long. They are usually tixed in 
different parts of a breach, or in any 
place which is accessible to cavalry, to 
prevent its approach: sometimes they 
are of use to obstruct the passage of 
cavalry through the streets. 

Chaussee, Fr. any paved way which 
is raised across a morass, &c. It also 
signifies the broad road. 

Chaussee, or Rez de Chaussee, Fr. 
an old expression for the level of the 
field or the plain ground. 

CHAUX, Fr. lime. 

CHECAYA, the second officer in 
command among the Janizaries; the 
Aga's lieutenant. 

CIIECK-7/i«te, a term used at the 
game of chess, when the king is shut up 
so close that there is no way left for his 
escape. Hence, according to Spencer, 
check-mate signifies defeat, overthrow. 

To Cnr.cK-male, to block up; to ren- 
der it impossible to move without being 

CHEEKS, a general name among 
mechanics, for those pieces of timber in 


( 105 ) 


their machines, which are double, and | plished manners. His fidelity to his 
perfectly corresponding to each other. j sovereign was proverbial; and though 
In the construction of military carriages, I the reigning powers at that time tried 
&c. the term is used to denote the strong their utmost to make him withdraw his 

planks which form the sides. 

To CHEER, {animer, Er.) to incite; 
to encourage ; to inspire; to huzza. 

Cheers, (a military term used among 
the English in the same sense that the 
word acclamation* obtains among the 
French,) signs of joy ; assurances of 
Success before, or, after an engagement; 
testimonies of loyalty and affection on 
the appearance of a chief magistrate, 
general, &c. expressed by huzzas. 

CHEF, Jr.. the chief or head of a 
party, troop, company, regiment, or 
army. The person who has the princi- 
pal command. 

Chef d'escadre, Fr. a general officer, 
who commands any part of an army, or 
division of a fleet. 

Chefs de files, Fr. the front rank of a 
battalion, consisting generally of the 
best and bravest soldiers. 

Chef de file, Fr. the man who stands 
on the right of a troop or company. 

PITAL, a noble edifice which stands on 
the northern bank of the river Thames, 
and was originally begun by James the 
First, in the fifth year of his reign, for a 
college to consist of a number of learned 

For this purpose a Provost and Fel- 
lows were incorporated by the title of 
King James's College, Chelsea. 

This corporation he endowed, by his 
letters patent, with the reversion of cer- 
tain lands in Chelsea, then under lease 
to Charles Earl of Nottingham. 

After the restoration, King Charles 
II. wanting a convenient hospital for the 
reception of sick, maimed, and superan- 
nuated soldiers, converted the unfinished 
buildings of this college to that use; 
whence it has still occasionally retained 
the title of The College. He accord- 
ingly began to erect his royal hospital on 
this spot, but did not complete it; it was 
carried on during the short reign of 
Jams II. and finished in the reign of 
King William and Queen Mary, by Sir 
Christopher Wren. One of the princi- 
pal contributors to this patriotic institu- 
tion was Sir Stephen Fox. He was 
grandfather to the late Mr. Fox, and 
uncestor of the Earls of Ilchester and 
the Lords Holland, and w^s a man of 
the greatest abilities and most accom- 

allegiance from his exiled master, King 
Charles II. they found him incorrupti- 
ble. But what will endear his memory 
to the latest posterity is, his being the 
first projector of the noble design of 
Chelsea Hospital, having contributed to 
the expense of it about 130,000/. His 
motive to it was known from his own 
words: he said " he could not bear to 
see the common soldiers, who had spent 
their strength in our service, beg at our 
doors." He therefore did what he could 
to remove such a scandal from the king- 
dom. He first purchased some grounds 
near the old college at Chelsea, which 
had been escheated to the crown, in the 
reign of James I. and on these grounds 
the present college is erected. Nume- 
rous were his public and private chan- 
ties, He lived to see his noble design 
take effect, and died October 28th, 17 16, 
aged 89, universally regretted. 

Non-commissioned officers and pri- 
vate men, who have been wounded or 
maimed in the service, are entitled to the- 
benefit of this hospital. There are in 
and out-pensioners belonging to the 
establishment, and the provisions of it 
extend to the militia under the following 
restrictions; Serjeants who have served 
fifteen years, and corporals or drummers 
who have served twenty, may be recom- 
mended to the bounty. Serjeants on 
the establishment may likewise receive 
that allowance, with their pay in the 
militia. But Serjeants who have been 
appointed subsequent to the passing of 
the 26th of George III. are not entitled 
to it under twenty years service. 

CHEMIN-coarerf. SeeCovERT-WAT. 

Chemin den rondes, in fortification, a 
space between the rampart and low pa- 
rapet under it, for the rounds to g<< 
about it. 

CHEMINER, Fr. in fortification, to 
carry on some particular work, such as 
a trench, &c. towards a given object. 

CHEMISE, Fr. an obsolete term to 
signify the revetement made of brick 
work, which was formerly constructed to 
secure works made of earth, especially 
those that were formed of sandy soil, 
and would necessarily require too large 
a talus to support the weight. The mo- 
dern term i& ouvra^e revitu, place re- 

C H E 

( iot» ) 


( 'nr.Misr. (i feu, Fr. a piece of cloth 
which is steeped in combustible matter, 
and is made use of against a scaling 

Chemise de feu, Fr. a French sea- 
terni, to signify several pieces of old 
sails of various sizes, which, alter they 
have been pitched, and thoroughly soak- 
ed in other combustible matter, such as 
oil of petrol, camphor, c%:c. may be nailed 
to an enemy's ship on boarding her, and 
when set hie to, will consume the same. 

Chemise dc i/utU/r, Fr. a shirt of mail. 

Chemise dt coup deinuin, dc surprise, 
Fr. a shirt made of cloth highly bleach- 
ed, and of which a general provides a 
number when he premeditates a coup dc 
main. This chemise must not come be- 
low the waist, in order that it may be 
got over the coat and cartouch box. The 
general directs these shirts to be made 
either with two sleeves, with one, or 
without any at all. A coup de wain Or 
this kind must be kept secret till the 
moment of its execution. This strata 
gem is practised to prevent a soldier 
from attacking his brother soldier. 

CHEMISTRY, the art of examining 
bodies, and of extracting from them any 
of their component parts. 

CHENAL, Fr. a channel, or gutter. 

CHESS. SeePorajtwi-BiuDGE. 

Chess, a nice and abstruse game, sup- 
posed to have been invented during the 
siege of Troy. This game is particularly 
adapted to military capacities. 

CHEVAL, Fr. a horse. 

Cheval de bois, Fr. a wooden-horse, 
a military chastisement, which common 
prostitutes, who followed the French 
army, were subject to undergo, by expos- 
ing them, we presume, on a machine of 
that description. 

Cheval ic/opc, Fr. a lame horse. 

Cheval encloue, Fr. a horse that has 
been pricked or cloyed in being shod. 

Cheval morvcu, Fr. a horse that has 
the glanders. 

Cheval d'ordonnance, Fr. a horse 
which is impressed in a town or village 
for some military purpose. 

.•/-Cheval, Fr. on horseback. Also, 
To horse! A notice given by sound of 
trumpet for dragoons to mount. 

Cheval de bataille, Fr. a charger. 

Cheval defrise, Fr. See Chevaux 

Cheval de bat, Fr. a bat, or pack- 
horse. It also signifies, figuratively, a 
drudge; a looby. 

Etr# a Cheval sur une riviere, sur' 

une cliaussec, Fr. to be encamped or 
drawn up on each side of a river, or 

CHEVALEMENT, Fr. in architec- 
ture, a sort of prop which is made of one 
or two pieces of timber, with a head, 
laid buttress fashion, upon a rest. It 
serves to support jambs, beams, &c. 

CHEVALER, Fr. to prop; to sup- 
port; also to run to and fro. 

CHEVALER,in the manege, is said of a 
horse, when, in passing upon a walk or 
trot, bis off fore leg crosses the near fore 
leg every second motion. 

CHEVALERESQUE, Fr. chivalrous. 

CHEVALET, Fr. a sort of bell-tent, 
formerly used in the French service, 
when an army encamped. It resembles, 
in some degree, the wigwam of the In- 

Chevalet, Fr. a raft for troops to 
cross rivers upon ; also a wooden horse, 
used in military punishments. 

ChevaL£T d'annes, Fr. a covered rack 
which is made in the front of a line of 
encampment for the regular distribution 
and security of the fire-arms belonging 
to the different troops, or companies. 
This is sometimes cMedfaisceau d'annes, 
a pile of arm-.. 

CHEVALIER, iu a general sense, sig- 
nifies a knight, or horseman. Chevalier 
also means a buttress. 

Chevalier d'indvstric, Fr. a sharper. 

Chevalier d'honncur, FY. first gen- 
tleman usher. 

Chevalier du guet, Fr. captain of a 
watch on horseback. 

Chevaliers errans, Fr. knights- 

CHEVALIERE, Fr. a knight's lady. 

CHEVAU-LEGERS, Fr. a corps of 
cavalry, which, during the old monarchy, 
was composed of two hundred gentlemen, 
making part of the King of France's 
guard. It has been noticed, to the 
honour of this corps, that they never lost 
their kettle drums, nor their colours. 
They were established by Henry IV. 
who first exclusively confined the hommes 
d'annes to the natives of Navarre. 

The French also formerly said un 
chevuu leger, in the singular number, 
when they spoke of any individual be- 
longing to a particular corps of light 
horse, who were not heavily armed. See 
Dictionnaire de I' ' Academic 

CHEVAUCHEE, Fr. a journey, or 
round which is made on horseback by 
persons employed officially. It is only 
used iu this sense. 


( 107 ) 

C H L 

CHEVAUCHER, Fr. an old word 
which is only used in the following 
phrases, chevaucher court, chevaucher 
long, to ride short, to ride long. 

CHEVAUX-de-frise, in fortification, 
a large joist or piece of timber, about 5 
or 6 inches square, and 10 or 12 feet in 
length ; into the sides whereof are driven 
a great number of wooden pins, about 6 
feet long, and 1£ inch diameter, crossing 
one another at right angles, and pointed 
with iron. They are used on number- 
less occasions; as to stop up the breaches, 
to secure the avenues of a camp from 
the inroads both of horse and foot, &c. 
They are sometimes mounted on wheels, 
with artificial fires, to roll down in an 
assault, &c. They were first used at 
the siege of Groningen, in 1658. 

CHEVET, Fr. a quoin or wedge; 
likewise that part of a wooden draw- 
bridge to which the chains are fastened. 

CHEVETAINE, Fr.a term anciently 
used among the French to signify the 
leader of a troop, or company. The 
chevetaine was the same as cupitaine or 
connctab/e, with this difference, that the 
commission only lasted during the time 
of hostilities. 

CHEVTLLE d'affut, Fr. an iron bolt 
which goes across the whole of a gun 

Cheville a oreilles, Fr. an iron bolt 
of the above description which has 

Cheville ouvriere, Fr. a large fiat 
headed nail, which confines the avant- 
train to the gun carriage of a piece of 

Cheville a tourniquet, Fr. a stick or 
round piece of wood, which serves to 
tighten a rope in packing. 

Chevilles de travaux militaircs, Fr. 
large nails used in the artillery. See 

CHEVISANCE, Fr. enterprize, feat, 
or achievement. 

CIIEVRi:, Fr. a crab or gin 
Chevrette. • 

CHEYRETTE, Fr. a kind of gin. 
Among the many inventions for raising 
guns or mortals into their carriage s, this 
engine is very useful: it is made of two 
pieces of wood about 4 feet long, stand- 
ing upright upon a third, which is 
square: they are about a foot asunder, 
and parallel; pierced with holes oppo- 
site one another, to hold a strong bolt of 
iron, which may be raised higher or 
lower at pleasure : it may be used with 

a hand-spike, which takes its poise over 
this bolt, to raise any thing by force. 

CHEVRONS, Fr. rafters; also the 
distinguishing marks on the sleeves of 
non-commissioned officers. 

CHEVROTINES, Fr. leaden bullets 
of small calibre; there are generally 60 
to it pound weight. 

CllIAJA-boch, the third general of- 
ficer in command among the Janizaries. 
We may judge of the power of the Aga, 
who is chief commandant of the Jani- 
zaries, from the rights and authority of 
his second lieutenant: he is captain of 
the richest company, which he governs 
despotically; he inherits the whole pro- 
perty of all the Janizaries who die with- 
out issue, or leave no relations behind 
them; and appoints his subaltern officers 
to be governors of the fortified towns. 

CHIAUS, the captain of a company 
of Janizaries; this officer, of high rank, 
has two captain-lieutenants under his 

CHICANERY, (chicane, Fr.) trick; 
stratagem. In war it signifies the va- 
rious expedients which are resorted to. 
Hence chicaner le terrein, Stc. 

CHIEF, or CniEETAiu,a leader, or 

CHIEN d'une urme a feu, Fr. that 
part of the cock of a musket or pistol 
which holds the flint. 

CHIFFRES, Fr. ciphers, certain cha- 
racters, consisting of different names 
and words which are used in military 

CHILIARCH, (chiliarque, Fr.) the 
name given in Athens to a captain who 
commanded 1000 men. 

CHIOURME, Fr. the crew of galley 
slaves and honavogliers or volunteers. 

CHIOUS, an officer attached to the 
grand signior. 
' ( H I RURfilE, IV. surgery. 

CHIRURGIEN, Fr. surgeon, from 

twu Greek words signifying hand and 

See | a oik ; and meaning an operator with 

'the hand, in contradistinction of phy- 

sicians, who work with the head. 

( ' ii i R r nc i LK-major, Fr. su rgeon- 

Cuirukgien d\in r'egiment x Ev. a re- 
gimental surgeon. 

CHISSEL, an instrument used in 
carpentry, joinery, masonry, sculpture, 

CIIIURTS, certain Turks expert in 

CHLAMIS, a short cloak which com- 

C H U 

( 108 ) 

C I M 

po*ed part of the military dress of tlie 
Gieeks: it was worn over the tunic. The 
Roman emperors al£o adopted the chlamis 

for their military dress, and called it 

CHOC, Fr. shock; the percussion 
which takes place in an engagement be- 
tween adverse armies; the running foul 
of one ship against another. 

CHOPINE, Fr. a French half-pint; 
an English pint, Winchester measure. 

CHORD of an arch is a right line 
drawn from one extremity of an arch to 
the other: called also the suhtense. 

CHOROBATTS, Fr. a level used by 
the ancients with a double square, in the 
form of a T. 

CHOROGRAPHY, in c nginec ring, is 
the art of making a drawing or map of a 
country, province, or district. 

Chorography, (chorographie,) Fr. a 
general description of a country. It is 
not limited, as Geography or Topogra- 
phy ; the first comprehending the de- 
scription of the earth, and the second of 
any particular part of it, with its de- 

CHOSE publique, Fr. public safety; 

CHOU AX, Fr. the name of a counter- 
revolutionary party which appeared in 
France in November, 1793, after the 
Vendeans had crossed the river Loire. 
The original founders of this party were 
four brothers, whose real name was Cot- 
tcreau. They were called Chouan from 
a corruption of the word chat-huant,(un 
owl,) because they imitated the cry of 
this bird, whenever they wished to be 
known to each other in the woods, or 
during the night. At the beginning, they 
seldom ventured beyond the forests of 
Pert re and Guerche. Having been re- 
inforced by the junction of the royalists 
of Brittany, La Manche and Calvados, 
and of the remnant of Talmont's army 
after the actions of Mans and Savcnay, 
they assumed a regular form, and in 
the name of Louis XVIII. made war 
upon a larger scale. Out of the four 
brothers only one survived; the other 
three having fallen in battle. 

CHOUDREE, hid. troops employed 
to go to market to buy forage for the 
troops; also a monev lender. 

proper sense in which they can be taken 
with respect to military matters, relates 
to the militia. They are to pay, when 
ordered by two deputy lieutenants, half 
the price of voluuteers, to persons 

chosen by ballot, on 
They aie likewise, with 

penalty of 51. 
the consent of 
the inhabitants, to provide volunteers, 
and make a rate for the expense, which 
must not exceed 61. per man. They arc 
liable to have the rates on places where 
the militia has not been raised, levied 
upon them. One penny in the pound is 
allowed them for all the money they 
collect. In the counties of Kent and 
Sussex, they possess the power of con- 
stables, for the purposes specilied in the 
26th of the King. 

CHUTE cTeau, Fr. the sloping, or 
downward direction of a conduit of 
water, from its reservoir to the upward 
shooting of a water-spout. 

CICATRICE, Fr. a scar; the mark 
which a wound leaves upon the surface 
of the human body. 

Se CICATRISER, Fr. to heal; to 
become sound. 

CID, Fr. a word borrowed from the 
Arabic, signifying Chief'; Commander; 

CIDARIS, Fr. the turban or cap 
worn by the kings of Persia, Armenia, 
Pontus, and Egypt. 

CTERGE d'eau, Fr. several water- 
spouts which play in the same direction, 
into a long basin at the head of a canal 
and cascade. 

C1EIBO, a round table upon which 
the Roman and Greek soldiers used to 
lay down their shields, when they re- 
turned from an expedition. 

CILICES, Fr. coarse tissues of 
horse or goat's hair, quilted with sea- 
weeds or cow-hair stuffed between. 
The ancients used to hang these cilices 
over the parapets, the ditches and 
breaches, to stop the darts or arrows 
that were shot from bulistas or cata- 
pult as. 

CILICIA, or Cilice, a dress made of 
goat's-hair, worn by the troops in an- 
cient times, and invented by the Ci- 
licians. When properly woven it is 

CILINDRE, Fr. See Cylinder. 

CIMENT, Fr. See Cement. 

CTMETERRE, Fr. scimitar. 

C1METIERE, Fr. church-yard; bu- 

CIMIER, Fr. a heavy ornament, 
which the ancient knights or chevaliers, 
in France and in other countries, were 
accustomed to wear upon their helmets; 
small figures were afterwards substitu- 
ted in their stead. 

CIMITER. See Scimitar. 

C I R 

( 109 ) 

C I R 

CINCTURE, ( ceintre, Fr.) a girdle. 
In architecture, a ring, list, or orlo, at 
the top and bottom of the shaft, at one 
end from the base, and at the ether from 
the capital. That at the bottom is 
particularly called apophyses, as if the 
pillar took its height from it; and that 
at top, colarin or collar, from the 
French colier, and sometimes annulus, 
a ring. 

CINCTUS, the appellation given to 
a Roman soldier, who was bound to 
carry arms and to fight. He received at 
the samt time the cingulum, (a belt,) to 
be stript of which was reckoned the ut- 
most disgrace. 

CINQUAIN, in ancient military his- 
tory, was an order of battle, to draw up 
5 battalions, so that they might make 3 
lines ; that is, a van, main body, and re- 
serve. Supposing the 5 battalions to be 
in a line, the 2d and 4th advance and 
form the van, the 3d falls back and 
forms the rear, the 1st and 5th form 
the main body upon the same ground. 
Lastly, every battalion ought to have a 
squadron of horse on both the right and 
left wings. Any number of regiments, 
produced by multiplying by 5, may be 
drawn up in the same manner. 

CINQUENELLES, Fr. thick ropes 
which are used in artillery for the pur- 
pose of throwing a bridge of boats, or 
pontoons, across a river. 

CINTRE, ou ceintre, Fr. This word 
expresses the figure of an arch, and of 
all curved timber, which is used in 
roofs, &c. 

CINTRER, Fr. to lay the wooden 
frame work or curve in order to esta- 
blish the bending of an arch. Cintrer 
or Ceintrer signifies also to give more 
or less circle to an arch or vault. 

CIPHER, ) (chiffre, Fr.) one of the 
CYPHER, $ numeral characters or 
figures, in this form, 0. The cipher in 
itself implies a privation of value; but 
when placed with other characters on 
the left hand of it, in common arith- 
metic, it serves to augment each of their 
values by ten; and in decimal arith- 
metic, lessens the value of each figure at 
the right thereof in the same proportion. 
Figuratively, a thing called a man, with 
or without titles, which has neither ta- 
lents nor industry to do anything for 
the community at large, and is a splen- 
did nothing in society. 

CIRCITOR, a Roman officer, who, 
after having received his orders from a 

ascertain whether the sentinels vver* 
alert and steady at their posts. 

CIRCLE, in mathematics, is a plane 
figure, comprehended under one line 
only, to which all right lines drawn from 
a point in the middle of it, are equal to 
one another. 

Circle, (cercle, Fr.) a smooth sur- 
face which is terminated by one curved 
line, called a circumference, within which 
there is a point called a center, that is 
equidistant from all the points of the 

Demi-CiRCLE, (demi-cercle, Fr.) con- 
sists of two equal parts of a circle di- 
vided by the diameter. 

Circle, called by the French cercle 
generateur. See Cycloid. 

Concentrical Circles, (cercles con- 
ccntriques, Fr.) circles described upon 
the same center, with parallel circumfe- 
rences. Eccentric circles are such as, 
being contained within one another, have 
not been described by the same center, 
and whose circumferences are not pa- 

CIRCUIT, (circuit, Fr.) that space 
which immediately surrounds a town or 
place; it also signifies the march of a 
body of men, who do not move in a di- 
rect line towards any given object. 

CIRCULAR, any thing that is de- 
scribed or moved in a round ; as the 
circumference of a circle, or the sur- 
face of a circle. 

Circular lines are such straight 
lines as are divided from the divisions 


made in the arch of a circle; as sines, 
tangents, secants, &c. 

Circular numbers are such whose 
powers end in the roots themselves; as 
5, whose square is 25, and cube 125. 

Circular, (circulaire, Fr.) an official 
paper or document which is sent to the 
army, or to any department belonging 
to the state, for the guidance and infor- 
mation of individuals thereto belonging. 

CIRCUMCELLIONS, a set of mad 
Christians in St. Augustin's time, who 
strolled about from place to place; and 
to get repute, either would lay violent 
hands upon themselves, or get others to 
kill them. 

CTRCUM FERENCE, (circonference, 
Fr.) a compass; a circle; the periphery 
or limit of a circle. 

ment used by engineers for measuring 

CIRCUMSPECT, (circonspect, Fr.) 
tribune, began to visit the posts, and to 'a person who observes every thing, cor* 

C I R ( «D 

ceals what lie designs to put in execu- 


C I T 

Hon, and is cautious with regard to 
every thing he says, or does. Such ought 
every commanding officer of a regiment 
and every general ot an army to be. 

CIRCUMSPECTION, (circonspec- 
tivn, Fr.) dignified reserve, great pru- 
dence, and marked discretion. These 
are qualifications essentially necessary 
to every man who holds a public situa- 

circumvallation, (circonvallation, ou 
lignes de circunrallation, Fr.) 8 fortifi- 
cation of earth, consisting of a parapet 
and trench, made round the town in- 
tended to be besieged, when any mo- 
lestation is apprehended from parties of 
the enemy, which may march to relieve 
the place. 

Before the attack of a place is begun, 
care is to be taken to have the most 
exact plan of it possible; and upon this, 
the line of circumvallation, and the at- 
tack are projected. This line, being a 
fortification opposed to an enemy that 
may come from the open country to re- 
lieve the besieged, ought to have its 
defences directed against them; that is, 
so as to fire from the town : and the 
besiegers are to be encamped behind 
this line, and between it and the place. 
The camp should be as much as possible 
out of the reach of the shot of t lie place: 
and the line of circumvallation, which 
is to be farther distant from the place 
than the camp, ought still more to be 
out of the reach of its artillery. 

As cannon are never to he fired from 
the rear of the camp, this line should 
be upwards of 1200 fathoms from the 
place ; we will suppose its distance fixed 
at 1100 fathoms from the covert-way. 
The depth of the camp may be com- 
puted at about 30 fathoms, and from 
the head of the camp to the line of cir- 
cumvallation 120 fathoms, that the army 
may have room to draw up in order of 
battle at the head of the camp, behind 
the line. This distance, added to the 30 
fathoms, makeo ISO fathoms, which 
being added to the 1100, makes 1550 
fathoms, consituting the distance of the 
line of circumvallation from the covert- 
way. The top of this line is generally 
12 feet broad, and 7 feet deep; the pa- 
rapet runs quite round the top of it, 
and at certain distances it is frequently 
strengthened with redoubts and small 
forts; the base 1R feet wide, the height 
within 6, and on the outside 5 feet, with 

a banquet of 3 feet wide, and If high. 


of the spiral line of the Ionic volute. 

CIRCUS, (cirque, Fr.) in military an- 
tiquity, a very capacious building, of a 
round or oval form, erected by the an- 
cients for exhibiting shews to the people. 

CIRE prcparce, Fr. a composition 
which is made of yellow wax, tallow, and 
pitch, and is used as a sort of mastic 
gum to close up the heads of fuses, &c. 

CISALPINE, lying on this side the 

CISEAUX, Fr. chissels used by mi- 
ners, to loosen earth from the sides of 
the excavation, without making a noise; 
which the miner effects by striking the 
chissel with his hand. 

CISELURE, Fr. chasing; chased 
work ; also chissel work, such as is done 
if] dressing stones. 

CISSOID, (cissoide, Fr.) the name of 
a curve in transcendant geometry, the 
properties, &c. of which may be found 
in Savcrien's Dictionvairc Univerael de 

CISTERN, (citerne, Fr.) a reservoir; 
every fortified tow nor place should have 

CITADEL, (citudclle, Fr.) a fort 
with 4, 5, or 6 bastions, raised on the 
most advantageous ground about a city, 
the better to command it; and com- 
monly divided from it by an esplanade, 
the more effectually to hinder the ap- 
proach of an enemy; so that the citadel 
defends the inhabitants if they continue 
in their duty, and punishes them if they 
revolt. Besiegers always attack the city 
first, that, being masters of it, they may 
cover themselves the better against the 
fire of the citadel. Having bastions, it 
is thereby distinguished from a castle. 
Sometimes the citadel stands half within, 
and half without the rampartsof the place. 

CITERNEAU, Fr. a small reservoir 
arched over for the purpose of holding 
rain water. 

CITIZEN, a freeman of a city or 
town, as a citizen of London ; a towns- 
man ; a man of trade; not a gentleman ; 
also an inhabitant; a dweller in any 
place. Shakespeare makes an adjective 
of the word, having the qualities of a 

CITOYEN, Fr. citizen; the inhabi- 
tant of a place. 

Cnovza-soldat, Fr. an armed citi- 
zen : a volunteer. 


( in ) 

C L B 

CITY, (cite, Fr.) a town or place 
containing many houses surrounded by 
walls. City also means, in Frencb and 
English, the oldest parts of a town, as 
the City of London; La Citi in Paris. 

CIVIC-CROWN, among the ancient 
Romans, was a crown given to any sol- 
dier who had saved the life of a citizen. 
It was composed only of oaken boughs, 
but accounted more honourable than 
any other. 

CIVTERE, Fr. a small hand-barrow, 
which is carried by two men, and is much 
used in the artillery; also a large 
wooden frame, upon which loads may 
be carried by four men. 

CIVILIAN, a person who is in no 
way connected with the army. 

CLAIE, Fr. a kind of hurdle in the 
shape of a rectangle, made of twigs well 
interwoven: these claies are used during 
a siege, for want of blinds, to cover a 
lodgment, a sap, or the passage over a 
ditch, and are covered over with earth to 
protect the workmen again*t fire-works. 

Claies poissies, Fr. pitched hurdles. 
These are used with great advantage to 
form causeways in a marshy soil, when 
the waters have been drained. 

CLAION, Fr. a small hurdle. 

CLAIRE-iw/e, Fr. in carpentry, too 
wide a space between beams or rafters. 
Also rails in a park; also an open gate. 

CLA IRIERE, Fr. a glade in the wood. 

CLAIRON, Fr. a species of trumpet, 
which is shriller in its sound than the 
ordinary kind. 

CLAIRVOYANCE, Fr. sagacity; 

CLAIRVOYANT, Fr. clear-sighted. 

A CLAMP is a kind of kiln built 
above ground (of bricks unburnt) for 
the burning of bricks. 

Clamp-h«»/s are such nails as are used 
to fasten on clamps in the building or 
repairing of ships. 

CLAN, a term used among the Scotch 
for a number of families subject to one 
head, or chief, who formerly led ihein 
to war. 

CLARENCIEUX, the second king at 
arms, so called from the duke of Cla- 
rence, third son to king Edward III. 

CLARIGATION, in Roman anti- 
quity, a ceremony which always pre- 
ceded a formal declaration of war. It 
was performed in the following manner : 
the chief of the heralds went to the ter- 
ritory of the enemy, where, after some 
solemn prefatory indication, he, with a 

loud voice, intimated, that he declared 
war against them for certain reasons 
specified; such as injury done to the 
Roman allies or the like. 

CLARINETTE, Fr. a clarinette ; a 
shrill musical instrument, resembling the 
hautboy, which is used in regimental 
CLATES. } c „ 
CLAYFS * Hurdles. 

CLAYONNAGES, Fr. hurdles with 
which the timber work of a gallery is 
covered. They are likewise used in saps. 

CLEAR, to clear the trenches. See 

CLEARINGS. See 0/-Reckon- 
ings, Regimental Companion. 

CLEATS, slings used in transports to 
hang the accoutrements of soldiers on. 

CLEF, Fr. the keystone of an arch. 

Clef a"un etat, d'un pays, Fr. lite- 
rally signifies the key of a state or coun- 
try. Any fortified place which must ne- 
cessarily be taken before an irruption 
can with safety be made into a country. 
Thus Luxemburgh is. called the key of 
the Austrian dominions towards France. 

Clef de mousquet, de carabine, de pis- 
tole t, Fr. an iron instrument with only 
one square hole, and a handle: it serves 
to cock the piece. 

Clef d'arbalete, Fr. gaffle of a cross- 

CLEFS, Fr. long pieces of timber 
which are used in the construction of 
quays, dykes, and wooden jetties. 

CLEPSYDRE, Fr. an hour-glass; 
an instrument measuring time by the 
running of water or sand ; originally 
used before the invention of clocks or 

CLERK, in the general acceptation 
of the term, a writer in a public office, 
an officer of various kinds. 

Clerk of the general meeting for the 
levying, c]c. of militia men. In time of 
peace this person has authority to ad- 
journ any such meeting, when no lieu- 
tenant or deputy attends. It is his 
duty likewise to file amended lists of 
militia-men, to send notice of the time 
and place of exercise to the chief con- 
stables, and to transmit copies of ac- 
counts he receives of the commitment of 
deserted Serjeants, &c. to the colonel 
and adjutant of the county battalion. 

Clerk of the subdivision meeting. 
His functions are to give notice of the 
meeting to the deputy lieutenants, &c. 
and to transmit lists of men enrolled te 


( 112 ) 


ihe commanding officer : to appoint an- 
other meeting when there is not due at- 
tendance, and give notice of the same; 
to certify, gratis, in what list any per- 
son's name is inserted; to transmit co- 
pies of rolls to the clerk of the general 
meeting; to transmit a list of the per- 
sons enrolled to the commanding officer 
and adjutant; to enter on the roll the 
time of apprehending substitutes who 

Clerk of the peace is to transmit co- 
pies of qualifications to the county lieu- 
tenant; to enter qualifications; to cause 
dates, &C. of commissions to be in- 
serted in the Gazette; and to transmit 
an annual account of qualifications to 
the secretary of state; to transmit an 
account of the arrival from abroad of 
the colonel, to the officer commanding 
in his absence; to deliver the annual 
certificate of the state of the militia, or 
certify his not having received one to 
the quarter sessions; to file certificates 
of officers' service, and certify their 
names to the high constable; to transmit 
copies of certificates from the county 
lieutenants, &c. to the treasury, and 
the receiver general of the land tax ; to 
certify to the solicitor of the treasury 
the omission at the quarter session of 
assessing money on places where the 
militia had not been raised. He is liable 
to penalty for neglecting to record, &c. 

Clerk of the battalion. The colonel 
or commanding officer of every militia 
regiment, in time of peace, may appoint 
a clerk to his battalion, who is to act as 
paymaster. All army agents come under 
the denomination of clerks, acting by 
the authority of the colonels of regi- 
ments, who are responsible to the public. 

When the militia is embodied, the 
paymaster may appoint some intelligent 
Serjeant to act in the capacity of clerk. 
The same regulation holds" good in the 

There is likewise a regimental clerk, 
who acts under the Serjeant major. See 
Regimental Book. 

Clerk of the check, an officer who 
has the check and controul of the yeo- 
men of the guard; also an officer in the 
ordnance, who, conjointly with the clerk 
of survey, is a check upon, and must sign 
all the accounts of the store-keeper be- 
fore they are passed by the board. 

Clerk of survey, an officer in the 
ordnance in the store-keeper's oftice who 

must survey the stores and see them 
kept in order. He also signs the store* 
keeper's accounts before they pass the 

Clerk of the stores, an officer under 
the board of ordnance, who i> responsi- 
ble to the commissary tor .ill ordnance 
stores under his charge; keeping an ac- 
count of all issues or receipts. 

Clerk of the ordnance. This officer, 
who is a member of the board, makes 
up and delivers the annua! estimates to 
parliament; and the debentures, or 
orders for payment of the bills allowed 
by the surveyor general, are made out in 
his office to be signed by the board. 
All balances, both of money and stores, 
as well as all accounts of records, are 
kept in his office. 

Clerk of the deliveries under the 
board of ordnance. All issues of stores, 
at distant stations, are, directly, or in- 
directly, made from this office. He is 
also a. member of the board. 

CLICH, a sabre in use among the 
Turks; the blade of which is crooked 
and very broad. The Turks have also 
another kind of sabre, which is sharp 
only at one edge; the back of the blade 
is tipped with a piece of strong iron; 
this they call gadaru ; it is not so much 
falcated as the clich. They have a third 
kind of sabre, straight, sharp at both 
edges, especially towards the point, 
which is blunted : this they call palas. 

CLIDE, or Janclide, a long piece of 
timber withheld by a counterpoise, which, 
upon the latter being let loose, would 
throw a heavy load of stones into a for- 
tress : the elide was still in use under 

CLIENTS, Fr. noblemen who for- 
merly served in the French armies under 
the pennant of a knight, the banner of a 
banneret, ike. 

CLIMATE, (climat, Fr.) a term used 
in cosmography. It signifies a portion 
of the world between north and south, 
containing some notable difference in 

CLINKERS, those bricks which, hav- 
ing naturally much nitre, or saltpetre, 
in them, and lying next the fire in the 
clamp, or kiln, by the intense heat of 
the fire, are run and glazed over. 

CLIQUE, Fr. gang; party; faction. 
See Regiment. 

CLIQUETIS, Fr. clashing of swords. 

CLOCHE, Fr. a bell. 

Cloches sujettes d la taxe militaire+ 

C L U 

( 115 ) 


Fr. bells subject to military requisition. 
Tlie moment a town that lias been bat- 
tered with cannon, surrenders, the in- 
habitants are compelled to redeem the 
bells belonging to the churches, and' 
divers utensils -made either of brass or 
some other metal. This kind of tribute 
is ac the disposal of the chief of the ar- 
tillery, who, as he thinks proper, divides 
it between the officers under his com- 
mand ; such at least was the custom 
during the old French monarchy. 

CLOTHING. The clothing of the 
British army is determined by a perma- 
nent board composed of the commander 
in chief, and a certain number of general 
officers, who act under the king's imme- 
diate authority. A considerable altera- 
tion has lately taken place in almost all 
articles which, under this head, are sup- 
plied to the soldiers. Those under the 
name of half-mounting have been wholly 
laid aside. 

The annual clothing of the infantry 
of the line, or fencible infantry, serving 
in Europe, in North America, or at the 
Cape of Good Hope, (Highland corps 
excepted,) consists in a coat, waistcoat, 
or waistcoat front, a pair of breeches, 
unlined, except the waistband, and with 
one pocket only; a cap made of felt 
and leather, with brass plate, cockade, 
and tuft. The felt crown of the cap, 
cockade, and tuft, to be supplied annu- 
ally, the leather part and brass plate, 
every two years. Two pair of good 
shoes, of the value of 5s. 6d. each pair, 
are to be supplied annually in lieu of 
the half mounting, and each Serjeant is 
to be credited with the sum of 3s. being 
the difference between the value of the 
former articles of half mounting for a 
Serjeant and private man. Some excep- 
tions are made with respect to Highland 
corps, and regiments serving in the East 
and West Indies. — For further particu- 
lars, see Regulations, published by au- 

CLOTURE, mur de Cloture, Fr. 
a wall which surrounds any given space, 
such as a park, garden, &c. 

CLOY, or To ck>i/ gum. See To Nail. 

CLOUTS. See Axle-Tree. 

CLOUX, Fr. See Nails. 

To CLUB, in a military sense, to throw 
into confusion; to deform through igno- 
rance, or inadvertency. 

To Club a battalion, to throw it 
into confusion. This happens through a 

temporary inability in the commanding 
officer to restore any given body of men' 
to their natural front in line or column, 
which sometimes occurs after some 
manoeuvre has been performed, and is 
occasioned by false directions being 
given to the different component parts. 
Ignorant and unexperienced officers may 
frequently commit this error; some- 
times, however, the circumstance may 
arise from an erroneous movement of 
a division or company, notwithstand- 
ing that the word of command has been 
correct. Ad able officer in that case will 
instantly know how to unravel the se- 
veral parts. The le«s informed and the 
less capable may find a relief in sound- 
ing the Disperse, which see. It does 
not, however, always follow, that be- 
cause an officer may occasionally commit 
this error with respect to the minute 
movements of a battalion; he must 
therefore be unequal to the superior 
functions of command; or that when 
a man, who has risen from the ranks, 
is perfectly master of the mechanical 
arrangement of inferior movements, he 
should be able to act upon the enlarged 
scale of locality and position. The 
military science which is required in each 
of these cases essentially differs in its ap- 
propriate exercise, but both are neces- 
sary. See Strategy. 

CLY-MORE, a great two-handed 
sword, formerly in use among the High- 
landers, two inches broad, doubly edged; 
the length of the blade, 3 feet 7 inches ; 
the handle, 14 inches; of a plain trans- 
verse guard, 1 foot ; the weight, 6 
pounds and a half. These swords were 
the original weapons of England, as 
appears by the figure of a soldier found 
among the ruins of London, after the 
great fire in 1666. 

COAT of mail, armour made of scales, 
or iron rings. 

COB, a coin current in Gibraltar, 
and the south of Spain, equal to 4s. 6d. 

COBBING, a mode of punishment 
amongst soldiers for petty offences 
which are committed in camp, barracks., 
or quarters, and which is indicted with- 
out the form of a court-martial. These 
trespasses consist chiefly in acts of inde- 
cency, filth, and dirtiness, which are 
more properly punished privately than 
exposed to the public. In this rase, 
some of the culprit's comrades invests 

c o c 

( 11* ) 

Pate the matter, and a strapping with the 
belt or scabbard takes place. 

COCARDE mi/itaue, Fr. Amongst 
all nations the cockade has succeeded 
to the scarf: it is not long, however, 
since the Dutch continued to wear the 
scarf crossways, and the Austrians over 
their belts. From the colour, or colours, 
of the cockade, it is discovered what 
country a soldier belongs to. When 
first this mark of distinction was intro- 
duced, it was reckoned a badge of 
honour. With regard to the scarfs, 
they were attended with great inconve- 
nience, since an othcer or private might 
easily be seized by it, pulled from his 
horse, or at least stopped in his flight. 
From this very reason the French, within 
forty years, have given up the shoulder 
knots and aiguillettes with tassels formerly 
worn by their cavalry and dragoons. We 
have adopted them ! 

COCHLEA, in mechanics, one of the 
five mechanical powers, otherwise called 
the screw. 

COCK, that part of the lock of a 
musket, which sustains the two small 
pieces of iron called jaws, between 
which the flint is fixed. 

To Cock, to fix the cock of a musket 
or pistol, so as to have it ready for an 
instant discharge. 

COCKADE, a ribbon worn in the 
hat. We have already observed, that 
this military mark succeeded the scarf 
which was formerly worn by the officers 
and soldiers belonging to European 
nations, and which are principally dis- 
tinguished in the following manner: in 
the army and navy of Great Britain, 
black silk ribbon for the officers, and 
hair cockades for the non-commissioned 
officers, private soldiers and marines; 
white distinguishes the French; red 
marks the Spaniard, black the Prussian 
and Austrian, green the Russian, &c. 
In France, before the Revolution, officers 
were not permitted to wear a cockade, 
unless they were regimentally dressed; 
and, singular as it may appear, the 
officers and men belonging to a certain 
number of old regiments in the Prus- 
sian service did not wear any mark in 
their hats. In England the cockade is 
worn, in and out of regimentals, by 
every species of military character. In- 
deed it is so generally abused, that 
almost every prostitute, who can afford 
to keep a man or boy, trims his hat 
with it. 

C O F 


COCKLE-srairs. See Winding' 
St aii:-. 

COCKPIT, a sort of theatre, where 
game cocks fight their battles. It is 
commonly a house, or hovel, covered 
out. Also an apartment in the trea- 
sury, where the King's speech is read 
before the meeting of parliament ; and 
where the appeals on prize causes are 

Iron-COD PIECES, appendages at- 
tached to ancient armour, to prevent the 
ill consequences of violent shocks in 
charging, and to contain sponges to re- 
ceive the water of the riders in the heat 
of battle. 

CODE, (code, Fr.) a collection of 
laws, rules, and regulations, by which 
the civilized proportion of mankind is 

Military Code, (code militaire, Fr.) 
rules and regulations for the good or- 
der and discipline of an army. Of this 
description are our Articles of War; a 
revision of which is much wanted at this 

COEFFER, Fr. to cap, or put a 
head-piece on any thing. 

Coeffeb les fusees a bombes, Fr. to 
stop the vents or apertures of shells with 
anv sort of mastic composition. 

C(ENOTAPII, an empty tomb, or 
monument, erected in memory of some 
illustrious deceased person, who, having 
perished by shipwreck, in battle, &c. his 
body could not be found to be interred, 
or deposited in the same. 

C(EUR, Fr. the heart. This word 
is frequently used among the French to 
signify courage, intrepidity, manhood, 
&c. Hence the expression in Corneille's 
Cid: Roderigue, as-tu du cceur? which 
may be thus translated — Roderigues, art 
thou a man of resolution ? 

COFFER, in fortification, a hollow 
lodgment sunk in the bottom of a dry 
ditch, from 6 to 7 feet deep, and from 
lo" to 18 feet broad ; and the length of 
it, the whole breadth ( ,f t| ie sa j ( } ditch, 
from side to side. The besieged gene- 
rally make use of these coffers to re^ 
pulse the besiegers, when they attempt 
to pass the ditch: they are distinguished 
only by their length from Caponiers ; 
the difference between coffers and the 
traverse and gallery, consists in this, that 
the latter are made by the besiegers, and 
the former by the besieged. They are 
covered with joists, hurdles, and earth, 
raised 2 feet above the bottom of the 


( 115 ) 


ditch; which rising, serves instead of a 
parapet, with loop-holes in it. 

COFFRE. See Cofih 

COFFRE, Fr. a wooden frame, well 
calked and pitched, that is letdown into 
the wuter for the purpose of laying the 
foundation of a building, when the ne- 
cessarv draining has not heen practicable. 

Coffre d'une batterie, Fr. the solid 
work which covers the pieces of ord- 
nance that are planted in a battery, as 
well as the soldiers who are attached to 
the guns. 

Coffre a feu, Fr. a machine filled 
with combustible materials, for the pur- 
pose of doing mischief to a scaling 
party, or of blowing up a ship, &c. 

Coffres des galeries de mine, Fr. 
when mine galleries are carried through 
ground which wants consistence, the 
upper part of the gallery, and its sides, 
are supported by planks made into a 
platform, and placed at equal distances 
one from another, to prevent the earth 
from falling in. 

COGNIZANCE, judicial notice, trial, 
judicial authority; in a military sense, it 
implies the investigation to which any 
person or action is liable. During the 
suspension of civil authority, every of- 
fence comes under military cognizance, 
is subject to military law, and may be 
proceeded upon according to the sum- 
mary spirit of its regulation. Hence, a 
drum-head court-martial is the strongest 
instance of military cognizance. 

COHORT, (colwrte, FY.) in Roman 
antiquity, a name given to part of the 
Roman legion, comprehending about 600 
men; a component part of a modern 
French army, consisting of 1000 men. 

COIN, in gunnery, {coin d'artil/cur, 
coin de mire, Fr.) a kind of wedge to lay 
under the breech of a gun in order to 
raise, or depress, the metal. 

Coin de manmuvre militaire, Fr. a 
particular manner in which the ancients 
used to dispose their troops on the front 
of the army, to break the line of the 
enemy. This disposition consisted in 
giving a great depth, and allowing only a 
small front, to the body of troops, which 
was called faire la tete de pore. This 
last title was given to an officer who 
commanded a column. See Wedge. 

COLGlAT, a large glove which the 
Turks wear in the field. The colgiat 
covers the arm up to the elhow, and 
while it protects the head, it helps them 

in parrying the blows that are aimed at 
their heads. 

Royal Military COLLEGE, a new 
institution which has been created by 
the immediate sanction of his Majesty, 
with the consent of parliament, and 
under the direction of the commanderjn 
chief, for the time being.— /This college 
is now at Sandhurst, near Windsor. 

COLLEGE Royal Militaire, Fr. a ge- 
neral term used among the French to 
express that place where military in- 
struction was given during their mo- 
narchy. This establishment consisted of 
several colleges, which were subordinate 
to the Royal Military School, or Ecoli 
Royale Militaire, of Paris. 

On the 28th of March, 1776, the 
French King gave directions, that ten 
colleges should be establ.shed, over the 
gates of each of which was written — 
College Royal Militaire, Royal Mi- 
litary College. These colleges were 
under the immediate care and instruc- 
tion of the Benedictine Monks, and 
other religious orders; the most en- 
lightened of which was that of the 

The secretary of state held the same 
jurisdiction over these colleges that he 
possessed' over La Fleche and the Mili- 
tary School in Paris. — For particulars 
respecting the old institution, see the 
article Royal Military School. 

COLLER, Fr. literally means to 
paste; to glue. 

Se Coller, Fr. to adhere to; to stick 
close to any thing. 

COLLET, Fr. that part of a cannon 
which is between the astragal and the 

COLLIERS, Fr. iron or brass hold- 
fasts which are used in flood-gates. 

COLOBE, a kind of short coat, with 
half sleeves, called a Dalmatica. 

COLOMBE, Fr. an old word, sig- 
nifying every sort of raft, that is placed 
upright in partitions; whence the term 

COLONEL, the commander in chief 
of a regiment, whether of horse, foot, 
dragoons, or .artillery, in England: but 
in France, Spain, and some other 
southern nations, colonels of horse are 
called Maltrex de camp. Colonels of 
horse take place, and command one an- 
other according to the dates of their 
commissions, and not in consequence of 
the seniority of their regiments. Colo« 
Q 2 


( H6 ) 


riels of foot command in the same man- 
ner. A colonel of a regiment, properly 
so called, is, with us, the nominal head 
of a given number of men; the cloth- 
ing, &c of whom is exclusively entrusted 
to him, as well as the appointment of 
an agent, who receives the pav and sub- 
sistence of the corps, hut for whose sol- 
vency and character the colonel is re- 
sponsible to the public, 

According to some authors, the word 
Colonel is derived from the Italians or 

Skinner supposes it may come from 
colony, colonia, and that the heads or 
chiefs of colonies may have give* the 
appellation to the officers commanding 

In former times, officers, although at 
the head of considerable Corps, were only 
styled captains, hut not colonels. See 
Dictionnaire de Trevoux, fol. edit. 

A question arises whether the old 
word Coronet might not have been de- 
rived from the Latin Cdronarius; either 
from some ceremony which was per- 
formed upon the person receiving the 
rank, or from his being placed at the 
head, corona, of a regiment. The 
former certainly appears the most pro- 
bable, as it might have had its origin 
from the Roman manner of rewarding a 

The Spaniards have it Coroncl ; the 
Italians, Colonetlo. 

We are inclined to think, that it is 
derived from the Latin Corona, whence 
Coronarius ; and that it came to us from 
the Spanish. Both the English and 
Scotch, but particularly the latter, pro- 
nounce the word Coroncl, and so do the 

According to Grose, some derive it 
from the French word colonne, or 
column, because the colonel inarches at 
the head of the column. Kelly, in 1627, 
calls this officer Grozmer. 

Colonel of horse is the first officer 
of the regiment; hence his attention 
ougiit to be given to keep the regiment 
complete, to have it composed both of 
men and horses rit for service, and to take 
particular care to have them well exercised 
and taught the different evolutions; to be 
able on all occasions to form themselves 
according to the ground, or manner in 
which they may attack, or be attacked. 

CoCdkel of foot, or infantry. His 
/unctions are more extensive than those 

of the cavalry, as the infantry are em- 
ployed to more different purposes. A 
colonel of infantry should understand 
something of fortification, and be well 
acquainted with field-engineering. He 
cannot be too careful to maintain union 
and harmony among his officers; and, 
to succeed in this, he must acquiie 
their esteem and confideuce,and conduct 
himself so as to be respected. The (rue 
way to succeed in this, is to keep up sub- 
ordination with unalterable firmness; to 
do justice to every one, to employ all 
his credit to procure favours to the 
corps in general, and to the officers in 
particular, without ever losing sight of 
the health, comfort, and contentment of 
his men. 

Colonel of dragoons is nearly con- 
nected with that of horse, to which word 
we refer the reader. 

Colonel of artillery, the commander 
of a battalion of artillery. He is pre- 
sumed to be a very able mathematician 
and engineer, to be thoroughly acquaint- 
ed with the power of artillery, to Un- 
derstand the attack and defence of for- 
tifications in all the different branches; 
to be able, on all occasions, to form the 
artillery according to the ground or 
manner in which they may attack, or be 
attacked; in short, he should be master 
of every thing belonging to that import- 
ant corps. 

Colonel of engineers should be a 
very able mathematician and mechanic; 
he should be master of fortification, and 
be correctly versed in the art of planning) 
constructing, attacking, and defending. 
See Engineer. 

Lieutcnant-CoLOwT.L is the second 
person in command of a regiment. 
Under his direction all the affairs of the 
regiment roll. His military qualifica- 
tions should be adequate to the size and 
the importance of the corps he has the 
honour to serve in. 

Colonel general of the French in~ 
fantry, an appointment formerly of 
great trust and authority. He was en- 
titled to the nomination of every com-? 
mission and place of trust in the in- 
fantry. He could order courts-martial, 
and enforce the sentences awarded by 
them without ulterior reference; and he 
had a company in every regiment, which 
was called the colonel-general's coni- 

P a 'V\ 
This-appointment was created during 


( iir ) 


the reign of Francis I. in 1544, and be- 
came an immediate gift of the crown, 
under Henry III. in 1584. 

There was likewise a colonel-general 
of the cavalry; which appointment was 
entrusted to two officers under the 
reign of Louis XIII. One commanded 
the French and the other the German 

The appointment of colonel-general 
of dragoons was created by Louis XIV. 
in 1688. 

Colonel by brevet, (Breve tc Colo- 
nel, Fr.) one who has obtained the 
rank of colonel in the army, without 
having that rank in any particular regi- 

Colonel reforme, Fr. a reduced half- 
pay officer, who has the rank of colonel 
hi the army, without having any com- 
mand or regimental rank, or who lias 
retired from the service retaining his 
brevet rank. 

COLONELLE, Fr. is the first com- 
pany in a French regiment. Madame la 
Colonelle is the colonel's wife. 

COLQNNE, Fr. column. This word 
is variously used in military phraseology. 

Colon ne etroite, Fr. close column. 

Colon ne ouverte, Fr. open column. 

Colon ne d'artillerie, Fr. the march 
or movements of a corps of artillery in 
regular order, with the several pieces of 
ordnance, accompanied by stores and 
ammunition, for the purpose of attacking 
or checking an enemy. 

Colonne d'eouijwges, Fr. the line of 
march which is observed by the baggage- 
wagons, ike. In advancing against an 
enemy these always follow the main army, 
and precede it when the troops are 
forced to retreat. 

Fcrnicr uue Colonne, Fr. to be 
the rear rank of a bodv of troops that 
are marching rank and file in any direc- 

Ouvrir itne Colonne, Fr. to be the 
leading or front rank of a body of troops 
that are marching in regular order. 

Ouvrir unc Colonne, Fr. to plant 
signals as marks of direction for troops 
that are marching in regular order. To 
clear the way, by removing all sorts of 
obstacles, &c. 

Serrer la Colonne, Fr. to close the 

COLOXELLING, beating about for 
soldiers; a familiar phrase, which is used 
in various senses. 

COLOSSE, Fr. Colossus, an image or 
statue of exceeding greatness. 

COLOURS, in the military art, ara 
large silk flags fixed on half pikes, and 
carried by the ensign. When a batta- 
lion is encamped, they are placed in its 
front; but in garrison they are lodged 
with the commanding officer. 

The first standard, guidon, or co- 
lours, of a regiment, are not to be car- 
ried on any guard but that of his Ma- 
jesty, the Queen, Regent or Prince of 
Wales, or captain-general. 

The size of the colours to be 6 feet 6 
inches flying, and 6 feet deep on the 
pike. The length of the pike (spear and 
ferril included) to be 9 feet 10 inches. 
The cords and tassels of the whole to be 
crimson and gold mixed. 

CV/WjO-Colours are a small sort of 
colours placed on the right and left of 
the parade of the regiment when in the 
field : they are IS inches square, and 
of the colour of the facing of the regi- 
ment, with the number of the regiment 
upon them. The poles to be 7 feet 
6 inches long, except those of the quar- 
ter and rear guards, which are to be 
9 feet. 

CoLOUR-Gi'orc/. See Guard. 

A pair 'of Colours, a term used in 
the British service to signify an en- 
signcy, or the first commissioned ap- 
pointment in the army. 

Colours used in the drawings of 
fortification. It is necessary to use 
colours in the drawings of plans and 
profiles of a fortification, in order to 
distinguish every particular part, and 
separate, as it were, the one from the 
other, so as to make their difference 
more sensible. The different sorts of 
colours, generally used in these kinds of 
drawings, are, Indian-ink, carmine, ver- 
digrease, sap-green, gum-bouch, Prussian 
blue, indigo, and umber. 

Indian-ink is the first and most ne- 
cessary thing required in drawing; for 
it serves, in drawing the lines, to ex- 
press hills or rising grounds, and, in 
short, for all what is called shading, in 
drawings. The best sort of Indian-ink 
is of a bluish black, soft, and easily re- 
duced into a liquid, free from sand or 
gravel. It is sold in sticks from six- 
pence a stick to half a crown, according 
to its goodness and quantity. That 
made in Europe is good for nothing. 
The manner of liquefying ic is by 


( H8 ) 


putting a little clear water into a shell 
or tea-cup, and rubbing it gently till the 
water i-> black, and of a consistence 
much like common ink ; when it is used 
for drawing lines, it must be made very 
black, though not too thick, otherwise 
it will not easily How out of the drawing- 
pen ; but when it is for shading, it must 
be pale, so as to go over the same shade 
several times, which adds a beauty to 
the shading . 

Carmine is an impalpable powder, 
and the fairest red we know of: it 
serves for colouring the sections of 
masonry, the plans of houses, and all 
kinds of military buildings; as likewise 
their elevation : but then it is made of 
a paler colour. It is also used for 
drawing red iines in plans, to represent 
walls. It is exceedingly dear, being ge- 
nerally sold for a guinea an ounce; but 
a little will go a great way. It niubt be 
mixed with a little gum-water. 

Verdigrcase, or sea-green, used in 
drawings, is either liquid in small vials 
for six pence a piece, or mixed in little 
pots or shells, &c. it serves to colour 
wet ditches, rivers, seas, and in general 
to represent all watery places. 

Sap-green is a stone of a faint yel- 
lowish green, when liquefied with clear 
water ; but when mixed with a little 
sea-green, it makes a beautiful grass- 
green; but, as all mixed colours are 
liable to fade, if verd'iris can be had, it 
will be much better. Sap-green is very 

Gum-bouch is a fine yellow in stones, 
and very cheap. It may be dissolved 
in water, but without gum: it serves to 
colour all projects of works; as likewise 
to distinguish the works unfinished from 
those that are complete. It serves also 
to colour the trenches of an attack. 

Indigo is in small cakes, and very 
cheap; it serves to colour iron, and 
roofs of buildings which are covered 
with slates: it must be well ground upon 
a smooth stone or glass, and mixed with 
a little gum-water. 

Prussian blue is a kind of friable 
Stone, of an exceeding fine blue: it is 
used to represent the colour of blue 
cloth in drawing encampments, battles, 
&c. It must be well ground, and mixed 
with a little gum-water. 

Smalt, also a good sprt of blue, and 
may be used for the same purposes. It 
is not dear. 

Ultramarine is an impalpable powdef, 
and of a very delicate sky-blue. It is a 
dear colour. 

Umber is a yellowish brown colour, in 
powder: when it is mixed with gum* 
water, it serves to colour dry ditches, 
sand, and all kinds of earth. By mix- 
ing a little red 'ink with it, it will make 
a wood colour. 

If some tobacco-leaves are steeped in 
clear water for several hours, and filter- 
ed through a woollen cloth, or brown 
paper, with a little red ink mixed with 
it, it will make the best earth or wood 
colour, as lying smoother than any other. 

Gum-uater is best when it is made 
some time before it is used; for which 
reason take some gum arabic and steep 
it in clear water for some hours, till it 
is dissolved : then strain it through a 
woollen cloth or brown paper, and pre- 
serve it in phials, well stopped, till wanted. 

COLUMN, a body of troops formed 
in deep files, and narrow front, the 
whole advancing with the same degree 
of movement, and having suflicient 
space between the ranks and files to 
prevent confusion. The name of column 
is also given to several bodies placed 
behind each other, and intended to 
march on successively, to form or to 
keep in order of battle : but in this 
case they are not to be called files of 
troops. There are more or less columns, 
according to the nature of the ground, 
but it is not necessary that they should 
all of them advance the same way in 
order to meet at an appointed spot. 
Those officers, who have been taught 
by experience alone, (which is far from 
being sufficient if they are ignorant of 
the theory,) will do well to consult L'Art 
de la guerre par regies et par principes, 
by Marcc/ialde Puysegur, and Les CEuvres 
deFolard. It is next to an impossibility 
to remember all that is prescribed by 
those skilful authors; but every officer, 
who is anxious to improve his know- 
ledge in the military art, may derive 
great advantage from the perusal of 
their works. 

C/ose-CoLUMN, a compact solid co- 
lumn, with very little space between the 
divisions of which it is composed. 

Opeu-CoLVMK, a column with inter- 
vals between the divisions equal to their 
respective fronts. 

COMBAT, a battle or duel. Anci- 
ently it was not uncommon for con- 


( us ) 

C O M 

tending powers to adjust their dispute 
by single combat, when each party 
chose tor itself a champion, who con- 
tested the point in presence of both 

COMBATANTS, (combat tans, Fr.) 
troops engaged in action. 

JVorc-COMBATTANS, Fr. persons 
about an army whose employments are 
wholly civil ; such as commissaries, bar- 
rack-masters, pay masters, surgeons, chap- 
\'\] us (S?c 

COMBATTRE, Fr. to act against 
an enemy with offensive weapons, tor 
the purpose of defending one's country 
and its rights, &c. Hence, tout est 
so/dat pour vous combattre : every thing 
is up in arms to fight you. 

COMBINAISON, Fr. a calm and 
dispassionate examination of the vari- 
ous projects and designs which are sug- 
gested to the human mind by their mul- 
tiplied occurrences in warfare. 

Combinaison also signifies the art ot 
calculating numbers and quantities, and 
comparing them together. 

COMBINER ce que fait Vennemi, 
Fr. to weigh well the movements of an 

COMBLE, Fr. roof. It is also called 
toit. ' 

COMBLEAU, Fr. a cord used to 
load and unload pieces of artillery, also 
to hoist them on their carriage, the 
same as other heavy burdens, by means 
of a crane. 

COMBLEM ENT des fosses, Fr. When 
the besiegers have succeeded in render- 
ing themselves masters of the covert- 
way, they contrive, by all possible 
means, to lib up the ditches, by estab- 
lishing galleries which protect the work- 
men, in order that the miners may carry 
on their operations with more safety : 
by this means they form an intrench- 
ment which defends them against the 
sorties, or any other attempt, that might 
be made bv the besieged. 

COMBUSTIBLES, Fr. combustible 
materials; such as are used in offensive 
and defensive operations. 

COME-i«. Soldiers are said to come 
in, as volunteers, recruits, &c. when 
they join any particular standard. 

Cows-over. When men desert from 
an enemy, ami join the army that op- 
poses liim, they are said to come over. 
Tins term is opposed to go over. 

To Come-i'k to, to join with, to briny 
help. " They marched to Wells, where 

the Lord Audley, with whom their lead- 
ers had before secret intelligence, came, 
in to them." Johnson. 

To CoiiE-u/), to overtake. To come 
up with an enemy, is a military phrase 
much in use. 

COMINGE, Fr. a shell of extreme 
magnitude, which takes its name from 
the person who originally invented it, 
containing 18 inches in diameter, and 
aOOlbs. in weight. 

COMMAND, generally called the 
zcord of command, is a term used by offi- 
cers in exercise, or upon service. 

Command, in military matters. All 
commands fall to the eldest in the same 
circumstances, whether of horse, dra- 
goons, artillery, foot,or marines. Among 
the officers of the corps of the British 
troops, entire or in parts, in case two of 
the same date interfere, a retrospection 
of former commissions, or length of ser- 
vice, is to be examined and ended by 
the judgment of the rules of war. 

Commands in fortification, are: 

A command in front, when any emi- 
nence is directly facing the work which 
it commands. 

A command in rear, when any emi- 
nence is directly behind the work which 
it commands. 

A command by enfilade, when an emi- 
nence is situated in the prolongation of 
any line of a work, and a considerable 
part of it may be seen from thence. 

To have in command, an official term, 
signifying to have authority or instruc- 
tion to make a communication ; as, I 
have it in command from his Royal 
Highness the Duke of York, ccc. 

COMMANDANT is that person who 
has the command of a garrison, fort, 
castle, regiment, company, &c. called 
also commander. 

COMMANDE, Fr. a rope made use 
of in boats and pontoons. 

COMMANDE, Fr. a person under 
the orders of another. 

0«OTageCoMMANDE,Fr. awork which 
is overlooked, 1 and consequently com- 
manded by some other. 

COMMANDEMENT, Fr. in a mi- 
litary sense, means any spot which is 
higher than another. A commande- 
luent is called simple, when the dif- 
ference between two heights is only 
9 feet. It is called double, when the 
litfere.nce is 13 feet; triple when 27, 
.md so progressively, taking 9 feet in- 
variably for the height of each com-} 


[ K8 ) 

C O M 

Wandcment. A commaiidcmeut may 
be considered in three lights; in front, 
in enfilade, and in reverse. The coin- 
lnandeinent' in front, is when you see 
all the persons who are employed in 
protecting a work; in enfilade, when 
you only see them from a flank; and in 
reverse, when you see them obliquely 
from behind. 

COMMAS DEMENT, Fr. an order; a 
Command ; a situation of trust which is 
given to a military olbcer. 

Com man dement (ordre de.) Fr. a 
right of command which formerly existed 
among the French between officers of 
cavalry and infantry. In a fortilied 
post, or town, the officers of infantry 
have the command orer the officers of 
cavalry; but in an open country the offi- 
cers of infantry are commanded by the 
COMMANDER, Fr. to command: 
to be superior in rank, and to possess 
authority over others. 

Commander, Fr. in fortification, to 
overlook, to command. 

COMMAND FRY, a certain benefice 
belonging to some military order. A 
body of the Knights of Malta are so 

COMMANDEUR, Fr. a knight of 
an order who enjoys some lucrative si- 
tuation in consequence of his rank, such 
as the Knights of Malta formerly en- 

COMMANDIXG-^'nwW implies, in 
a military sense, a rising ground which 
overlooks any post, or strong place. 
There are, strictly speaking, three sorts 
ef commanding grounds; namely, 

Front CoMMANDiNG-groM/if/. Every 
height is called so, that lies opposite to 
the face of the post which plays upon 
its front. 

licierse CoMMANDiNG-g/oi/m/, an 
eminence which plays upon the rear of 
a post. 

Enfilade CmniAsmaG- ground, or 
Curtain Commas Di^c-ground, a high 
place, which, with its shot, scours all the 
length of a line, ccc. 

COMMIS, Fr. clerk or inferior per- 
son, who is employed in any of the 
French war-departmei)ts,&c. 

COMMISSAIRE, Fr. commissary, 

This term was used in the old French 

service, before the Revolution, to express 

a variety of military occupations. The 

-following are the principal designations:' 

CoMMiBBAlfiE-g£n£ra/ des armies, Fr. 
commissary-general of the armies. 

Commissi] as general de la eavu/erie, IV. commissary general of light 
cavalry. lie ranked as the third general 
otlicer of the cavalry. 

COMMISSAIEE d'urti/laie, Fr. com- 
missary of artillery. 

(J,uMMii>'iAiiu:*provineiai<.vd , arti//erie, 
Fr. provincial commissaries attached to 
the ordnance. 

Commissaires ordinuires d'urtil/n ie, 
Fr. commissaries in ordinary attached 
to the ordnance. These were subordi- 
nate to the provincial commissaries, and 
were distributed among the navy, forts, 
and garrison towns. 

Commissaires extraordinaire! cTais 
ti/.lerie, Fr. extraordinary commissaries 
attached to the ordnance. These formed 
the third class of commissaries under 
the former monarchical government of 
France. They likewise did duty on board 
the king's ships, or in garrison towns. 

Commissaire provincial en I'urscnal 
de Faris an departement dc I'hle de 
France, Fr. provincial commissary be- 
longing to the arsenal in Paris. 

Commissaire gineral des poudres et 
sal/Hires, Fr. commissary general of 
gun-powder and saltpetre. This place 
was created with that of the superin- 
tendant general of gun-powder and salt- 
petre, in 1634, but was finally sup- 

Commissaire general des fontes, Fr. 
commissary general of the founderies. 

Commissaiue ordonnateur, Fr. a per- 
son entrusted with the chief management 
of the commissariat department on ser- 
vice. The situation corresponds with 
that of our chief commissary. 

Commissa IKES de& guerres, Fr. com- 
missariesof the war departments, or rnus- 

Commissaires ordinuires des guerres, 
Fr. commissaries in ordinary, or deputy 
muster-musters. These were subordi- 
nate to the former, and were entrusted 
with the superintendence of hospitals, 
to see that proper provisions were pro- 
cured for and distributed among the sick. 
They likewise gave proper vouchers to 
account for the absence of soldiers, and 
regulated what number of extraordinary 
wagons should be furnished to the troops 
on marches. 

Commissaires provinciaux et ordi- 
nuires des guerres, Fr. provincial or or- 
dinary commissaries of war. 

C O M 

( 121 ) 


Commissaires des guerres entretenus 
dans C Hotel des Invalides, Fr. commissa- 
ries of war, specifically attached to and 
resident in the Hotel des Invalides. 

Commissaire des vivres, Fr. commis- 
sary of stores. 

Commiss aire general desfort [fie at ions, 
Fr. commissary general of fortilications. 

Commiss a i REsprovinciaux tk s g ucrres, 
Fr. provincial commissaries of war, 
created in 1C35 ; they were first sup- 
pressed and then re-established hy Louis 
XIV. in 1704. 

Commissaire Imperial, Fr. judge 
advocate; so called during the reign of 
Napoleon in France. 

COMMISSARY is of various deno- 
minations, though he is generally a civil 
officer appointed to inspect the musters, 
stores, and provisions of the army. In 
war time the number of commissaries is 

Commissary's department, in the ar- 
tillery service. See Artillery. 

COMMISSARIES general, and Com- 
missaries of accounts, are appointed by 
warrant under the king's sign manual, 
directing them to obey all instructions 
given them for the execution of their 
duty by the lords commissioners of the 
treasury. These instructions are gene- 
rally prepared by the comptrollers of 
the army accounts, under the orders, and 
subjected to the subsequent inspection, 
of the treasury. 

CoMMissARY-gCHeroZ of the musters, 
or muster-master general. He takes ac- 
. count of the strength of every regiment 
as often as he pleases; reviews them, 
sees that the horses are well mounted, 
and all the men well armed and clothed. 
He receives and inspects the muster- 
rolls, and knows exactly the strength of 
the army. A new appointment has been 
created in the person of inspector gene- 
ral of cavalry, which answers every pur- 
pose for which that of muster-master 
general was intended, as far as regards 
the cavalry, 

CoMMisSARY-gen^raZ of stores, a civil 
officer in the artillery, who formerly had 
the charge of all the stores, for which he 
is accountable to the office of ordnance. 
He was allowed various other deputy 
commissaries, clerks, and conductors, 
especially in war-time. At present 
there is no such appointment in the 
British artillery service, although from 
the magnitude and importance of the 
situation, and the responsibility attached 

to it, such an appointment is absolutely 
necessary to support the respectability 
of so extensive a department. The 
officers of this description are called 
commissaries of stores. Instead of there 
being a commissary general, deputy 
commissaries and assistant commissa- 
ries are employed in rank according to 
the magnitude of the trust committed to 
their charge both in cash and stores. 
Both duties generally center in one per- 

Commissary- of the train horses, a 
civil officer formerly of the artillery, who 
had the inspection of all horses belong- 
ing to the train, the hospital and the 
bakery; having under him a number of 
conductors, drivers, &c. There is at 
present no such appointment in the Bri- 
tish service. 

Commissary of accounts is a respon* 
sible person who attends- each army, 
where the numbers are of sufficient im- 
portance, with a proper establishment, 
for the purpose of examining and con- 
trolling accounts on the spot. All 
commissaries of accounts make returns 
of their examinations, and on these do- 
cuments the comptrollers of the army 
accounts found the best inquiry into the 
public expenditure which the nature of 
the subject admits of. 

CoMMiss&RY-general of provisions has 
the charge of furnishing the army in the 
field with all sorts of provisions, forage, 
&c. by contract: he must be very vigi- 
lant and industrious, that the tro ips 
may never suffer want. He has under 
him various commissaries, store-keepers, 
clerks, Ike. 

COMMISSION, any situation or 
place which an individual may hold in 
the regular army, militia or volunteers 
of Great Biitain. Alt commissions in 
the line, guards, or volunteer corps must 
have the royal sign manual. The for- 
mer are issued from the War-office, sub- 
jecting the individual to the payment of 
certain fees, according to the rank he 
holds; which fees are received by the 
several agents, (who deduct them in the 
first instance,) and account for them to 
the War-office. Commissions in the mi- 
litia do not bear the royal sign manual ; 
that of the adjutant alone excepted, 
who is generally called a king's officer. 
Lieutenants or deputy lieutenants of 
counties affix their seals and signatures 
to these commissions or appointments; 
but thev must previously have beec 
R ' 

C O M 

C 122 ) 


laid before the king for his approbation. 
Fourteen days constitute the allotted 
time; and if his majesty does not disap- 
prove of the person so recommended, a 
notification is sent by one of the prin- 
cipal secretaries of state lo the lord 
lieutenant, or to those acting by com- 
mission in his absence, or during a va- 
cancy, stating his majesty's pleasure. 

Commission of array. In the reign 
of Hcnrv II. 1181, an assize of arms was 
settled to the following effect. That 
every person possessed of a knight's fee, 
was to have a coat of mail, an helmet, a 
shield, and a lance, and as many of these 
as he had fees. Every free layman that 
had in goods or rents to the value of 16 
marks, was to have the same arms; and 
such as had 10 marks were to have a 
lesser coat of mail, an iron cap, and a 
lance; the two last of which, with a 
wambois, were assigned for the arms of 
burgesses, and all the freemen of bo- 
roughs. These arms were all to be pro- 
vided before the feast of St. Hilary next 

To enforce these regulations, it was 
customary for the time, at certain sea- 
sons of the year, to issue commissions to 
experienced officers, to draw out and 
array the fittest men for service in each 
county, and to inarch them to the sea- 
coasts, or to such other quarters of the 
country as were judged to be most in 
danger. Of these commissions of array, 
there are many hundreds in the Gascon 
and French rolls in the Tower of Lon- 
don, from the 36th of Heny III. to the 
reign of Edward IV. The form of the 
ancient commissions of array may be 
seen inRushworth'sHistoricalCollection 
published in 1640. These commissions 
were again attempted to be revived by 
Charles I. but they were voted illegal 
and unconstitutional by the parliament 
in those days. They would not be so in 
Xhese times. 

COMMISSION militaire, Fr. a com- 
mission in the army. 

Commission mi/itaire,Yr.a temporary 
court or tribunal established to inquire 
into capital offences, and to pass sen- 
tence on the delinquents. 

particular class of men who act between 
what are called the rank and file of a 
buttalion, and the commissioned or war- 
rant officers. See Serjeants. 

COMMISSIONER, ( commissaire in- 
tendunt, Fr.) a person entrusted by go- 

vernment to superintend any particular 
department, or branch of civil or mili- 
tary service. 

COMMISSIONERS, certain persons 
w ho, towards the latter end of the reign 
of King James I. and in the beginning of 
that of Charles, his successor,constituted 
a kind of mixed court, composed of 
civil and military members, whose duty 
was to try all offences committed by the 
soldiers or followers of the army, within 
certain counties and districts. At what 
time courts-martial, according to their 
present form, were first held, does not 
appear ; they are, however, mentioned, 
with the distinction of general and regi- 
mental, in the ordonnances of war of 
King James II. published bv authority, 
A. D. 1686. 

Military Commissioners, certain per- 
sons who are authorized by parliament 
to examine army accounts, &c. They 
are likewise called commissioners for 
the inspection of army accounts. Also 
individuals who are invested with a cer- 
tain authority for the purpose of com- 
municating with foreign powers, parti- 
cularly such as may be subsidized by 

Commissioners of the royal military 
college consist of persons who are mostly 
military men, under the immediate di- 
rection of the commander in chief of his 
Majesty's forces for the time being. 

COMMITTEE, a select number of 
persons to whom the more particular 
consideration of some matter is referred, 
and who are to report their opinion to 
the court, &c. of which they are mem- 

Committee of artillery officers, a se- 
lect committee of artillery officers es- 
tablished at Woolwich by the King's 
warrant, to whom all improvements and 
inventions are submitted, under the 
authority of the master general of the 
ordnance, to whom they report upon all 
matters referred to them. 

COMMON, in geometry, is applied 
to an angle, Hue, or the like, which be- 
longs equally to two figures, or makes a 
necessary part of both. 

Common divisor, in arithmetic, is 
a quantity, or number, which exactly 
divides two or more other quantities, 
or numbers, without having any re- 

COMMUNICATION, in fortifica- 
tion, signifies all sorts of passages or 
ways which lead from one work to aa,- 

C O M 

( 123 ) 


•ther. The best and indeed the only 
good communications are those which 
the besieger cannot annoy, or interrupt 
by his fire. The obstinate defence of a 
work is rendered almost impracticable, 
if you are destitute of good communica- 
tions. Subterraneous galleries, coffers, 
or caponieres, slopes made on the out- 
side of gorges, raav be termed commu- 
nications. When the ditches are filled 
with water, floating bridges, &c. serve 
as communications. 

Xi«co/*Communication. SeeLiNE. 

COMPAGNE, Fr. a room or cabin 
belonging to the chief of a galley. 

COMPAGNIE, Fr. a certain number 
of soldiers under the inspection or ma- 
nagement of a chief called captain. 

Comp \ghi E-colunellc, Fr. among the 
French the first company in a battalion, 
or that which is called the colonel's. 

Compagn I E-lieutenant-colonelle, Fr. 
the second company in a battalion, or 
that which belonged to the lieutenant- 

CoMPAGNiEs : /rancAes, Fr. free corps, 
or companies, which, during the old mo- 
narchical government of France, were 
put upon a certain establishment in war 
time. See Free-CoMiwxY. 

COMPANY,in a military sense, means 
a small body of foot or artillery, the 
number of which is never fixed, but is 
generally from 50 to 120, commanded 
by a captain, a lieutenant, and an en- 
sign, and sometimes by a first and se- 
cond lieutenant, as in the artillery, and 
flank companies of the line. A com- 
pany has usually three or four Serjeants, 
three or four corporals, and two drums. 
In the Guards, the companies consist of 
120 men each, as in the artillery. In 
the Austrian service a company consists 
of 200 men. 

F/fe-CoMPAXv is one of those corps 

commonly called irregular; is seldom that another does 

to convey fire to the furnaces at one and 
the same time. 

Compartiment du 7nineur, Fr. See 


COM PAS, Fr. See Compass. 

Compas de proportion, Fr. a mathe- 
matical instrument which facilitates 
the prompt dividing of the lines on apian. 

COMPASS, a circle, space, limits; 
an instrument whereby mariners steer. 

Compass, an instrument for dividing, 
measuring, or drawing circles. The ori- 
ginal invention of compasses has been 
given to Daedalus, who is affirmed by 
Pliny to have been the inventor of all 
sorts of carpenters' tools. He was an 
Athenian by birth. But Ovid gives the 
invention of the compasses to Perdrix, 
who was sister's son to Daedalus. 

COMPASSEMENT defetn, Fr. See 

COM PASSER la meche, Fr. to try the 

COMPASSION,(cow/)assi'on,Fr.) Ac- 
cording to a French author, (see Dic- 
tionnaire Mi/itaire, par M. Dupain de 
Montcsson,) a quality not known in mi- 
litary life. lie describes compassion to 
be a sentiment, or impulse, of the soul, 
which carries us insensibly towards the 
relief of every object in bodily or mental 
distress: a sentiment, however, which in 
war we carefully conceal; repressing 
every feeling of the heart, becoming ob- 
durate mi every occasion, and seeking 
nothing hut the destruction of our ene- 
mies. Such are the sentiments of this 
French writer. British valour is, on the 
contrary, susceptible of much compas- 


COMPETENCE militaire, Fr. mili- 
tary cognizance. 

who sues or fights for the same thing 

or never under tlfe same orders with the 
regular corps of the army, but for the 
most part acts like a detached army, 
either by itself, or in conjunction with 
some of its own kind; therefore their 
operations are properly considered under 
the title of the petite guerre. 

Indepeudenl-CoMPA.'sv, that which is 
not incorporated in a regiment. 

COMPARTIMENT de feu, Fr. a 
specific division of the intermediate spaces 
belonging to a mine, and the regular 
allotment of the saucissons or train-bags 

COMPLEMENT, (completer.) the 
full establishment of. a regiment, &c. 

Comim.i'.m i nt of the curtain, that part 
in the interior side of a fortification 
which makes the denii-gorge. See Fon- 

Complement of the line of defence, 
the remainder of the line of defence, 
after you have taken away the angle of 
the flank. See Fsrtification. 

Complement (in a parallelogram,) are 
the two lesser parallelograms, which are 
made bv drawing two right lines parallel 
R'a f 


( IM ) 


to each side of the figure through a given 
point in the diagonal. 

Complement, in geometry, is what re- 
mains of the quadrant of a circle, or of 
ninety degrees, after a certain arch has 
been retrenched from it. Thus, if an 
arch or angle he 25 degrees, they say its 
complement is 65 : since 65 and 25 ~ 
to 90. 

Complement of an angle, (comple- 
ment d'uu angle, Fr.) the quantity of de- 
grees which an acute angle wants to be 
equal to a right angle. 

COMPLETE, (complet, Fr.) A batta- 
lion, troop, or company is said to be 
complete, when the established number 
of men are present and lit for duty. 
The French say, Le complet iVun batail- 
lon, u"une compugnie, ccc. the full esta- 
blishment of a battalion, company, &c. 

To CoMPLETE,(cow/)/<7f7', Fr.) to carry 
up to its full establishment. 

COMPLIMENT of the line of the 
army. See Honours. 

Compliment from guards. See Ho- 

COMPLICITE, Fr. the act of being 
an accomplice. 

COMPOSER, Fr. to enter into a 
composition ; to make terms with an 
enemy; as when a fortress, town, or 
body of men surrender. 

COMPOSITION, F;-. This term among 
the French signifies the component or 
constituent parts of any establishment, 
&c. Thus regiments form divisions, and 
the whole put together make up an army. 
Hence composition d'une urm'te. 

Compositions, Ft. terms, conditions, 
&c. which are entered into by two con- 
tending parties, when one is forced to 
give wav. 

Composition, Fr. in artillery, the 
different ingredients with which gun- 
powder is made, viz. sulphur, saltpetre, 
and charcoal. 

Composition also signifies a mixture 
of beeswax with pitch and tar, that is 
used in the making up of fuses and shells. 

COMPOUND motion. SeeGuxNERY. 

COMPRESS, (compresse, Fr.) in sur- 
gery, a bolster made up with linen, to be 
laid on a wound, or on the orifice of a 

COMPRESSION, the act or circum- 
stance of being restrained or confined. 

Globe of Compression, an excavation 
of a globular form, which is made in the 
earth, and is filled with gunpowder. 

COMPTROLLER, {controlcur, Fr.) a 

person who inspects accounts, and makes 
his report upon them, after due exami- 
nation, without favour or partiality. 

Comptroller of the artillery, (con- 
trblevr cfartiUerie, Fr.) a civil olhcer 
who formerly inspected the musters of 
artillery, made the pay lists, took the 
account and remains of stores, and was 
subordinate to the board of ordnance. 
No such appointment exists at present 
in this department. 

Comptrollers of army uccounts, cer- 
tain persons appointed by government to 
inspect the general expenditure of the 
army, and to report thereon to the 
Treasury. The office is in Whitehall. 

COMPTE borgne, Fr. odd money. 

Compte ronde, Fr. even money. 

Argent Comptant, Fr. ready money. 

COMPTEPAS, Fr. (from compter 
les pas, to count or measure steps or 
paces,) an instrument which serves to 
measure the ground a person has run 
over, whether on foot, on horseback, or 
in a carnage. See Ooometre. 

COMRADE, (camarade, Fr.) a fellow- 
soldier in the same regiment, troop, or 
company, from the Italian camera, a 

COMPTER, Fr. to reckon; to de- 
pend upon : as compter sur les troupes, 
to depend upon the troops. 

To CONCAMERATE, to make an 
arched roof,as in vaults, &c; toarchover. 

CONCAVE, (concave, Fr.) hollow, as 
the inside of a shell, ike. 

CONCAVITY, (concavite, Fr.) the 
hollow space which appears in an exca- 
vation, &c. Such, for instance, is the 
hollow that is made by the springing of 
a mine 

CONCQUE, Fr. a piece of ordnance 
wider about the mouth than at the 
breech. A kind of shell used by the an- 
cients in lieu of a trumpet. 

CONCEIT, (entttcment, opinion, Fr.) 
fondness; over-weening opinion of one- 

CONCEITED, (entett, affect e, Fr.) 
proud; fond of himself; opiniative; 
fantastical; every thing in a word which 
a brave and intelligent officer is not. 
See Gloriole. 

To CONCERT, (converter, Fr.) in a 
military "ense, to digest, arrange, and 
dispose matters in such a manner, that 
you may be able to act in conjunction 
with other forces, however much divided, 
at any given point of offensive, or de- 
fensive, operation. 


( 125 ) 


CONCERTER une operation de 
guerre, concert measures for actual 
warfare : as to fix on some specific time, 
describe some direct mode, and adopt 
the necessary means to carry a plan into 

CONCHOIDE, Fr. a curve of the 
third kind, which was originally invented 
by Nicodemus. 

CONCIERGE, Fr.keeper of a palace. 
It also signifies keeper of a prison. 

CONCIERGERIE, Fr. the situa- 
tion, or place, of the keeper of a castle, 
&c. Also an old state prison, now a 
common jail, in Paris. 

CONCILE, Fr. See Council. 

CONCITOYEN, Fr. fellow-citizen; 

CONCLAVE, in architecture^ closet 
or inner chamber, from the French con- 
clave; also a room in the Vatican at 
Rome, where the Roman cardinals meet 
to chuse a Pope. 

Eire en Conclave, Fr. to be clo- 

Military- CONCORD, agreement, 
union, good understanding. This is re- 
presented by the Goddess Pallas, having 
in her right hand a spear, and in her left 

CONCORDAT, Fr. compact; con- 
vention; agreement. 

CONCORDATES, public acts of 
agreement between popes and princes. 

CONCOURIRaw bieu du service, Fr. 
to do every thing in one's power for the 
good of the service. 

CONCUSSION, a shock occasioned by 
two bodies which are moving in con- 
trary directions. 

CONCUSSION, Fr. public extortion, 
when any officer or magistrate pillages 
the people by threats, or pretence of au- 

CONDITION, quality; state of being. 

Out of Conditjon, a term used to 
signify that a horse is not fit for work, 
either through want of nutriment, or 
from hard usage, &c. 

Conditions of peuce, {conditions de 
pair, Fr.) terms upon which peace is 

CONDUCT, {conduite, Fr.) that line 
which is observed by an officer, who is 
entrusted with the management of others, 
or has the direction of any particular en- 

So/e-CoNDUCT, a guard of soldiers who 
defend the common people from the 
violence of an enemy. Also a protec- 

tion given to individuals who pare 
through an enemy's country or lines. 

CONDUCTEUR, Fr. a person en- 
trusted with the conveyance of military 
stores, &c. 

Conducteur, ou guide, Fr. an inha- 
bitant of a town or village, who is well 
acquainted with the different roads, and 
acts as a guide. 

CONDUCTORS, (conducteursd'equi- 
pages, Fr.) are assistants to the com- 
missary of stores, to conduct depots, or 
magazines, from one place to another: 
they have also the care of the ammu- 
nition wagons in the field : they report 
to the commissary, and are under his 

CONDUIRE, Fr. to lead; to ma- 
nage; as conduire une armee, to conduct 
or head an artnv- 

CONDUIT, JV. a conduit; a pipe. 

CONDUITE d'une troupe, Fr. the 
charge or management of any body of 
troops on a march. 

Conduite d'eau, Fr. a succession 
or train of pipes made to convey water 
from one quarter to another. 

CONE, {cone, Fr.) a solid having a 
circular base, and growing smaller and 
smaller until it ends in a point, which 
is called the vertex, and may be nearly 
represented by a sugar-loaf. 

CONFEDERATE troops, {troupes, Fr.) troops of different na- 
tions united together in one common 
cause against an enemy. Hence the 
league by which they are so engaged, is 
called a confederacy. 

Confederates, {confederes, Fr.) dif- 
ferent princes, states, or bodies of peo- 
ple acting together. 

CONFEDERATION, {confederation, 
Fr.) a compact entered into by two or 
more powers to act offensively against a 
common enemy, or to stand upon the de- 
fensive; an assembly of people. 

CONFERENCE* Fr. an oral discus- 
sion between two or more persons to 
settle the conditions of a peace, &c. 

CONFIDENCE, in a military sense, 
implies an explicit reliance upon the 
skill, courage, i!\;c of an individual. 
Next to a peil'ect knowledge of military 
tactics, the faculty of securing the con- 
fidence of the soldiers is, perhaps, one. 
of the surest means of becoming suc- 
cessful in war. There are instances, 
indeed, which prove that many victories 
have been gained by men who had the 
entire confidence of their army, without 


( 126 ) 


t»eing remarkable for much military 
knowledge: whilst, on the other hand, 
battles have been lost by the most cele- 
brated generals, because they did not 
possess the good opinion of their men. 
When confidence and military science 
go together, an army must be unfor- 
tunate not to succeed in the most despe- 
rate enterprize. 

CONFLICT. See Com n at. 

CONFUSION, {confusion, Fr.) the 
loose and disorderly state into which a 
regiment or a whole army is thrown, by 

CONGli, Fr. leave of absence. The 
old monarchical service of France ad- 
mitted of two sorts. The Conge limite, 
a limited or specific leave, and Conge ab- 
sulu, a full discharge: in time of war, the 
latter was alwavs suspended. 

CONGEDIER, Fr. to dismiss. 

Congedier une armee, Fr. to send 
an army into quarters. 

CONGLOMERATE, to gather toge- 
ther, to assemble in a knot. 

CONGRESS, {congrh, Fr.) in mili- 
tary and political affairs, is an assembly 
of commissioners, deputies, envoys, &c. 
from several courts, meeting to agree on 
terms for a general pacification, or to con- 
cert matters for their common good. 

CONIC, (conique, Fr.) like a cone. 
A piece of ordnance wider towards the 
mouth, than about the breech, is said to 
be conic. 

Conic section is a figure which is made 
by the solidity of a cone, being supposed 
to be cut by a plane. 

CONICS, that part of the geometry 
of curves, which considers the cone, and 
the several curve lines arising from the 
sections thereof. 

CONJUGATE, (coujuge, Fr.) an 
epithet used in geometry to signify the 
junction of two lines. 

Conjugate axis, (are covjvg'c, Fr.) 
two axes that cross each other. 

Conjugate diameter, (diametre con- 
jug'e, Fr.)thc shortest axis or diameter in 
an ellipsis or oval. 

Conjugate of the hyperbola, (hyper- 
bole covjugi; l'r.) a line drawn parallel 
to the middle point of the transverse 
axis, sometimes called the second axis. 

CONJURATEURS, ou conjures, Fr. 
conspirators; persons leagued together 
by oath, for the purpose of assassinating 
their prince or sovereign, or of overturn- 
ing the established government. This 
term applies generally to any illegal com- 
bination of men. 

CONJURATION, IV. conspiracy; 
league entered into by persons who are 
mutually sworn to support and carry 
into execution some projected scheme. 

CONNETABLE de France, Fr. con- 
stable of France. This appointment 
succeeded to that of Grand Sencchal de 
France. It was not originally a military 
place of trust, but merely an ofhee be- 
longing to the kiwi's household. 

Connetable de France, Fr. was a 
particular corps under the immediate 
command and direction of the Marshals 
of France; composed of forty-eight 
mounted guards, who wore a hoqueton, 
for the king's service, of a provost- 
general, four lieutenants, and four 

CONNOISSANCE, Fr. knowledge of 
any thing. 

Connoissanck d'un pays, Fr. the 
complete knowledge of a country, of 
its mountains, vallies, rivers, fortified 
places and bridges, &c. also of its ma- 
gazines and means of subsistence for an 

Pays de Connoissamce, Fr. This 
expression is used by the French to 
express a familiar knowledge of persons 
or things; hence, Etre en pays de con- 
noissance, to be perfectly acquainted ; to 
be at home. 

Avoir des Conxoissances, Fr. to 
have much knowledge; much skill. 

CONOID, (conoide, Fr.) in geometry, 
the solid produced by the circumvolution 
or turning of any section of a cone about 
its axis. 

Parubo/ic-CotioiD, or paraboloide, 
(conoide paraboliquc, ou paraboloide, Fr.) 
a conoid which is produced by the whole 
circumvolution of a parabola round its 

Hypcrbolic-Connw, (conoide hypcr- 
bolique, Fr.) that which is produced by 
the entire circumvolution of an hyper- 
bola round its axis. 

Elliptic -Con oi d, (conoide elliptiqne, 
Fr.) that which is produced by the ter- 
minated motion of an ellipsis round one 
of its two axes. 

To CONQUER, (conqu'erir, Fr.) to 
conquer, to obtain possession of a town, 
countrv, &c. by force of arms. 

CONQUEROR, (conquirant, Fr.) a 
warrior who manages his affairs in such 
a manner, that he gets the better of all 
his enemies, and obtains a complete 

CONQUEST, (conquete, Fr.) victory ; 
territory,&c. obtained by dint of fighting 



( 127 


C O 1ST 

i being en- 

or regimental court- 


CONSCRIPT, (conscriptus, Lat.) a 
term anciently applied to the senators 
of Rome, from their 
tered all in one register. 

CONSCRIPTS, men raised to recruit 
the Imperial and French armies. In 
Bohemia and Hungary, all men capable 
of bearing arms are enregistered, and 
must march whenever there is occasion 
for their services. The conscripts in 
France were raised, during the late wars, 
upon similar principles. 

CONSEIL, Fr. This word is vari- 
ously used by the French, viz. 

Le Consexl d'Etat, Fr. council of 
state. It is also called Le Conseil d'en 
kaut, or the upper council. 

Le Conseil Prive, Fr. privy council. 
It is also styled Le Conseil des Parties, 
the meeting of the heads of certain de- 

Consei l de guerre, Fr. This term 
not only signified a council of war, at 
which the French king and his ministers 
•at to determine upon military matters, 
both by sea and land, but it likewise 
meant a general 

Conseil de guerre secret, Fr. a secret 
council held by the sovereign and his 
ministers to deliberate on a defensive, 
effensive, or federative war. 

Arret du Conseil d J Etut, Fr. a state- 

CONSERVATEUR, Fr. This word 
literally signifies preserver. Politically 
applied, it means guardian, having ob- 
jects of state in trust. 

Senat Conservateur, Fr. a name 
given to an assembly in France, which 
was instituted by Bonaparte, when First 
Consul, and was perpiitted to exist after 
he assumed the title of Emperor of the 

CONSERVATIONS, a town-hall; 
a place where commercial objects were 
discussed and settled. Hence La Con- 
servation de Lyons. 

Aller de CONSERVE, Fr. to go in 
company, as ships do at sea. 

CONSERVER, Fr. to keep upon 
the establishment : hence, Conserver vn 

CONSIDERATION, Fr. considera- 
tion; weight; value; estimation. 

CONSIGNE, Fr. the aggregate of 
the orders given to each sentry. 

It likewise means, when used in the 
masculine gender, a person paid by the 

French government for constantly resi- 
ding in a garrison town in order to take 
cognizance of all persons who entered, or 
went out, of the gates. He had a place 
allotted to him in the half-moon, and de- 
livered a regular report to the governor, 
or commandant of the place. 

Consigne, Fr. an individual who is 
not permitted to go beyond certain 
limits, or to leave a house wherein he is 
detained by superior command. 

CONSIGNER, Fr. to order a person 
to be stopped. It also signifies to regu- 
late things in a town, or garrison, so a* 
to ensure public tranquillity. Also to 
put down upon paper; to enrol. 

CONSOUDE, Fr. comfrey; a plant 
with monopetalous leaves, which have a 
healing quality, particularly a styptic" 
one, in wounds. 

CONSPIRATION, Fr. conspiracy. 

CONSPIRING powers, in mechanics, 
are all such as act in directions not op- 
posite to one another. 

CONSTABLE, Chief, a person em- 
ployed under the militia establishment 
of Great Britain, to issue, when direct- 
ed, orders to the coustables to return 
lists of men liable to serve, and to give 
notice to the constables of the number 
of men appointed to serve, and direct 
them to give notice to the men chosen. 
To forward notice of the time and place 
of exercise to the constables, and of the 
orders for embodying the militia. To- 
order proper persons to furnish car- 
riages for the militia, as well as for every 
other part of the British army on its- 
march, and to be repaid their extra ex- 
penses by the county treasurer. To 
transmit to the petty constables certifi- 
cates from the clerk of the peace of the 
service of officers. Constables are al- 
lov\ed one penny in the pound of the 
money they collect; but they forfeit 
fifty pounds whenever they neglect to 
assist in raising money to be assessed 
where the militia has not been raised. 

Constables are to attend subdivision 
meetings, with lists of men liable to 
serve, and verify them; likewise to pro- 
duce returns on oath of the days notice 
was given to the men chosen by ballot. 
On their refusing *to return lists, they 
are liable to be imprisoned, or to suffer 
fine. It is their duty to affile notice of 
the time and place of exercise on the 
church doors. They are paid for their 
trouble in the same manner as the chief 
constables are, but are only subject to 
201, penalty, for neglecting to assist i* 


( 128 ) 


vnising money directed to be assessed 
where the militia has not been raised. 

They may likew ise apprehend persons 
Suspected of being deserted Serjeants, 
corporals, or drummers, belonging to the 

Lord High Constable of England, 
an officer who anciently was of so great 
power, that it was thought too great for 
a subject; his jurisdiction was the same 
with that of the Earl Marshal, and took 
place of him as chief judge in the mar- 
shal's court. 

Constable of the Tower, a general 
officer who has the chief superintend- 
ance over the Tower, and is Lord Lieu- 
tenant of the Tower Hamlets. He holds 
his appointment by letters patent from 
the King, and is not removable at plea- 
sure. The Tower, being a state prison, 
is also considered as a garrison, of which 
the constable is governor. 

High Con statue and Marshal, 
(Grand Connetab/e, et Mar'cchal de 
France, Fr.) were officers of consider- 
able weight and dignity, not only in 
France, but throughout all the feudal 

governments of Europe. The title of pointed chief consul 

To outrun the Constable, in a mili- 
tary sense, to spend half-a-crown out of 
sixpence a day. 

CONSTANCE, Fr. perseverance and 
resolution : qualities which are essentially 
necessary in war. 

CONSTITUTION (fun pays, Fr. the 
nature of a country; its local advan- 
tages, or disadvantages, with respect to 
military operations. 

in geometry, the drawing such lines of a 
figure, as are necessary, beforehand, in 
order to render the demonstration more 
plain and undeniable. 

CONSUL, the person invested with 
the powers of the consulate. 

Chief Consul, (Premier Consul, Fr.) 
the first, or chief magistrate, of three 
persons, each bearing the title of consul, 
in France. The duty of the chief consul 
was to command, direct, and superintend 
all the military establishments of the 
country, and, whenever it was judged ex- 
pedient, to lead her armies into battle. 
Bonaparte, in consequence of the revo- 
lution which took place in 1799, was ap- 

constable, of comes stabuli, according to 
the ingenious author of an essay on mili 
tary law, explains the original nature of 

Avoir la Goutte CONSULAIRE, Fr. 

a figurative term to express the con- 
straint which an individual labours un- 

this office, which was that of commander der who is afraid of stirring out, on ac- 

of the cavalry ; and as these once con- 
stituted the principal strength of the 
imperial or royal armies, this officer 
became naturally the commander in 
chief of those armies. The office of 
marshal appears originally to have been 

count of any particular sentence of a 
court, or from the fear of being served 
with a writ, &c. 

CONSULAR, relating or appertain- 
ing to the consul. 

CONSULATE, a civil and military 

©f a much inferior nature, the person power which was originally instituted 
who exercised it being the actual super- by the Romans, on the extinction of 
intendant of the stables, or chief of the their kings in Tarquin the Proud, 
equerries, whose duty was to furnish the : CONSULSHIP, the office of con- 
provender for the horses, and to oversee sul. 

their proper management. But in pro- CONSUMPTION, (contamination, 
cess of time this office grew into high I Fjc) the expenditure, or waste of stores, 
consideration, and the marshal, subor- ammunition, &c. 

dinate only to the constable, became the CONTACT, (contact, Fr.) the rela- 
second in command of the armies, and the state of two things that touch each 
in the absence of the latter supplied his other. Those points which touch each 
place. See Marshal. other are called points of contact. 

The powers of the constable as a field CONTAGION, (contagion, Fr.) the 
officer were extremely ample and dig- same with an infection, the spreading, or 
nilied. The constable was subordinate catching of a disease; as when it is coin- 
only to the king in the command of the munrcated, or transferred, from one 
army; and even when the king was ac- 1 body to another, by certain effluvia, or 
tualiy in the field, the efficient command [steams, emitted, or sent forth, from the 
of the troops seems to have been in this, body of a diseased person, or from a 
officer, and all the general orders were contaminated atmosphere. Contagion 
issued jointly in the sovereign's name J is also figuratively used, as the contagioa 
and iH the constable's. '■ of example. 


( 1*9 ) 


Grande CONTAGION, Fr. the same 
as peste, the plague. 

CONTE pas, Fr. an instrument which 
serves to measure the ground one goes 
over. It is also called odometer, odo- 
metre, Fr. 

CONTENIR une arm'ee, un ennemi, 
Fr. to keep an army, or an enemy, in 
check. Of this description was sup- 
posed to be the confederacy formed at 
Pilnitz in 1792, to check the French 
Revolution. But its issue proved, that 
partial views gained the ascendancy over 
the common cause; and that instead of 
weakening, or restraining, the French, 
its incongruous materials only served to 
strengthen them. 

CONTENT, the capacity, or area, of 
a space, or the quality of any matter, or 
space included in certain bounds. 

The content of a ton of round timber 
is forty three solid feet. A load of hewn 
timber contains fifty cubic feet. In a 
foot of timber are contained seventeen 
hundred and twenty-eight cubic, or 
square inches; and as often as seventeen 
hundred and twenty-eight inches are 
contained in a piece of timber, be it 
round or square, so many feet of timber 
are contained in the piece. 

CONTIGUOUS, ( coniigu, Fr.) Two 
or more things are said to be contiguous, 
when they are disposed so near each 
other, that they join, or touch. 

Contiguous angles, (angles contigus, 
Fr.) in geometry, such as have one lea; 
common to each angle, otherwise called 
adjoining angles, in contradistinction to 
those produced by continuing their legs 
through the point of contact; which are 
called opposite, or vertical angles. 

CONTINGENCIES, in army ac- 
counts, items of intermediate expendi- 
ture; payments made on account of 
casualties, or unforeseen circumstances. 

Lumping Contingencies, monie* 
paid and charged against the public, 
without any specific declaration being 
made of the service, or avowal of the 
person, for which, and to whom, such 
monies have been issued. Charges of 
this description are so open to the natu- 
ral misrepresentation of mankind, that. 
for the sake of every fair and honest 
servant of the public, each item of ex- 
penditure ought to be given. 

CONTINGENT, something casual, or 
uncertain, that may, or may not happen. 

The Contingent bill of a regiment 
is an account of extra charges, which 

depend on the accidental situation or 
circumstances, that may attend any re- 
giment In its due course of service. See 

Contingent, (contingent, Fr.) the 
quota of armed men, or pecuniary sub- 
sidy, which one state gives to another. 

CONTOUR, Fr. the limits of a 
country, of a town, camp, plan, or 
drawing; it is the basis, or foundation, 
of each. 

CONTOURNER, Fr. to draw the 
contours, or outline of a picture; to give 
grace and symmetry to any thing which 
is drawn, or designed, by the hand. 

Mai Contourner, Fr. to draw any 
thing out of proportion. 

CONTRABAND. This term is ap- 
plicable to various foreign commodities 
which are either totally prohibited by 
the English laws, or are subject to se- 
vere penalties and heavy duties. For 
the encouragement of the fair trader, 
and in order to secure the revenue from 
illicit encroachments, the light dragoons 
are frequently employed upon the coast 
to prevent the smugglers from carrying 
contraband goods into the country. 
Other troops are sometimes put upon 
this service; but light horsemen are best 
calculated to do the duty. Dragoons 
and military parties, duly authorised, 
employed upon this service, receive a 
certain proportion of every thing that is 

CONTRACTILE force, in mechanics, 
is that power, or property, inherent in 
certain bodies, whereby, when extended, 
they are enabled to draw themselves up 
a«ain to their former dimensions. 

CONTRAINDRE, Fr. to levy con- 
tributions on a town, village, ccc. either 
in monev or provisions. 

CONTRAINTE, Fr. the exaction 
which is made when a town, or country, 
is put under contribution. 

CONTRAMURE, in fortification, is 
a wall built before another partition- 
wall to strengthen it, so that it may 
receive no damage from the adjacent 

CONTRAT, Fr. contract; agree- 
ment. It also signifies a deed. 

CONTRA VAIXATPON, (contraval- 
lation, Fr.) a line formed in the same 
manner as the line of circumvallation, 
to defend the besiegers against the en- 
terprises of the garrison: so that the 
army, forming a siege, lies between the 
lines of circumvallation and contravalla- 


( 130 ) 


(ion. The trench of this line is towards 
the town, at the foot of the parapet, 
and is never made but when the gar- 
rison is numerous enough to harass and 
interrupt the besieger by sallies. This 
line is constructed in the rear of the 
camp, and by the same rule as the line 
of circumvallation, with this difference, 
that as it is only intended to resist a 
body of troops much inferior to a force 
which might attack the circumvallation, 
so its parapet is not made so thick, nor 
the ditch so wide and deep; 6 feet are 
sufficient for the first, and the ditch is 8 
feet broad, and 5 feet deep. 

Among the ancients this line was very 
common, but their garrisons were much 
stronger than ours; for, as the inhabit- 
ants of towns were then almost the only 
soldiers, there were commonly as many 
troops to defend a place as there were 
inhabitants in it. The lines of circum- 
vallation and contravallation are very 
ancient; examples of them being found 
in histories of the remotest antiquity. 
The author of the military history of 
Louis le Grand pretends, however, that 
Caesar was the first inventor of them ; 
but it appears from the Chevalier de 
Folard's treatise on the method of at- 
tack and defence of places, used by the 
ancients, that these lines are as old as 
the time in which towns were first sur- 
rounded with walls. 

CONTRAVENTION militaire, Fr. 
responsibility; every commanding offi- 
cer, whatever his rank may be, is re- 
sponsible for all the offences committed 
by the troops under his command. 

Contravention also signifies, both 
in French and English, a contravening, 
an infringement, &c. also a breach : 
hence en cont? , avention (Tune lot mili- 
taire, in breach of an article of war. 


Faire la Contrebande, Fr. to 

CONTREBANDIER, Fr. a smuggler, 
or what is familiarly called a fair trader. 

CONTRE-«/>/)roc/fes, Fr, lines in for- 
tification, or trenches which a besieged 
garrison, or invested army, makes to de- 
feat the attempts of its adversaries. 

Coar RE-batteries, Fr. batteries which 
are erected for the purpose of answering 
those of an enemy, who besieges a place, 
or gives battle. 

CoNTRE-^nesse, or CoNTRE-rwse, Fr. 
a stratagem employed to oppose, or 

prevent, the effect of another : it is also 
called contrc-mine. 

Com \uz-forts, Fr. brick-work which is 
added to the revetement of a rampart 
OH the side of the terre-pleine, and 
winch is equal to its height. Contre- 
forts are used to support the body of 
earth with which the rampart is formed. 
They are likewise practised in the re- 
vetements of counterscarps, in gorges, 
and deini-gorges, &c. The latter are 
constructed upon a less scale than the 
former. It has been suggested by an 
able engineer in the French service, to 
unite eontre-foits, and consequently to 
strengthen them, by means of arches. 

Contre-forti likewise form a part of 
the construction of powder-magazines, 
which are bomb-proof. 

CoNTRE-£«?'de, ou conserve, ou couvre- 
face, Fr. in fortification, counter-guard. 
Contre-/<£MC, Fr. a sort of tempo- 
rary fortification which is thrown up 
with earth, and stands between a be- 
sieged town, or fortress, and a besieging 
army, in order to prevent the sorties of 
the former. 

CoNTRE-wjfl/r/ie, Fr. See Maucu. 
CoNTRE-mine, Fr. See Mine.' 
Cout RE-mineurs, Fr. See Mine. 
CoNTRE-7/«m*,Fr. up the river; up hill. 
Contre-?«o£, Fr. a second parole, or 
countersign, which is given in times oi 

CoNTRE-7«wr, Fr. an outward wall 
erected round the principal wall of a 

CoNTRE-orJ/e, Fr. a counter-order. 
CoNTRE-por/c, Fr. an inward door, or 

CoxTRE-queue d't/ronde, Fr. a work in 
fortification, which has two faces, or 
sides, making a rentrant angle, by join- 
ing together towards the inside of the 
wurk. It has also two brandies, whiclL, 
with the faces, contain a narrower space 
towards the enemy than on the other side. 
CoxTRE-ronde, Fr. a round which is 
made subsequent to another, to see if the 
first round was gone according to order. 
Cont RE-sanglon, Fr. girth-leather. 
CoNTRE-sJi,'«e, Fr. the signature, or 
name of a prince, minister, or of any 
privileged person, which is written on 
the outside of a letter, and renders it 
post free, &c. This word is properly 
written Contre-seitig. 

CoNTRE-sigraer, Fr. to countersign; to 
CoNTRE-<ew/«, Fr. When two per- 


< 1*1 ) 


sons, fighting with swords, thrust at the 
same time without parrying; the thrust 
is equally dangerous for both parties, 
and is called a contre-temps, or counter- 

ConiRE-tranchces, Fr. trenches made 
against the besiegers with their parapet; 
they must communicate with several 
parts of the town, in order that the gar- 
rison may be able to retire into it hastily, 
after having broken or stopped the com- 
munications; otherwise it would be 
losing time to erect a work which you 
would be obliged to demolish, or to fill 
up, when you had reached the third pa- 

CONTREE, Fr. country; region. 

CONTRESCARPE, Fr. counter- 

CONTRESCARPER, Fr. to coun- 

CONTRESCEL, Fr. counter-seal. 

CONTRESCELLER, Fr. to coun- 

OONTRESPALIER, Fr. hedge-row 
of trees. 

CONTRIBUTE, (contribuer, Fr.) to 
furnish from good-will and patriotism, 
or from compulsion, money, stores, ccc. 
for the support of an army. 

CONTRIBUTION, in military his- 
tory, is an imposition, or tax, paid by 
countries who bear the scourge of war, 
to secure themselves from being plun- 
dered and totally destroyed by the ene- 
my. When a belligerent prince, wanting 
money, raises it on the enemy's country, 
and is either paid in provisions, or in 
money, and sometimes in both, he is 
said to do so by contribution. 

Mettre a Contribution, Fr. to put 
under contribution. 

CONTROL, comptrol, (contrite, Fr.) 
is properly a double register kept of acts, 
issues of the officers, or commissioners, 
in the revenues, army, &c. in order to 
ascertain the true state thereof. 

CONTROLES, Fr. See Muster- 

CONTROLEURS des guerres, Fr. 
muster-masters. This term was like- 
wise applied to signify various other ap- 
pointments belonging to the interior 
arrangement of the French army, viz. 
contruleurs g'eneraux d'artillerie, contro- 
leurs des hopitaux militaires. 

Controleur general des vivres, Fr. 
commissary-general of stores. 

CONTUSION, (contusion, Fr.) the 
effect of a ball, or of any other hard sub- 

stance, upon the human frame, when it 
is struck, without breaking, or tearing, 
the skin. 

^ CONVALESCENT, (convalescent,^ 
Fr.) recovering, returning to a state of 
health. Hospitals have been established 
during the present war in different dis- 
tricts, for the preservation of our troops. 
Among others, there is in each district 
a convalescent hospital. 

List of Convalescents is a return 
made out by the surgeon belonging to a 
battalion, hospital, &c. to ascertain the 
specific number of men who may shortly 
be expected to do duty. 

CONVENTION, '(convention, Fr.) 
an agreement which is entered into by 
troops that are opposed to one another, 
either for the evacuation of some parti- 
cular post, the suspension of hostilities, 
or the exchange of prisoners. 

CONVENTION, Fr. convention; 
contract; agreement. The French say 
de difficile convention, hard to deal with. 

CosvEXTios-Nationale, Fr. the Na- 
tional Convention, which succeeded the 
National Assembly at Paris, in 1792, 
and at the tribunal of which Louis XVI. 
was tried and condemned to death, 21st 
January, 1793. 

Conventions entre Souverains pour 
restitution des deserteurs, Fr. agree- 
ments, or stipulations, made between 
neighbouring powers to check deser- 
tions. In conformity to these conven- 
tions, all deserters whatever are arrested 
within the dominions of a sovereign, 
who has passed an agreement of the 
kind with the prince from whose army 
they have deserted. The intelligence is 
forwarded to the commandant of the 
nearest town, who sends for the de- 
serter, and forwards him to his corps, 
where the expenses of his escort are re- 
paid. No such agreements have ever 
been entered into by Great Britain. 

Conventions secretes entre les offi- 
ciers d'un corps, Fr. certain secret agree- 
ments which are entered into by the 
officers of a regiment, either for the 
benefit of the regiment, or in opposition 
to a commanding officer. Of this de- 
scription is the Round Robin. 

CONVERSION, fr. a sudden motion 
of the troops whilst manoeuvring, or in 
battle, which is made either by wheeling 
from the right, or from the left. This 
word corresponds with our term wheel. 

Conversion, quart de conversion, Fr. 
a wheel which comprehends the quarter 

C O Q 

( iss ) 


of a circle, and turns the front of a bat- 
talion where the flank was. 

Fain Conversion, Fr. See ToVi heel. 

CONVEX, (ceftVMV, Fr.) externally 
round, as a globe, cannon bail, ccc. 

CONVEXITY, (convcrite, Fr.) the' 
external surface of any round body, or 

CONVOCATION, Fr. the act ofj 
summoning various persons belonging 
to a state, for the purpose of discussing 
matters which relate to civil or military 

CONVOQUER, Fr. to call together. 

To CONVOY, (convoyrr, Fr.) This 
term is used among the French, both for 

sea, or laud. 

CONVOY, (convoi, Fr.) a detachment 
of troops employed to guard any supply 
of men, money, ammunition, provision, 
stores, etc. conveyed in time of war, 
by land or sea, to a town or army. A 
body of men that marches to secure any 
thing from falling into the enemy's hand 
is also called a eonvoy. 

To COOPERATE, (co-operer, Fr.) 
to put a welt-digested plan into execu- 
tion, so that forces, however divided, 
may act upon one principle, and towards 
one end. 

COOK, (cuisinicr, Fr.) each troop or 
company has cooks, who are excused from 
other duties. 

COPEAU, Fr. chip; shaving. 

l'i» de Coi'eau, Fr. wine just made, 
and running through shavings. 

COPPER, (cuivre, Fr.) no other metal 
is allowed to the magazines, or barrels of 
gunpowder. It is one of the six primi- 
tive metals. 

Coi'Vi:\\,(chaudiere, Fr.) a large boiler, 
such as is used in regimental kitchens 
for the soldiers. 

JUess-CopPEits, a term used in In- 
dia among the King's troops, meaning 
any surplus that may remain in the hands 
of the Serjeants in charge of the messes, 
at the expiration of each ten days, which 
money it has been customary immediately 
to divide amongst the men. 

Hlolten-Coi'i'ER, (rosette, Fr.) copper 
that is melted. 

CoPVER-plale, (taille douce, Fr.) a 
plate on which pictures, &c. are en- 

COQUILLES a boulet, Fr. shells or 
moulds. They are made either of brass, 
or iron; two are required for the cast- 
ing of a cannon-ball ; but they never 
close so effectually as to prevent the li- 
quid metal, which has been poured in, 

from running somewhat out of the part 
where they join. This excrescence is 
called the beard, which is broken off 1 1> 
render the ball perfectly round. 

COR, Fr. a French "horn. A cor et 
a cri, with hue and cry ; with might and 

CORBE1LLES, Fr. large baskets, 
which being filled with earth, and placed 
one by another along the parapet, serve 
to cover the besieged from the shot of 
the assailing enemy. See Basket. 
CORBILLARD, Fr. a herse. 
CORDAGES, Fr. all sorts of ropes 
which are used in the artillery, &c. 

CORDE, Fr. cord, in geometry, 
and fortification, means a straight hue 
which cuts the circumference into two 
parts, without running through the cen- 

Corde-m feu, Fr. a rope-match, com- 
posed of combustible materials. 

Corde d'estrapade, Fr. a rope by which 
men or women are hoisted up, by way of 

Cord e de fare, Fr. SeeSuBTENBANT. 
CORDEAU, Fr. a cord which is 
used in measuring ground. It is di- 
vided into toises, feet, and inches, for 
the purpose of ascertaining, with preci- 
sion, the opening of angles and the ex- 
tent of lines. In wet weather a small 
chain made of wire is substituted, to 
prevent mistakes that would necessarily 
occur from the end becoming shorter 
or longer, according to the influence 
of the weather. The technical terms 
among French engineers, are — Manier 
le cordeau ; Pendre le cordeau ; Tra- 
vail, er an cordeau. 

Cordeau de campement, Fr. a long 
cord divided at equal distances with a 
piece of cloth of a bright colour, that it 
may be better seen ; it serves to mark, 
from left to right, the alignement of the 
camp of each battalion in battle array. 

C o r d e a u de iiicaurc, Fr. See C h a i n e 

CORD ERIE, Fr. a rope-walk. 
CORDON, in fortification, is a row 
of stones made round on the outside, 
and placed between the termination of 
the slope of the wall, and the parapet 
which stands perpendicular, in such a 
manner, that this difference may not be 
offensive to the eye; whence those cor- 
dons serve only as ornaments in walled 

The Cordon of the revetment of the 
rampart is often on a level with the 
tene-pleiue of the rampart. It has beea 

COR ( 133 

observed in a French military publi 



cation, that it might be more advan- 
tageously placed some feet lower, espe- 
cially when there is a wall attached to 
the parapet, to shield the round* from 
the-enemy's fire. 

Cordon, in military history, is a chain 
of posts, or an imaginary line of separa- 
tion between two armies, either in the 
field, or in winter quarters. 

Cordon bleu, Fr. the blue ribbon. See 

Cordon rouge, Fr.thered ribbon. See 

Cordon also signifies the outermost bor- 
der of a wall, &c. generally made of stone. 

CORNAGE, an ancient tenure, which 
obliged the land-holder to give notice of 
an invasion by blowing a horn. 

CORNE a amorcer, Fr. a priming- 


See Horned-work. 

CORNES de belier, Fr. low flanks in 
lieu of tenailles, for the defence of the 
ditch. See Ouvrage a corne. 

CORNES, Fr. horns. The French 
say figuratively, Lever les comes, to rebel 
against one's superiors. 

CORNET, in the military history of 
the ancients, an instrument much in the 
nature of a trumpet: when the cornet 
was sounded alone, the ensigns were to 
march without the soldiers; whereas, 
when the trumpet only sounded, the 
soldiers were to move forward without 
the ensigns. A troop of horse was so 

Cornet, in the military history of 
the moderns, the third commissioned of- 
ficer in a troop of horse or dragoons, 
subordinate to the captain and lieute- 
nant, equivalent to the ensign amongst 
the foot. His duty is to carry the stand- 
ard, near the center of the front rank of 
the squadron. 

Cornet d'ouie, Fr. a horn made of 
beaten iron, which the officers use in 
going their rounds to hear from over the 
parapet what passes in the ditches, and 
even beyond the covert-way. 

CORNETTE, Fr. See Cornet. 

The Cornettes or Cornets of the 
colonel-general of cavalry, in the old 
French service, as well as those attached 
to the quarter-master-general and com- 
missary-general, ranked as lieutenants, 
and the Cornettes of la Colouelle-gene- 
rale des dragons ranked as youngest 
lieutenants, and commanded all other 

Cornette, Fr. was likewise the term 
used to signify the standard peculiarly 
appropriated to the light cavalry. Hence 
cornettes and troops were synonimous 
terms to express the number of light- 
horse attached to an army. The stand- 
ard so called was made of taffetas or 
glazed silk, one foot and a half square, 
upon which the arms, motto, and cy- 
pher of the prince who commanded the 
cavalry were engraved. A sort of scarf, 
or long piece of white silk, was tied to 
the cornette whenever the cavalry went 
into action, in order to render the stand- 
ard conspicuous, that the men might rally 
round it. 

Fr. an ornament which, in ancient 
times, served to distinguish French of- 
ficers who were high in command. It 
was worn by them on the top of their 
helmets. It likewise meant a royal 
standard, and was substituted in the 
room of the Pennon Roial. The cor- 
nette-blanche was only unfurled when 
the king joined the army; and the per- 
sons who served under it were princes, 
noblemen, marshals of France, and old 
captains, who received orders from his 
Majesty direct. 

CORNICE, (corniche, Fr.) in archi- 
tecture, the uppermost member of the 
entablature of a column, or that which 
crowns the order. 

The cornice is the third grand division 
of the trabeation, commencing with the 
frieze, and ending with the cymatium. 

According toBelidor, cornice signifies 
every salient profile that crowns a work, 

CORNICON, Fr. a species of trum- 
pet used among the ancients. Prior to 
the Romans being acquainted with the 
trumpet and kettle-drum, a Cornieon 
drew sounds from the horn of a wild 
bullock, lined with silver. The sound 
was loud and shrill, and was heard from 
a great distance. This instrument, which, 
perhaps in the opinion of some, will not 
he considered as a very wonderful inven- 
tion, did not originally belong to the Ro- 
mans, but was borrowed from the Phry- 
gians. A Phrygian named Marsyas was 
the in ventor,who, probably, little thought, 
that a horn would render his name me- 

CORNICULUM, a kind of iron or 
brass horn added to the helmet as a mi- 
litary distinction, which was granted to 
the Roman soldier who had shewn proofs 
of extraordinary valour. 

CORNISH ring, in gunnery, the next 

( 134 



ring from the muzzle backwards 

CORN U A Exercitus. The Romans 
used to call by this name what we 
term right and left wing of an army. 
However, according to Polybius, by 
cornua exercitus, they only meant the 
auxiliary troops which were divided so 
as to occupy both extremities of a Hu- 
man army. These two divisions were 
.distinguished by the appellation ol' dex- 
trum cornu and sinistrum cornu, 
and left wing. 

COROLLARY, {corolluire, Fr.) with 
mathematicians, an useful consequence 
drawn from something that has been ad- 
vanced before: as, that a triangle that 
has three sides equal, has a/so two angles 
equal; and this consequence should be 
inferred, that a triangle, all zehost sides 
are equal, has also its three angles equal. 

CORONA, } in architecture, is a 

CORONE, f large flat member of 

CROWN, ( the cornice, so called, 

CROWNING, ) because it crowns not 
only the cornice, but the entablature, 
and the whole order. 

CORPORAL, (caporal, Fr.) a rank 
and file man with superior pay to that of 
common soldiers, and with nominal rank 
under a Serjeant. He has charge of one 
of the squads of the company, places 
and relieves sentinels, and keeps good 
order in the guard. lie receives the 
word of the inferior rounds that pass by 
his guard. Every company has three or 
tour corporals. 

LaKce-CoRPORAL, (caporal hrcveti, 
Fr.) one who acts as corporal, receiving 
pay as a private. He is also called vice- 
caporal, and by the common soldiers 
caporal postiche. 

Corporal «/' a ship, an officer 
whose business is to look to all the small 
shot and arms, to keep them clean, with 
due proportions of match, &c 

CORPS, with architects, a term sig- 
nifying any part that projects, or ad- 
vances beyond the naked ofa wall, and 
which serves as a ground for some deco- 

Corps, any body of forces. Corps 
is also applied to specific regiments; as 
the corps of Guards; likewise to a par- 
ticular class of men; as a tine corps of 
drums and fifes. 

Corps de garde, Fr. in the French ac- 
ceptation of the word, signifies not only 
the place itself, but likewise the men 
who are stationed to nmi™»* if Si 




protect it. See 

Corps de garde avancee, Fr. When 
a camp is secured by intrenchments, and 
has one line of defence, the corps de 
garde, or advanced post of the cavalry, is 
on the outside of the line, and each part 
has its quarter and main guard. The 
quarter guard, or petit corps de garde, is 
more in front, but still in sight of the 
main guard, and the vedette is still far- 
ther in advance, for the security of both. 

Coups de reserve. See Reserve. 

Coups d/armte, Fr. the whole of an 
army, including detachments, &c. 

Corps de bataille, Fr. the whole line 
of an army which is drawn out in order 
of battle. 

Corps de casernes, Fr. the range of 
buildings called barracks, erected for the 
convenience of troops. 

Corps g'tont'etrique, Fr. signifies length, 
breadth, and depth. 

CORRELET or Corslet, an ancient 
suit of armour which was chiefly worn by 
pikemen, who were thence often deno- 
minated Corselets. The same kind of 
armour was worn by the harquebusiers. 

To CORRESPOND, to hold inter- 
course. An officer or soldier who cor- 
responds with the enemy, is liable to 
suffer death, by the Articles of War. 

CORRESPONDENCE, (correspon- 
dunce, Fr.) a written intercourse which is 
kept up between officers at the head of 
the army, or between belligerent powers, 
who are embarked in the same cause, 
and who communicate together in order 
to secure ultimate success. 

Military Correspondence, (corre- 
spondance de gucrre,Yv.) See Military 
Sec r eta i:t . 

Secret Correspondence, (correspon- 
dance secrete, Fr.) secret intelligence or 
correspondence which is maintained be- 
tween the general of an army, and some 
one or more confidential agents that are 
employed to watch the enemy. 

CORRIDOR, (corridor, Fr.) the covert- 
way which is formed between the fosse 
and palisade on the counterscarp. See 
Covert-wav. This word is becoming 
obsolete as a military term, and is chiefly 
used to designate a gallery, &c. 

CORRODY, a defalcation from an 
allowance or salary, for some other than 
the original purpose. Thus an officer 
who retires upon the full pay of a short 
troop or company, holds a Corrody. 

CORROYER, Fr. to mix lime and 
sand with water, well together, in order 
to make mortar. 

CORYPHEE, Fr. chief; leader. 


( 135 ) 


CORSAGE, Fr. the trunk of the 
body ; either of a man or animal. 

CORSAIR, ( corsair e, Fr.) in naval 
history, a name given to the piratical 
cruisers of Barbary, who frequently 
plunder the merchant ships of countries 
with whom they are at peace; a pirate. 

CORSELET, a little cuirass; or, ac- 
cording to others, an armour, or coat 
made to cover the whole body, anciently 
worn by the pikemen, who were .usual ly 
placed in the front and on the flanks of 
the battle, for the better resisting the 
enemy's assaults, and guarding the sol- 
diers posted behind them. 

CORTEGE, Fr. the suite or retinue 
which accompanies a person of distinc- 
tion. We use the term in the same sense. 

CORTES, the states, or the assembly 
of the states, in Madrid. 

CORVEE, Fr. a species of hard la- 
bour for the repair of public roads, &c. 
to which a certain number of soldiers, 
and sometimes the inhabitants of towns 
and villages, were subjected during the 
old French monarchy. This personal tax 
was done away at the Revolution, and 
turnpikes have since been established 
throughout France. Corvee likewise 
means a job. 

CO-SECANT, (co-secant, Fr.) the se- 
cant of an arch, which is the comple- 
ment of another to 90°. 

CO-SINE, (co-sinus, Fr.) is the right 
sine of an arch, which is the complement 
of another to 90°. 

COSMOGRA PHY, (cosmographie, Fr.) 
a science which teaches the structure, 
shape, disposition, and connection of 
all the different parts of the globe; like- 
wise the manner of delineating them on 
paper: it is composed of two parts, viz. 
astronomy and geography. 

COSMOLABE, an ancient mathe- 
matical instrument for measuring dis- 
tances both above and below. 

COSMOPOLITAN, (cosmopolitain, 
cosmopolite, Fr.) a citizen of the world. 

cording to Sir Robert Wilson, in his 
brief remarkson the Character and Com- 
position of the Russian army, the Cos- 
saquesare a description of troopspcculiar 
to the Russian Army. There are some 
writers who believe, that the Cossaques 
have been a people 900 years, and sup- 
pose them to have come originally from 
the neighbourhood of Mount Caucasus, 
and to have settled on the Don, anciently 
called the Tanais; whence they sent out 

colonies, and conquered Siberia, which 
they ceded to Russia in 1574, and in 
1584 they established themselves on the 
Volga. In 1574 they made their first 
appearance in the Russian armies. 

The Cossaque is mounted on a very 
little, ill-conditioned, but well-bred horse, 
which can walk at the rate of five miles an 
hour with ease, or vie with the swiftest 

The Cossaque has only a snaffle bridle 
on his horse, for the convenience of 
feeding at all times, and even in the pre- 
sence of an enemy. He carries a short 
whip on his wrist, as he does not wear 
a spur; and as he is constantly armed 
with a lance, a pistol in his girdle, and 
a sword, he never fears a competitor in 
single combat. The Cosaques distin- 
guished themselves during the war be- 
tween the Russians and the French on 
several occasions. Though supposed to 
be less civilized than their brethren in 
arms, the uniform tenour of their con- 
duct, both in 1814and 1815, has entitled 
them to general esteem, and secured them 
from reproach, even in France. 

COSSE, Fr. a measure of distance in 
the East Indies, equal to 2500 geometri- 
cal paces. 

COSSE, ) as Cossick Numbers. 

COSSICK, S This was the old name 
of the art of algebra, and is derived from 
cosa, Ital. for res or the root; for the 
Italians call algebra, regula rei ct census, 
i. e. the rule of the root and the square. 
Cossick numbers, with some algebraists, 
are the powers of numbers, as the roots, 
the square, the cube, &c. 

COTANGENT, the tangent of an 
arch which is the complement of another 
to S0°. t 

COTE, Fr. side. The whole extent 
or length of a branch in fortification; 
the distance or space between two given 
points, or the detni-gorges of two neigh- 
bouring bastions. 

Cote ext'erieur du poligonr, Fr. 
terior side of the polygon. The 
which is drawn from the capital of 
bastion to another. 

Cote inlaieur du poligone, Fr. 
terior side of the polygon. The 
which is drawn from the angle of 
gorge to the angle of the gorge most 
contiguous to it. See sides of the Po- 

Du Cote de POrient, Fr. eastwards. 

COTE a Cote, Fr. abreast. 

COTEAU, Fr. a hillock. 




( 136 ) 

C O V 

COTER, Jr. to mark upon the plans 
and profiles of works of fortification, 
the exact measurement thereof divided 
into toises, feet, inches, and lines : the 
figure which is used to distinguish the 
ditl'erent parts of the work is called the 
coti : so that when it is necessary to re- 
pair a bastion, the engineer instantly 
Knows the defective part. 

COTISER, Fr. to give one's allotted 
proportion of money or provisions, &c. 
for the use of an army. Also to make a 
person contribute any rate according to 
his means. 

COTOYER une arwee, Fr. to keep a 
parallel line with an enemy, so as to 
prevent him from crossing a river, or to 
seize a convenient opportunity to attack 

Cotoyer also signifies to coast along. 
COTTE d'armes, Fr. the military 
dress of the ancient Gauls, the length 
of which frequently varied; sometimes 
it hung to the ground both before and 
behind, with the sides sloping; some- 
times it came just above the knee, and 
at oilier times just below it. In sub- 
sequent years it was only worn by the 
Ik routs d'armes and les gardes de la 
tnanche, as we may have seen in our 
days Those Gauls that were opulent 
displayed great magnificence in their 
colic d'armes. Since that period the 
privilege has descended to the sons of 
grandees and noblemen. 

CO 111', de muilles, Fr.coat of mail. 
COTTEREAUX, Fr. a banditti that 
formerly infested France, particularly 
the province of Berri. They were de- 
stroyed by Philip Augustus in 11G3. 
Their only weapon was a large knife. 
COUARD, Fr. See Coward. 
COUCH, (couche, Fr.) with painters, 
a lay or impression of colour, or varnish. 
To COICH, a term used in the 
exercise of the lance. Bring the lance 
under the right arm, and holding it firm 
there by pressing the arm to the body, 
direct the point with the right hand. 

COUCHE, Fr. in carpentry, a piece 
of timber which is laid flat under the 
foot of a prop or stay. 

COL CHER, Fr. in an active sense 
of the verb, to lay. 

CovcHERsur/e carreau,Yr. to lay low. 
Coucher en joue, Fr. to take aim with 
a firelock : figuratively, to keep any per- 
son, or thing, in view, for the purpose of 
gaining some object. 

Coucher vnecrit, Fr. to write down, 
to take down in writing. 

COUCHES, Fr. courses or layers 
of sand, which are spread about one 
foot deep, over the boarding of a wooden 
bridge, in order to place the stones 
upon it. Also any layer of sand or 
gravel which serves to have a pavement 
laid upon. 

COUDE, Fr. an obtuse angle in the 
continuity of a front or partition wall, 
taken outside, with one turn, or bent 
within. Also any angle. 

Coude, Fr. any turning or deviation 
from a direct line, that is made by a 
river, canal, road, or branch of a work 
in fortification. 

Coude d'unc riviere, Fr. a winding of 
the river. 

COUDE E, Fr. an ancient measure 
taken from the elbow to the end of the 

COVENTRY, a town in Warwick- 

To be. sent to Coventry, a military 
term used to express the situation of an 
officer who is not upon a good footing 
with his brother officers. This term 
derives its origin from a circumstance 
which happened to a regiment that was 
quartered in the town of Coventry, 
where the officers were extremely ill re- 
ceived by the inhabitants, or rather de- 
nied all sort of intercourse with them. 
Hence to be sent to Coventry signifies 
to be excluded from all social communi- 
cation with others; or, more properly, 
with those who before were intimate. 

To COVER, in the mathematical dis- 
position of a battalion, company, or 
squad, only means that a man is to 
stand in such a position in file, as that, 
when he looks exactly forward to the 
neck of the man who leads him, he 
cannot see the second man from him. 
Nothing but great attention at the drill 
can bring men to cover so truly as never 
to destroy the perpendicular direction of 
anv leading body. The least deviation 
in the men who cover upon either flank 
of a leading column, or division, will 
throw all that follow out of the true 

To Cover ground is to occupy a 
certain proportion of ground, indivi- 
dually, or collectively. A foot soldier 
upon an average covers c 22 inches of 
ground when he stands in the ranks. 
The dimensions arc taken from his 
shoulder points. 

C O V 

( 137 5 

c o u 

A file on horseback covers or occupies 
in the ranks about 2 feet 8 inches. 
Thus three file will occupy 8 feet; 
twelve file 32 feet or 10 yards and 2 feet; 
thirteen file, 34 feet 8 inches, or 11 
yards, 1 foot, 8 inches; fourteen file, 37 
feet 4 inches, or 12 yards 1 foot 4 inches, 
and so on. 

One horse's length from nose to croup, 
on an average, 3 feet and about 2 
inches, or 2 yards 2 feet 2 inches. This 
consequently will he the space which 
about three file occupy in front. 

Cavalry and infantry officers cannot 
pay too much attention to the calcula- 
tion of distances; by an accurate know- 
ledge of which, ground will he properly 
covered, and any proportion of men, 
on horseback or on foot, be drawn up 
so as to answer the intentions of an 
able general. The best way that an of- 
ficer can form his eye, is to exercise it 
to the measurement of ground by the 
regular pace of 2 feet, used in mili- 
tary drawings; by this he can calculate 
his interval exactly, when he once 
knows how many feet his division oc- 
cupies ; for it is only halving the num- 
ber of feet, and the number, so pro- 
duced, is his distance in paces of two 
feet each. This instruction has been 
given to cavalry officers, by a very able 

Cover, (u couvert, Fr.) a term in war 
to express security or protection : thus, 
to land under cover of the guns, is to ad- 
vance ofFensi\ely against an enemy who 
dares not approach on account of the 
fire from ships, boats, or batteries. It 
likewise signifies whatever renders any 
movement imperceptible : as, under 
cover of the night, under cover of a 
wood, &c. The gallery or corridor in 
fortification is, however, particularly dis- 
tinguished by the term cliemin couvert, 
covert-way, liecause the glacis of the 
parade is its parapet. 

COVERER. The serjeant, corporal, 
or private that is posted in the rear of a 
leader is so called. 

COVERT-WAY, in fortification, is 
a space of 5 or 6 fathoms on the border 
of the ditch toward the country, covered 
by a rising ground, which has a gentle 
slope towards the field. This slope is 
called the glacis of the covert-way. See 

Second Covert-way, or, as the French 
call it, avant-chemin convert, is the co- 

vert-way at the foot of the glacis. See 


COULER vne piece de canon, Fr. 
to liquify the metal for the purpose of 
casting it into a mould. 

COULET, from col, Fr. covering for 
the neck. 

COULEVRINE, Fr. a piece of ord- 
nance of great length, and which carries 
a ball to a considerable distance. 

The Coulevrine of Nanci in France, 
which is still to be seen at Dunkirk, is 
twenty-two French feet long from the 
breech to the mouth, and carries au 
eighteen pound shot. 

COULIS, Fr. plaster well mixed, for 
the purpose of filling up the joints of 
stones, and to keep thein together. 

Vent Coulis, Fr. wind issuing out 
of chinks. 

COULISSE, Fr. any piece of timber 
which has grooves in it. Also pieces of 
wood which hold the floodgates in a 

COULVRENIER, Fr. a militia-man 
of the fifteenth century. The Coulvre- 
nier wore a habergeon with sleeves, a 
gorgerin and salade, a breast plate of 
brass, a dagger, and a sharp edged sword. 

COUNCIL of wa, (conseil de guerre, 
Fr.) an assembly of principal officers of 
an army or fleet, called by the general or 
admiral who commands, to concert mea- 
sures for their conduct. See Conseil. 

COUNTER of a horse is that part 
of the fore-hand of a horse, that lies be- 
tween the shoulder and under the neck. 

COUNTER-Approaches, lines or 
trenches made by the besieged, when 
they come out to attack the lines of the 
besiegers in form. 

Line o/Counter-Approach, a trench 
which the besieged make from their co- 
vered-way to the right and left of the 
attacks, in order to scour, or enfilade, the 
enemy's works. 

Cov mzn-battcry, a battery used to 
play on another in order to dismount 
the guns. See Battery. 

Cov STER-breastwork,(cont re-parapet, 
Fr.) See Faussf.-braye. 

Covhizr- forts, in fortification, are 
certain pillars and parts of the wall, dis- 
tant from 15 to 20 feet one from an- 
other, which are advanced as much as 
may be in the ground, and are joined to 
the height of the cordon by vaults, to 
sustain the cheinin des rondes, or that 
part of the rampart where the rounds 


i. 138 ) 


arc gone, as well as to fortify the wall, 
and strengthen the ground. See Bt 1- 
i ur.ssts. 

CoUNTER-gtlOfUfe, ill fortification, are 
small ramparts, with parapets anil 
ditches, to cover Mime part of the body 
of the place. They are of several shapes, 
and differently situated. They are ge- 
nerally made he fore the bastions, in or- 
der to cover the opposite Hanks from 
being seen from the covert-way; con- 
sisting then of 2 faces, making a salient 
angle, and parallel to the faces of the 
bastion. They are sometimes made lie- 
fore the ravelins. See Fortification. 

CouMTER-round. See Roc Mis. 

Cou yiEK-mincs. See M i s ks. 

Cowst Entrenches. See Siege. 

Counter working is the raising of 
works to oppose those of the enemy. 

CouNTi.R-s?t«//(),(''.s tail, (ronht-uueue 
tfkironde, Fr.) in fortification, is a kind 
of an out-work very much resembling a 
single tenaille. 

CouHTER-parole, or word, (contre- 
viot, Fr.) a parole or word which is given 
in times of trouble and alarm, and is 
taken from the name of some instru- 
ment, such as cane, hammer, pistol, &c. 

Cov\7ini-ti»ie, with horsemen, is the 
defence or resistance of a horse, that in- 
terrupts his cadence and the measure of 
his manage. 

CouNTER-//g/((,uith architects, a light 
opposite to any thing which makes it ap- 
pear to disadvantage. 

Counter-/«M, with builders, a lath 
that is laid in length between the rafters 

Cov St ER-gugc, in carpentry, a me- 
thod used in measuring the joints, by 
transferring the breadth of a mortoise to 
the place in the timber where the tenon 
is to be, in order to make them lit to- 

To COUNTERMAND, (contreman- 
der, Fr.)togive contrary orders to those 
already issued; to contradict former 
orders, tkc. 

Fr.) a change by wings, companies, sub- 
divisions, or liles, whereby those who 
were on the right take up the ground 
originally occupied by the left, and vice 
versa. See March. 

To Countermarch, (faireune con- 
tre->/uirc/ie, Fr.)to change the front of an 
army, battalion, ike. by an inversion of 
their several component parts. 

To COUNTERMARK a horse, a 
'rick frequently played by the knowing 

ones for the purpose of concealing the 
real age of a horse. This is done by 
means of slips and scratches which are 
made by the graver on the outside of the 
hollows of the teeth. 

COUNTERMURE, (contremur, Fr.) 
a wall built up behind another, in order 
to increase the strength ofanv work. 

COUNTERPOISE, with 'horsemen, 

i-> the balance of the body, or the liberty 
"I the action and seat of a horseman, 
acquired by practising in the manage, so 
that in all the motions the horse makes, 
the horseman does not incline his body 
more to one side than to the other, but 
continues in the middle of the saddle, 
bearing equally on the stirrups, in order 
to give the horse the seasonable and 
proper aids. 

COUNTERSCARP, in fortification, 
is properly the exterior talus, or slope of 
the ditch, on the farther side from the 
place, and lacing it. Sometimes the 
covert-way and glacis are meant by this 
expression. See FORTIFICATION. 

COUNTERSIGN, in a general ac- 
ceptation of the term, means any parti- 
cular word, such as the name of a place 
or a person, which, like the parole, is 
exchanged between guards, entrusted to 
persons who visit military posts, go the 
rounds, or have any business to transact 
with soldiers in camp, or garrison. It 
ought always to be given in the language 
be si known to the troops. 


Couii/t initiation, a trench with a para- 
pet, made by the -besiegers, betwixt them 
and the besieged, to scciue them from 
the sallies of the garrison ; so that the 
troops which form the sit ue are en- 
camped between the lines of cite. imval- 
lation and cotintervallation. When the 
enemy has no army in the field, these 
lines are useless. 

i ()\JNTY-/icutcnant. See Lieute- 
nant of County. 

COVS'l'Y-lrcasinrr. See TilSASV- 
rer of Col Nl v. 

COUP, Fr. a blow, or stroke. 

Coup /forme et feu, Fr. shot. 

CoOP df canon, Fr. cannon-shot. 

Coifs decorde, Fr. blows given with 
popes-ends, st;ch as are used in our ships 
of war. Although the punishment of 
flogging does not exist in the French 
army, the navy is subjected to it. Coups 
de corde is also used to signify the seve- 
ral jerks given in the punishment by 
estrapade. See Estrapade. 

c o u 

( 139 ) 

c o u 

Un Coup d'ipte, Fr. a thrust with a 

Coup de main, Fr. a sudden and un- 
foreseen attack, (Src. The favourable 
side of the proposed action must ever 
be viewed; for if what may happen, 
arrive, or fall out, is chiefly thought upon, 
it will, at the very best, not only greatly 
discourage, but, in general, produce a 

Les Coups de main, Fr. To use a 
vulgar English phrase, this term signifies 
off-hand-business, or a word and a blow. 
During the paroxysm of the French Re- 
volution, it was common to have re- 
course to what the revolutionists called 
Les hommes d'exccution pour fuire des 
coups de main. Of this description were 
the Septembrizers in 1792. 

Coup de langue,Tr. language or words 
which are used for the purpose of in- 
juring another. It literally signifies a 
stroke of the tongue, or that mean and 
cowardly attack which is made against a 
man's character without his knowledge. 
The French say, Les coups de langue 
blesscnt bien plus fort que les coups de 
sabre; of this description is insinuative 

Covp-d'wil, Fr. in a military sense, 
First Sight, or that fortunate aptitude of 
eye in a general, or other officer, by which 
he is enabled, by one glance on the map, 
or otherwise, to see the weak parts of 
an enemy's country, or to discern the 
strong ones of bis own. It also signi- 
fies to catch a ready view, and thereby 
to secure an accurate knowledge of the 
enemy's position and movements in 
action. Repossessing a ready coup-d'ail, 
a general may surmount the greatest 
difficulties, particularly in offensive ope- 
rations. On a small scale this faculty 
is of the greatest utility, especially in 
an aide-de-camp. Actions have been 
recovered by a sudden conception of 
different openings upon the enemy, which 
could only be ascertained by a quick 
and ready eye, during the rapid move- 
ments of opposing armies. General 
Desaix, at the battle of Marengo, gave a 
striking proof of the importance of this 
faculty, and so did the Duke of Wel- 
lington at the battle of Waterloo. 

Coup-/b«rre, Fr. a term used in 
fencing, signifying a double thrust, or 
one given by two antagonists at the same 
time. The French also say figuratively, 
Ftrter un coup fourrt a quelqu'vn, to 

do an ill turn to somebody behind his 

Coup de partance, Fr. the signal of 
departure which a fleet, or ship of war, 
makes by firing cannon. 

Coup de Jarnuc, Fr. an underhand 
blow. This term is always used in a bad 
sense by the French. It conies from 
the circumstance of a Frenchman, named 
Jarnuc, having killed his countryman La 
Chitaigneraie unfairly in a duel. 

COUPE, Fr. the rough draft, or sketch, 
of a drawing which represents the inside 
of a building, &c. We also say cut in 
some cases. 

(lor PL-gorge, Fr. a cut-throat; it also 
signifies any dangerous spot, avenue, or 
cutlet, where a man might be way-laid 
and murdered. Also a gambling-house, 

COUPELLE, Fr. a kind of tin or 
copper shovel, which is used in the ar- 
tillery to (ill the cartridges with gun- 
powder, &c. 

COUPElt une conmninication,un con- 
voi, un pont, une retraitc, une troupe, 
Fr. to cut off a communication, to in- 
tercept a convoy, break down a bridge, 
cut off a retreat, or any armed body of 

COUPURES, in fortification, are pas- 
sages sometimes cut through the glacis, 
of about 12 or 13 feet broad, in the re- 
entering angle of the covert-way, to fa- 
cilitate the sallies of the besieged. They 
are sometimes made through the lower 
curtain, to let boats into a little haven 
built in the rentrant angle of the coun- 
terscarp of the out-works. 

Coupure, FY. a ditch that is dug to 
prevent a besieging army from getting 
too close to the walls of a fortified town, 
or place. 

COU R->martiale, Fr. See Court- 

COURAGE, derived from caur, Fr. 
heart, that being supposed to be the 
seat of it : so we say, stout at heart is 
synonimous to brave. This quality of 
the mind is sometimes natural, and some- 
times acquired. It is equally necessary 
to the officer and soldier. The French 
make a difference between bravery and 
courage. They say soldiers may be very 
brave, and yet not have courage enough 
upon all occasions to manifest their 
bravery. A general who is determined, 
upon an emergency, to risk neck or no- 
thing, always knows how to inspire his 


( 140 ) 


troops with courage, (provided they be 
well disciplined, for if not, he can do no- 
thing,) and in that respect the famous 
Turcnnc and Maurice of Nussau, who 
were often opposed hy a superior force, 
were wonderfully skilful. Fernond Cor- 
tex, who had oidy five hundred men 
of infantry, and twenty horse, to make 
the conquest of Mexico, perceiving that 
his troops, (which he called an army,) 
were ('lightened at the great number of 
Indians mustering against them, ordered 
his ships to be set on fire. He con- 
quered the enemy ; but we must con- 
fess, that he had to deal with barbarians, 
who mistook his twenty horsemen for 
sea monsters, and the firing from the 
musketry and artillery, for the thunder 
from above. All manner of stratagems 
must be recurred to, in order to revive, 
or inspire, courage. A general, for in- 
stance, who, at the head of an inferior 
force, cannot avoid a batlie, causes it to 
be rumoured, that the enemy will give 
no quarter, and that he has heard the 
report from his spies, &G. 

Courage tnilitaire, Fr. military 
prowess, active fortitude. A peculiar 
degree of hardihood, by which the miud 
is driven to acts of uncommon boldness 
and enterprise. The late General Sir 
Thomas Picton, K. B. was remarkable 
for this species of courage. 

COURANTJN, Fr. in artificial fire- 
works, this term is given to those fu- 
sees that carry the fire from one quarter 
to another by means of a cord which is 
stretched very light in the air. 

COUryBT, a double evurbwe, Fr. a 
curved-line which has two other curves 
within it. M. Clanaut has written very 
learnedly upon this head in a book in- 
tiujjfd, Kecherches sur Us Courbt.s a 
double con r burr. 

COURBETTER, Fr. to curvet. 

COURCON, Fr, a strong piece of 
iron which serves to connect and secure 
the moulds for cannon. 

COUREURS, Fr. light armed troops 
that are mounted, and go upon recon- 
noitring parties, or in pursuit of a flying 
enemy. It literally means runners. 
Those who, on a march, leave their ranks 
to go marauding, are also called coureurs. 

COURGE, Fr. a gourd ; a yoke. 
Also a stone or iron crow which sustains 
the false mantle-tree of an old chimney. 

COURIER, a messenger sent post, or 
express, to carry dispatches of battles 

gained, lost, &c. or any other occurrences 
that happen in war, &c. 

Coukier de cabinet, Fr. a state mes- 

Couriers des vivres, Fr. were two 
active and expert messengers attached 
to the French army, whose duty con- 
sisted wholly in conveying packets of im- 
portance to and fro, and taking charge of 
pecuniary remittances. 

COURIR au.v mines, Fr. to run to 

COURONNE de pieur, Fr. the head 
of a stake, which is sometimes bound 
round with iron, to prevent it from split- 
ting when driven down bv the rammer. 

COURONNER, F> . to terminate or 
finish any piece of work. 

COURON EM ENT,or Couronnement, 
Fr. in fortification, implies the most ex- 
terior part of a work when besieged. 

COURONNES gverrilres, Fr. mili- 
tary crowns or garlands. See Crowns. 

COURROYES, Fr. stirrup-leathers. 
Dragoons are sometimes punished with 
these articles. The culprit is obliged to 
pass through two lines facing inwards, 
and receives a blow from every soldier as 
he goes by. 

COURS de Hues, Fr. See Lisses. 

COURSE, with architects, a conti- 
nued range of bricks or stones of the 
same height throughout the length of the 

COURSER. See Charger. 

COURSES, Fr. the incursions which 
an army makes into an enemv's country. 

COU RM FR, Fr. that canal in a wa- 
ter-mill, or in any other hydraulic ma- 
chine, where the bottom of the ladle- 
wheel is confined, and where the water 
issues with great force from under the 
flood-gate, to put the wheel in motion. 

COURSIER, Fr. a gun which is placed 
in the forecastle of a galley for the pur- 
pose of firing over the ship's beak. The 
weight of its ball is from 33 to 34ll>. 

COUKSEY, in a galley, a space, or 
passage, about a foot and a half broad, 
on both sides of which slaves are placed. 

CQ\TRT-niartial,(Cour-niartialc, Fr.) 
a court appointed for the invent ; gation 
and subsequent punishment of ut'.ences 
in officers, under-officers, soldieis, and 
sailors: the powers of which are regu- 
lated by the Mutiny-bill, in the words, 
and to the effect following. " His Ma- 
jesty may, from time to time, grant a 
commission, under his royal sign manual, 

c o u 

( 141 ) 

C u 

to any officer, not under the degree of a 
field-officer, for holding a general court- 
martial within this realm; and also 
grant his warrant to the lord-lieutenant 
of Ireland, or other chief governor or 
governors there, for the time being, or 
the governor or governors of Minorca, 
Gibraltar, and any of his Majesty's do- 
minions beyond (he seas respectively, or 
the person or persons, their commander 
in chief, from time to time, to appoint 
courts-martial in the kingdom or Ire- 
land, and other places and dominions 
respectively; in which courts-martial, 
all offences mentioned in the Articles of 
War, and all other offences hereinafter 
specified, shall be tried and proceeded 
against in such manner as the act lor 
that purpose directs." The courts have 
power by their sentence of judgment to 
inflict corporal punishment, not extend- 
ing to life or limb, on any soldier for im- 
moralities, misbehaviour, or neglect of 
duty. A general court-martial shall not 
consist of a less number than 13, where- 
of none are to be under the degree of a 
commissioned officer; and the president 
of such general court-martial shall nei- 
ther be the commander in chief, or go- 
vernor of the garrison where the offender 
shall be tried, nor under the degree of a 
field officer, unless where a field officer 
cannot be had; in which case the officer 
next in seniority, not being under the 
degree of a captain, shall preside at 
such court-martial; and that such court- 
martial shall have power and autho- 
rity to administer an oath, to every wit- 
ness, in order to the examination or trial 
of any of the offences that shall come be- 
fore them. 

That in all trials of offenders by gene- 
ral courts-martial, to be held by virtue 
of this act, every officer, present, at such 
trial, before any proceedings be had 
thereupon, shall take an oath, upon the 
Holy Evangelists, before the court and 
judge advocate, or his deputy. 

A regimental Court-Martial can- 
not sentence to the loss of life or limb. 
The colonel or commanding officer ap- 
proves the sentence of a regimental 
court-martial. By a clause in the Mu- 
tiny-bill of 1806, all the members of a 
regimental court-martial must be sworn. 

A garrison Court-Martial only 
differs from a regimental one by beins; 
composed of officers of different regi- 
ments. The governor, or other com- 
manding officer of the garrison, ap- 

proves the sentence. For further parti- 
culars respecting courts-martial, see 
Regimental Companion, vol. ii. 5th 

Court of inquiry, a meeting of of- 
ficers who are empowered to inquire in- 
to the conduct of the commander of an 
expedition, &c. or to see whether there 
be ground for a court-martial, &c. 
Courts of inquiry cannot award punish- 
ment, but must repoit to the officer by 
whose order they were assembled. 
Courts ot inquiry are also appointed to 
examine into the quality and distribu- 
tion of military stores, &c. 

COURTAUD, with horsemen, a crop, 
or cropped horse; a Lob-tail. 

Courtaud, with gunners, a short kind 
of ordnance used at sea. 

COURTADER, Fr. to crop a horse's 

COURTIER, Fr. an agent. 

Courtier de change, Fr. a money 

Courtier priviUgii, Fr. an agent of 

COURT1NE, Fr. See Curtain in 

COUSSIN, Fr. a sort of wedge, or 
small piece of wood, which is placed un- 
der the breech of a cannon in order to 
point it properly, and to keep it steady 
in the proposed direction. 

C017SSINET, Fr. a wedge of wood 
which is fixed between the carriage and 
the center part of a mortar, and serves 
to keep it in a prescribed degree of ele- 

COUSSINET a mousquetaire, Fr. a 
bat; formerly worn by a French soldier 
on his left side beneath the cross-belt. 
It hung upon hooks near the butt of his 
musquet. Its object was to resist the 
recoil of a large fire arm, particularly 
during a siege. 

COUSTILLE, Fr. an offensive wea- 
pon which was occasionally used by the 
troops in the fifteenth century, in the 
time of Charles VII.; it was longer than 
the common sword, sharp edged from 
the hilt to the point, of a triangular 
shape, and very slender. 

COUSTILLER, Fr. a person armed 
with a const Me. 

COUTEAU, Fr. a knife. 

Couteau de chasse, Fr. a hanger. 
Couteau de bois, ou spatule, Fr. a 
wooden instrument in the shape of a 
short blunt blade. It is used in press- 
ing down earth or hay between a shell 

C R A 

( i« ) 

C R A 

and the inside of a mortar, in oredr to 
keep the former compact and steady. 

COUTELA&, Fr. See Cutlass. 

COUTER, Fr. to cost; to have a 
price, or value. This expression is used 
figuratively among the French in a mili- 
tary sense — viz. Ce general expoto sis 
troupet a tout moment; Its hommes ne 
lui content guere. — That general ex- 
poses his troops every moment, he puts 
no price or value upon the loss of men. 

A plate COUTURE, Fr. utterly; en- 
tirely. Defaite a plate couture, an utter 

COUVADE, Fr. the act of skulking. 

Faire U Couvade, Fr. to lurk in camp, 
or quarters, when others are gallantly 
fighting in the field of battle. 

COUVERT, Fr. cover. 

Pays Couvert, Fr. a woody coun- 

COUVRE-FACE, Fr. a tern. us< ,1 h\ 
some engineers, and among others by 
Coehorn, to express the counter-guard : 
others, particularly Montaleinhert, con- 
vey by couvre-f ace generate a second line 
of complete investment. 

Le COUVRE-FEU, Fr. a signal 
made by the ringing of a bell, or heat of 
drum, to give notice to the soldiers or 
inhabitants of a fortified place, that the 
gates are shortly to be shut. It literally 
means the covering, or extinction, of lire, 
or light. See Curfew. 

COUVRIR, Fr. to cover, defend, 

Coivrir unc rille, un port, unc 
troupe, un pays, un magasin,un entrepot, 
une armee usance ante, Fr. to lie encamp- 
ed in front of a town, bridge, body of 
men, any particular ground or post, 
magazine, or between a fortified place 
and the main besieging army, so as to 
prevent the approaches of an enemy. 
To this end temporary works should he 
erected, defended by chosen troops, who 
must he attacked and beaten, before 
possession can be obtained of any of 
the above-mentioned objects. 

Couvrir une marche, un mouvement, 
une communication, Sfc. Fr. to cover the 
march or movement of an army, by 
means of detachments, which are sent 
forward for that purpose. 

COWARD, according to Dr. John- 
son, a word of uncertain derivation. A 
poltroon; a wretch whose predominant 
passion is fear; a thing unworthy of, and 
unfit for, the navy or army. It is some- 
times used as an adjective. 

( OY. \ UX, Fr. hip rafters. 

COYER, Fr. a piece of timber which 
is laid diagonally in the: groove, or hol- 
low of a roof, 

COYON, Fr. a coward; a base das- 
tardly fellow.' 

COYONADE, Fr. cowardice; das- 
tardly conduct. 

CRAB. See Gin. 

CRABBAT, Hcravatei Fr.) Baiby 

CRAVAT, S derives this word from 
one Crabbat, a Croatian, who first wore 
a sort of neckcloth. Before the Revo- 
lution, there was a German regiment in 
the French service, called Royal Cravats, 
probably from the men having originally 
been recruited out of Croatia, and also 
wearing the neckcloth. This regiment 
gave way at the famous sortie of Lisle, 
in 1792, when Colonel Dillon led out a 
body of troops to attack an advanced 
post of the Austrians. The consequence 
of their panic was the inhuman murder 
of that brave officer, and of Berthier the 
engineer, who was suspended from a 
lamp iron, and shot, anil cut at by the 
fugitives as they returned to the citadel. 

CRADLE, a machine made of stout 
sail-cloth for the purpose of shipping 
and unshipping horses; also a hollow 
piece of leather for a fractured or bro- 
ken limb to rest in. 

Cradle, with shipwrights, a frame of 
timber raised along the outside of a 
ship by the bulge, serving more securely 
and commodiously to launch her. 

CRAIK.E. The constablery of this 
place, a* far as it regards the militia, is 
deemed a part of the North Riding of 
Yorkshire, and is subject to the juris- 
diction of the Lord Lieutenant. 

CRAMPON dc cuir, Fr. a loop, or 
tab of leather. 

CRAMPONS, Fr. pieces of iron 
hooked at the end; grappling hooks. 
Iron instruments distributed amongst 
the troops intended to storm a rampart, 
and which they fastened to their shoes 
by means of a strong strap of leather, 
to he able to climb up. 

CRAMPONNER, Fr. to join or 
fasten together with cramp-irons. 

Ciiami'onner des fcrs dc cheoal, Fr. 
to shoe a horse with frost nails. 

CRAMPONNET, Fr. a little cramp 
iron ; tack or hoop. 

Les CRAMPONS d'unfer de cheval, 
Fr. the frost nails of a horse-shoe; 
caulks; the caulkings. 

CRANE, an instrument made with 


rope?, pullies, and hooks, by which great 
weights are raised. 

CRANE, Ft. literally the skull, brain 
pan, or bone of the head. The French 
say of a stubborn hot-headed man, Cest 
une crane 

CRANEQUfN, Fr. the gaffle of a 
cross bow. It is also written Crenne- 
uuin, and signifies an engine for battery, 
used in old times. 

NIER, Fr. formerly an order who 
served both on foot and horseback; hi? 
bow was very light; in the origin it was 
made of wood, next of hum, and finally 
of iron: it was bent by means of an iron 
bandage, called crunequin, which was 
fastened round the waist. The Dukes 
of Burgundy used to have six hundred 
ot them in their suite. This appellation 
was also formerly given to an inferior 
officer who had the management of 
warlike machines. 

CRAPAUD, ou affut, Fr. Crapaud 
literally means a toad. It is a sort of 
gun-carriage without wheels, on .which a 
mortar is carried. 

CItAPAUDINE, Fr. a sort of sucker, 
which is placed at the bottom of reser- 
voirs and basons, in order to keep them 
dry, or to draw off the water. Crapau- 
dine also signifies the cavity in which 
the hinge of a door, &c. turns. 

CRAPAUDINE, in a horse, an ulcer 
on the coronet, called also a tread upon 
the coronet. 

CRATCH, {r atelier, Fr.) a rack, in 
which hay is put for cattle. 

CRATCHES, {crevasse, Fr.) a crack; 
a disease in horses. 

CRATES, engines of war used by the 
ancients to cover the workmen in pro- 
portion as they drew nearer to the walls 
of a besieged town. 

CRAVATES. Fr. See Croats. 

Rot/ales Cravates, Fr. a mounted 
militia, or species of Life Guards, for- 
merly so called in France. 

Cravates des dvapeaux, Fr. the cor- 
ners of a colour or Hag. 

CRECHE, Fr. a manger; a crib. 

CREDIT, {credit, Fr.) trust reposed, 
with regard to property: correlative to 
debt. Johnson. It is customary, upon 
the arrival of troops that are to conti- 
nue quartered in a town, village, &c. to 
warn the inhabitants not to give credit 
to the men. 

CREDITS. See Debts and Credits. 

( i*3 ) CRE 

CREESE, a dagger used by the Ma- 

CREMAILLE, in field fortification, 
is when the inside line of the parapet is 
broken ill such a manner as to resemble 
the teeth of a saw; whereby this advan- 
tage is gained, that a greater fire can be 
brought to bear upon the defile, than if 
only a simple face were opposed to it; 
and consequently the passage is render- 
ed more difficult. Belidor, in his Dic- 
tionnaire Porlatif de I'Ingenieur, writes 
the word, Cremilliere. 

CREMILLIERE, Fr. a pot-hanger. 

CREMILLON, Fr.ahook. 

CRENAUX, Fr. small openings, or 
loop, holes which are made through the 
walls of a fortified town or place. They 
are extremely narrow towards the ene- 
my, and wide within; so that the balls 
from the besiegers can scarcely ever en- 
ter, whereas two or three soldiers may 
fire from within. 

CRENELE, Fr. embattled; having 

CRENELER, Fr. to indent; notch. 

CRENELLATED Parapet, an em- 
battled parapet with loop-holes to fire 

CRENELURE, Fr. indenting. 

CREOLE, CREOLIAN, {Creole, Fr.) 
A person born in the West Indies, but 
of European Origin. Creoliansare very 
tenacious of their birth, and will not 
associate with blacks, or mulattoes. 

ulcer seated in the midst of the forepart 
of a horse's foot, about an inch above the 

CREPUSCULE, Fr. twilight. 

CRESCENT. See Orders. 

CRESSET, any great light upon a 
beacon, light-house, or watch-tower. 

CREST of the parapet, or <>f the 
glacis, is the superior surface, or too, of 
the parapet of any work. 

Crest, (crcte, Fr.) a tuft of feathers, 
a plume, a tassel, generally worn in the 
helmet. These crests were originally 
made of horse-hair; and, according to 
Herodotus, were invented by the Ethio- 

CiiEsr-fallen, dispirited, out of heart, 
cast down, cVc. 

CRETE, in fortification, implies the 
earth thrown out of the ditch hi a forti- 
fication, trench, tkc. The most elevated 
part of a parapet, or glacis. 

Crete d'un chemin couvert, d'une 

C R I 

( 144 ) 

C R () 

piece tlr fortification^ d'unc montagne, 
d'nn rocker, &c. Fr. the peak or highest 
pari of a covert-way, o*- of any work 
in fortification; the summit of a hill, 
rock, &c. 

'J'lie French say figuratwely, Buisser 
hi crete, to be less haughty, to lose one's 
vigour or strength. 

CREVICE, ( crevasse, Fr.) a chasm or 
hollow Bpace which is made by time, or 
mismanagement, in a piece of ordnance 
ike; it also signifies a crack in a wall, 

CRT, Fr. the acclamation or shout 
which is made by soldiers when the 
enemy gives way, and a battle is won. 
Also the sound uiven by the voice in 
challenging a sentry. Cri also signifies 
the motto which is written upon colours, 
or coats of anus belonging to illustrious 

Cm des amies, Fr. a savage custom 
which is still preserved by the Turks 
and other uncivilized nations, whenever 
they go into action. It was formerly 
practised among the French, Spaniards, 
and the English, ike. The national 
exclamations were Montjoie and St. 
Dcnys for France, St. James for Spain, 
St. George for England, Farrah formerly 
lor Ireland, St. Andrew for Scotland, St. 
Malo, or St. Yves, for the Dukes of 
Britttany, St. Lambert for the principa- 
lity of Liege, ike. The war-hoop may 
likewise be considered in this light. It 
is s till practised among the savages of 
America. See War hoop. 

In making any desperate assault, or 
in charging bayonet, or when one bat- 
talion is directly opposed to another, or 
squadron to squadron, French soldiers 
frequently use the cri des armes ; Tuez ! 
tiuzf and the Spaniards vociferate "hiatal 
Silence and calmness in the soldier, and 
steadiness and observation in the officer, 
are, nevertheless, superior to such un- 
governable effusions. The former must 
contribute to regularity, the latter sel- 
dom fail to create disorder. 

CRIBLB, JV.a riddle; a sieve. 
CRIBLE de coups, Fr. covered with 
blows, or wounds; pierced through and 

CRIBLEIt, Fr. to lame; to cripple; 
to render unfit for service. 

CRICjCRJCQ, Fr.a machine which 
is u^ed to move forwards, or drag up a 
piece of ordnance, a mortar, tkc. or any 
load, from the ground. The c is not pro- 
nounced in this word. 

CRIC, Fr. a poignard used by the 
Malya people. The c is pronounced 
in this word. 

CRIME de lezc-majestc, Fr. high 

CRIMP, (raceoleur, Fr.) a person 
who makes it his business to entice 
others into a military life, generally by 
mil. or meahs. 

CRINIERE, Fr. that part of the ca- 
parison which covers the horse's neck. 
The name of crinicre is also given to a 
hunch of culling horse-hair worn upon 
the helmets of the dragoons, which flows 
down on the sides, like a garland, or up- 
on the hack. 

CRINIERE, or manefuire, a defence 
for the neck of a horse against a blow 
from a sword. It consisted of a number 
of small plates, generally about twelve, 
hooked together, and fastened to the 
chant Von, so as to be moveable. 
CRIQUES, Fr. small ditches. 
CRISIS, (crise, Fr.) the point of time 
at which any affair comes to the height. 
CRISTA, a plume. See C ft EST. 
CRIT, Fr. a small dagger. 
CROATS, light irregular troops from 
Croatia. Their method of fighting is 
the same as the I'andours. They wear 
a short waistcoat, and long v\hite 
breeches, with light boots, and a cap 
greatly resembling the hussar cap. Their 
arms are a long firelock 
barrel, and short bayonet, 
hanger, and a brace of pistols. The late 
Empress Queen of Austria had 5000 of 
these troops, the greatest part of which 
had no pay, but lived by plunder. 

CROC," uic Crochet de Sape, Fr. a 
pole with an iron hook, used to place the 
gabions and fascines. 

CROCHET de tranchie, Fr. the fur- 
ther end of a trench or boyav, which is 
purposely carried on to conceal the head 
of the bui/uu, in order to prevent it from 
being enfiladed; and to serve as a small 
place-of-arms from whence soldiers may 
fire against sallying parties. 
CROCS, Fr. whiskers. 
CROCUS, (saf'ran des mitaux, Fr.) a 
calcined metal used by soldiers to clean 
their muskets, tkc. 

CROISADE, CRUSADE, (croisade, 
Fr.) a holy war, or an expedition of the 
Christians against the Infidels for the re- 
covery of the Holy Land, so called from 
those who engaged in it wearing a cross 
on their clothes. 

CROIX de St. Andre, Fr. St. An- 

wilh rifled 
a crooked 

C R O 

( 145 ) 

C R O 

(1 rew's cross, so called from the saint of 
that name having been crucified upon it. 
It consists of two pieces of wood placed 
diagonally across each other. 

Croix 'de St. Louis, Fr. the cross 
of St. Louis, a French order which is 
purely of a military nature. It was in- 
stituted by Louis, surnamed the Great, 
in 1693. 

In 1719 the number of grand crosses 
to be distributed in the French army was 
limited, with appropriate allowances, in 
the following manner: 

445 commandeurs and chevaliers, 12 
grand crosses at 6000 livres, 13 com- 
mandeurs at 4000 livres, 27 ditto at 
3000, 35 chevaliers at 2000, 38 ditto at 
1500, 106 ditto at 1000, 1 ditto at 900, 
99 ditto at 800,45 ditto at 600, 25 ditto 
at 500, 35 ditto at 400, 5 ditto at 300, 
and 4 ditto at 200. 

The King is Sovereign Grand Mas- 
ter of the Order. Land and sea officers 
waer it promiscuously. The cross con- 
sists of an enamelled golden Jieur de Lis, 
which is attached to the button-hole of 
of the coat by means of a small ribbon, 
crimson coloured and watered. 

On one side is the cross of St. Louis 
■with this inscription : Ludovicus Magnus 
instituit, 1693 ; on the reverse side a 
blazing sword with the following words, 
Bellice virtutis premium. 

This is the only order which can be 
properly and strictly called military. 
There are several others, which we judge 
superfluous to our present undertaking. 

CRONE, Fr. a round low tower, 
covered at the top like a windmill, 
which stands upon the sea-side, or on 
the banks of a river, and turns upon a 
pivot, with a hook, serving to load and 
unload cargoes. 

CRONET, the iron at the end of a 
tilling spade. 

To CROP, (tondre, Fr.) to cut short. 

A Crop, (tite toadue, Fr.) what was 
called among the followers of Oliver 
Cromwell, a roundhead. During the 
late war, the officers and soldiers were re- 
lieved from a certain regulated length of 
tail, and permitted to have short hair 
without powder. 

CROQUANT, Fr. the name of a 
faction which committed great depre- 
dations towards the end of the sixteenth 
century, in several provinces on the 
pther side of the Loire. In 1593, the 
peasantry of Perigord, Limousin, and 
Potto*, assembled i« larje bodies, ap- 

pointed their commanders, refused ta 
pay the taxes, over-ran the country, ana 
gave no quarter to any of the nobility 
that had the misfortune to fall into their 
hands. They were named Croquants, 
from the word croquer, to devour, or 
pilfer; literally to crack. 
> CROQUES, Fr.a rough sketch taker* 
of any thing. 

CROSS, the ensign, or grand standard 
borne by the crusaders in the Holy Land. 

Gran D-Cross, a superior mark of dis- 
tinction belonging to the military order 
of the Bath, lately created. See Order. 

Cnoss-battery, (batterie de travers, 
Fr.) See Battery. 

C'Ross-^ire is when the lines of fire 
of two or more adjoining sides of a 
field redoubt, &c. cross one another; it 
is frequently used to prevent an enemy's 
passing a defile. It may be two ways 
obtained : first by constructing the re- 
doubt with the face opposite to the defile, 
tenailed; that is, forming a re-entering 
angle. The other way is, to defend the 
defile by two redoubts, whose faces com- 
mand the passage; flanking each other 
at the same time. 

CROSS-6ar shot, {balle ramie, Fr.) shot 
with iron bars crossing through them, 
sometimes standing 6 or 8 inches out at 
both sides: they are used at sea for 
destroying the enemy's rigging. At a 
siege they are of great service in demo- 
lishing the enemy's palisading, &c. 

Cfioss-/>ars, (croistes, Fr.) bars laid 
across one another. 

CROss-iars, sometimes called the splin- 
ter, or master-bar, that part of the car- 
riage which the shafts are fixed in, and 
from which the draft of the carriage is 

Cross-6ow, called by the Latins arcus 
balistarius, or balista manualis, was an 
offensive weapon which consisted of a 
bow fixed to the top of a sort of staff", or 
stick of wood, which the string of the 
bow, when unbent, crossed at right 
angles. See Bow. 

CROSSES, distinctions given to mili- 
tary men for exploits and good conduct 
in war. See Order. 

CROUP, (crouppe, Fr.) the buttocks 
of a horse. 

CROUPADES, Fr. higher leaps than 
common curvets. The bouncing of a 

CROUPE, Fr. the top of a hill. 

CROUPIERE, or buttoek-piece, hs>rs« 


( no ) 

C 11 u 

CROW, an iron bar, used as a lever 
in moving heavy ordnance or carriages, 
&c. The crows used in the artillery 
service are 4 feet 6 inches, and 5 feet 
iu length. 

CROWN, (couronne, Fr.) ttie orna- 
ment of the head which denotes impe- 
rial and regal dignity. It also signifies 
reward, honorary distinction, as ucrotni. 
of laurels, &c. 

'Hie crowns, in ancient military his- 
tory, were of various uses and denomi- 
nations, viz. 

Oral Crown, corona ovatis, given to a 
general who, without effusion of Wood, 
had conquered the enemy. 

Naval Ckown, corona navalia, dishi- 
buted to those who first should board an 
enemy's ship. 

Camp Crown, corona castrensis, the 
reward of those who first parsed the pali- 
sades, and forced an enemy's camp. 

Mural CROWN, corona vrura/is, the 
recompense and mark of honour due to 
those who first mounted the breach at 
the assault of a besieged town. 

Civic Crown, corot't civica, more 
esteemed than the preceding: it was the 
distinguishing mark, of those who had 
saved the life of a Roman citizen in 
battle. It was given to Cicero for dis- 
sipating the conspiracy of Catiline, and 
denied to Cassar, because he imbrued 
his hands in the blood of his fellow- 

TriBwpAaZCROWN, corona triumphalis, 
the symbol of victory, and presented to 
a general who gained any signal advan- 
tage to the republic. 

Grass Crown, corona "ranrinca, was 
delivered by the whole Roman people 
to any general who had relieved an 
army invested, or besieged, by the enemy. 
The other crowns were distributed by 
the emperors and generals; this was 
given to Fabius by the Roman people, 
for obliging Hannibal to decamp from 

Olive Crown, corona oliva, the sym- 
bol of peace, and presented to the nego- 
ciators of it. 

Iron Crown, (couronne dc fcr, Fr.) 
a crown which was formerly worn by the 
kings of Lombardy, and by Charlemagne 
as emperor of the West ; iu imitation 
of whom, Napoleon the First was 
crowned with it by the Pope, us king of 
Italy, in 1806. 

Crown of thorny (couronne cfepincs, 
Fr.) a crown well known in holy history, 

as having been placed, in mockery, upon 
the bleeding temples of our Redeem ef 
by order of Pontius Pilate to satisfy the 
Jews. It also signifies any crown ac- 
quired by usurpation, or supported by 
tyranny, or imbecility., in fortification, an 
out-uork that takes up more ground 
(than any other. It consists of a large 
gorge, and two sides terminating to- 
wards the country iu two demi-bastions, 
each of which is joined by a particular 
Cttrfain, forming two half has lions and one 
whole one. Crovvn-vvoi ks arc made before 
the curtain, or the bastion, and generally 
serve to enclose some buildings which 
cannot be brought within the body of 
the place', Or to cover the town-gates, or 
else to occupy S spot of ground which 
might lie advantageous to the enemy. 
Sec Fob i ion. 

CKOWN Ft) horn-aork, in fortifica- 
tion, is a horn-work, with a crown-work 
before it. 

ClvOWS;/ir/ are 4 pointed irons, so 
made, that what way soever fhev fall, one 
point is alvvavs uppermost. The short 
ones are about 4 inches in length, and 
the long ones (5 or 7. The short ones are 
thrown on bridges^&C and the long ones 
on the earth; both serving to incommode 
the cavalry, that they may not approach 
without great difficulty. 

C ROWS- 1<7/, a surgeon's instrument 
for extracting bullets, broken hones, &c. 

CRUCIIES a feu, Fr. earthen pots 
with two handles, filled with grenades, 
having the intervals between them filled 
with powder: these jirc-pols are first 
stopped with a sheep skin fastened 
round the neck; a match is nextfixed' 
to each handle; these are set fire to, 
and thrown upon the enemy, on their 
approach to storm the walls; the mo- 
ment the pots break, the fire from the 
matches communicates to the powder 
and to the grenades. 

CRUPELLAIRES, Fr. the nobiliy 
amongst the ancient Gauls, all of them 
fervent is, that is to say, covered with 
iron; they served on foot,, until, pur- 
suant to a regulation of Charles \ TJ. 
king of France, they were named homines 
des amies, men at arms, and each of them 
was obliged to keep four horses. 

CRUPPER, a leather strap which is 
placed under a horse's tail to prevent 
the saddle from moving forwards. It 
forms a part of a horseman's military 


( U7 ) 

C U I 

Cr.v rvzn-buckles are large square 
buckles fixed to the saddle-tree behind, 
to fasten the crupper, each buckle hay- 
ing a roller or two, to make it draw 

CU, I Fr. literally the bottom, or 

CUL, i brainless part of the human, 
or animal, frame. 

Cu de basse fosse, Fr. a deep dun- 

Tirer le Cu en arriere, Fr. to loiter, 
Co hang behind, 

Tour faile en Cu de lampe, Fr. a 
. tower winding downwards like a wreathed 

Cu or Cul de lampe, according to 
Belidor, signifies also a kind of pen- 
•dentive which hangs from the mouldings 
• in Gothic vaults; also an assemblage of 
sculptured stones which serve to sup- 
port centr.f/-boxes, or small turrets at- 
tached to the salient angles of stone and 
brick works. 

Cu de sac, Fr. a blind alley ; an alley, 
street, or place, that has no thoroughfare. 

Avoir leCvL sur la selle, Fr. to be on 

Tenir conseil de guerre le Cul sur la 
selle, Fr. to hold a council of war on 

CUBATION, ) {cubation, Fr,) is the 

CUBATURE, S cubing of a solid, or 
the art of measuring the solidity of 
bodies. This solidity is usually ascer- 
tained by multiplying together their 
three several dimensions: viz. their 
length, breadth, and height or depth. 

The cubature has respect to the con- 
tent of a solid, as the quadrature has 
to the superficies of a figure: so that 
the cubature of the sphere turns on 
the same thing as the quadrature of the 

CUBE, ^ solid contained between six 
equal square sides. The solidity of any 
cube is found by multiplying the super- 
ficial content of any one of the sides by 
the height. Cubes are to one another 
in the triplicate ratio of their diagonals. 

CvBE-root is the side of one of the 
squares constituting the cube. 

CUBIC-J'oot implies so much as is 
contained in a cube, whose side is 1 loot 
or 12 inches. 

Cubic hyperbola is a figure expressed 
by the equation x y '2— a, having 2 
asymptotes, and consisting of 2 hyper- 
bolas, lying iii the adjoining angles of 
the asymptotes, and not in the opposite 

angles, like the Apollonian hyperbola., 
being otherwise called, by Sir Isaac 
Newton, in his linearum 
lertii ordinis, an hyperbolismus of a 
parabola; and is the 65th species of 
lines, according to him. 

Cubic number is that which is pro- 
duced by multiplying any number by 
itself, and then again the product by that 

Cubic parabola, a curve of the se- 
cond order, having infinite legs, diverging 
contrary ways. 

CUE or Queue, the hair tied in form 
of a tail. All the British soldiers, ex- 
cepting the grenadiers and light infantry, 
were formerly ordered to wear their 
hair cue'd. They are now permitted to 
wear it short, 

En CUERPO, en chemise, Fr. from 
the Spanish, in one's shirt. — Se battre eri 
cuerpo, To tight in one's shirt. 

CUILLER, on cuillirt a canon, Fr. 
a copper ladle or scoop, which is used 
to draw the cartridge out of the gun. 

CUIR bouilli, Fr. jacked leather, such 
as jack-boots, leathern bottles, pouches, 
&c. are made of. 

CUIRASSE, a piece of defensive 
armour, made of plate, well hammered, 
serving to.coverthe body, from the neck 
to- the girdle, both before and behind, 
called breast and back-plate. 

CUIRASSIERS, a sort of heavy ca- 
valry armed with cuirasses, as most of 
the German horse are. The several 
German powers have regiments of cui- 
rassiers, especially the Emperor, and the 
King of Prussia. The late King of 
France had also one regiment; but we 
have had none in the English army since 
the Revolution. There were troops of 
this description engaged in the battle of 
Waterloo, who had, until that time, been 
thought invincible, but were completely 
routed and destroyed by the superior 
weight and dexterity of the Life Guards; 
notwithstanding the peculiar advantages 
of their armour, which was musket-proof 
in most parts. 

CUISII, from cuisse, Fr. thigh. See 

CUISINES, Fr. kitchens; ditches dug 
by the soldiers, in rear of the camp, to 
cook their victuals. 

CUISSARS, Fr. are plates or scales 
made of beaten iron, which formerly 
served to cover the thighs. 

CUITE, Fr. a technical word to 

C U N 

( 148 ) 


express the preparation of saltpetre for 
the making of gunpowder. See Salt- 
l'l.I rf. 

CUL de chaudron, Fr. the hollow or 
excavation left after the explosion of a 

CULASSE, Fr. breech of a gun; butt- 
end of a musket. 

CULATE, Fr. that part which stands 
between the touch-hole of a cannon and 
the button. 

CULBUTER, Fr. to overthrow; 
break; turn upside down. 

Cui.buter tine culonne, Fr. to oxer- 
throw a column. 

CULCIT/E, mattresses used from 
time immemorial ; at first they were 
made of dried herbs, next of feathers, 
and finally of wool. In proportion as 
the Romans relaxed from their former 
severe discipline, they would carry mat- 
tresses with them, notwithstanding they 
were forbidden. During the siege Of 
Numantia, Scipio, finding that all pro- 
hibitions were superfluous, set the ex- 
ample to his troops; insisted upon hav- 
ing no bed made for himself, but con- 
stantly slept on a bundle of hay. It is 
not necessary, however, that a general 
should lie on the bare ground for ever; 
let it suliice that he has done so once; 
he stands more in need of sleep than 
any other man in his army ; he is ex- 
posed to be summoned up frequently in 
the course of the night; besides, the 
fatigues and agitation of mind which 
he has undergone on the preceding day, 
require that he should enjoy some re- 
pose to be able to resume the labour of 
the morrow. The Duke of Wellington 
has been remarkable for his neglect of 
bodily comfort; especially during the 
campaigns in the Peninsula. 

CULEE d'etre boidant, Fr. a massy 
pile which receives and sustains the de- 
clivities of an arch or a buttress. 

CULEIRE, Fr. a crupper, which see. 
CULLION head, a sconce, or block- 
house, the same as a bastion. 

CULOT, Fr. the thickest part of a 

CULOTTE, Fr. breeches. See Sa n S- 


CULSTODE, Fr. See Custode 

Culveri s-ordinurt/, 
Culveri n oft/te largest si 
CULVERTAIL, in carpentry, the 
same as dove-tail. 
CUNEUS. See Wedge. 

f See 

CUNETTE. See Cuvette. 

CURB, a chain of iron, made fast to 
the upper part of the branches of the 
bridle, in a hole called the eve, and run- 
ning over the beard of the horse. 

CURBOULY,a boot of jacked leather, 
which was formerly worn by hoiseincu. 

CURE-pit', Fr. See Hoksk-imcker. 

CURFEW-fct//, a signal given in cities 
taken in war,&c. to the inhabitants to go 
to bed. The most memorable curlew 
in England was that established by \\ il- 
liain the Conqueror, who ordered, under 
severe penalties, that at the ringing of a 
bell, at 8 o'clock in the evening, every 
one should put out his lights and tires, 
and go to bed, &c. 

CURRIER, a kind of piece form* rly 
used in sieges. According to Sir John 
Smith, in his remarks on the writiugs of 
Captain Berwick, a currier was of the 
same calibre and strength as ,t harque- 
huss, but had a longer barrel. 

CURRYCOMB, an iron instrument 
used for currying horses. 

To CURTAIL a horse, to dock him, 
to cut oft' his tail. 

CURTAIN, in fortification, is that 

part of the body of the place which joins 

the' flank of one bastion to that of the 

next. See Fortification. 

CURTELASSE, ) G r „., . 
,,, TUTrT . v * } See Cutlass. 

CURTICONE, in geometry, a cone 
whose top is cut otT by a plane parallel 
to its basis. 

CURVATURE of a line in its bend- 
ing, or flexure, whereby it becomes a 
curve of such peculiar properties. 

CURVE, {courbe, Fr.) in geometry, a 
line, wherein the several points it con- 
sists of, tend several ways, or are placed 
in different directions. 

CURVILINEAL, (curviligne, Fr.) 
crooked lined, or consisting of crooked 

Curvilinear figures, in geometry, 
are spaces bounded by crooked lines; as 
circles, ellipses, spherical triangles, &c. 

CUSTODE, Fr. a holster cap. 

CUSTREL, the shield-bearer of the 
ancients was so called. 

7b CUT, in farriery, to interfere. See 

Cut, the action of a sharp or edged 
instrument. There are six cuts esta- 
blished for the use of the cavalry, to be 
made with the broad sword, or sabre. 
See Sword Exercise. 

To Cut off, to intercept, to hinder from 


( 149 ) 

C Z A 

union or return. In a military sense, 
this phrase is variously applicable, and 
extremely familiar. 

To Cut short, to abridge; as the sol- 
diers were cut short of their pay. 

To Cut up, to destroy promiscuously. 
When the cavalry are sent in pursuit of 
a flying enemy, the latter are generally 
cut up. 

To Cut through, szvord in hand. A 
small body of brave men, headed by a 
good officer, will frequently extricate it- 
self from apparent captivity, or destruc- 
tion, by cutting its way through supe- 
rior force. British soldiers have often 
exhibited proofs of this extraordinary ef- 
fort of national courage. 

Cut and thrust szcord, See Spa droon. 

To Cut the round, or Cut the volt, 
is to change the hand when a horse 
n-ork.s upon volts of one tread, so that 
dividing the volt in two, he turns and 
parts upon a right line to recommence 
another volt. 

CUTLER, an artificer whose business 
is to forge, temper, and mount all sorts 
of sword-blades, &c. 

CUTTTNG-o/f. See Retrenchment. 

CUTTS, a soi"- of flat-bottomed boats, 
formerly used for the transportation of 

CUV T E, Fr. This word literally sig- 
nifies a tub; but it is also used by the 
French to express any thing steep of 
ascent, as fosses a fond de cuve, steep 

CUVETTE, Fr. a cistern : a small 
ditch, or reservoir. In fortification, it 
is a small ditch of 10 or 12 feet broad, 
made in the middle of a large dry ditch, 
about 4 or 4| feet deep, serving as a re- 
trenchment to defend the ditch, or else 
to let water in, (if it can be had during a 
siege,) and afford an obstacle, should the 
enemy endeavour to cross the fosse. 

CYCLISCUS, in surgery, an instru- 
ment made in the form of a half-moon, 
for scraping away corrupt flesh, &c. 

CYCLOID, a curve formed by a point 
in a circle revolving upon aplane. Thus 

every point in the outer rim of a car- 
riage wheel in motion moves in a cycloid. 
M. Huyghens has applied the cycloid to 
clocks, by which he renders their move- 
ments more equal and regular. 

CYCLOIDAL space, the space con- 
tained between the cycloid and the sub- 
tense thereof. 

CYCLOMETRY, (cyclomitrie, Fr.) 
the art of measuring cycles, or circles. 


CYLINDER, a solid body, having 
two flat surfaces and one circular. 

Cylinder, or concave cylinder of a 
gun, is all the hollow length of the piece 
or bore. See Cannon. 

Charged Cylinder, the chamber, or 
that part which receives the powder and 

Vacant Cylinder, that part of the 
hollow or bore which remains empty when 
the piece is loaded. 

CYLINDROID is a frustum of a 
cone, having its bases parallel to each 
other, but unlike. 

CYMAR, a slight covering; a scarf. 

CYMBAL, (cymbale, Fr.) a warlike 
musical instrument in use among the an- 
cients, made of brass and silver, not un- 
like our kettle-drums, and, as some think, 
in their form, but smaller. They are 
now used by the British and other Eu- 
ropean nations, in their martial music. 

CZAR, a title of honour assumed by 
the great dukes, or, as they are now styled, 
emperors of all the Russias. This title is 
no doubt, by corruption, taken from 
Cesar, emperor : and the Czars accord- 
ingly bear an eagle as the symbol of their 
empire. The first that bore this title was. 
Bazil, the son of Basilides, about the year 
1470. The empress is called the Czarina 

CZARIENNE, Fr. a term applied 
only in the following manner: Sa Majeste 
Czarienne, his or herCzarine Majesty. 

CZARINE, the Czar's wife; or the fe- 
male sovereign of Russia. 

CZARO WITZ, the son of the Czar or 
Czarine of Russia, 

( 150 ) 



D A U 

TT\ BY the Articles of War it is enacted, 
*-*' that a court-martial may order any 
non-commissioned officer or soldier who 
has been convicted of desertion, to he 
marked on the left side, two inches be- 
low the arm-pit, with the letter D. Such 
letter not to be less than half an inch 
long, and to be marked upon the skin 
with some ink, or gunpowder, or other 
preparation, so as to be visible and con- 
spicuous, and not liable to be obliterated. 

DAG, an obsolete word for hand-gun, 
or pistol ; so celled from serving the pur- 
poses of a dagger, being carried secretly, 
and doing mischief suddenly. 

DAGGER, (dugiie, Fr.) in military 
affairs, a short sword or poignard, about 
12 or 13 inches long. 

DAGUE de prcvbl, Fr. a cat o'nine 

DALES, Fr. flagstones. 

DAM. See Dyke. 

DAMAS, Fr. a sabre made of the best 
polished steel, and well tempered : it rs 
excessively sharp, and is so called from 
Damascus in Syria, where the first of the 
kind were manufactured. 

To DAMASK, (damasquiner, Fr.) to 
inlay iron or steel, with gold or silver, 
as to damask the hilt or blade of a sword. 

DAMASQUINE, Fr. is said of a 
poignard, sabre, sword, musket, pistol, 
shield, helmet, or lance, that is orna- 
mented with sold or silver. 

DAME, Fi . a bank of earth ; a dam. 
Dame likewise means a piece of wood 
with two handles, used to press down 
turf or dirt in a mortar. 

Dame oh quille, Fr. a small turret 
which is erected upon a rampart wall, 
or on the top of a building, to overlook 
the country, and prevent soldiers from 

Dame jeannc, Fr. a large bottle in 
which wine or other liquors may be kept. 

DAMNED, (dumne, Fr.)lost; profli- 

Z'awieDAMNliE de quelqu'un,Tr. the 
tool, or unprincipled instrument of any 

DANE-gefr, an ancient tribute of 
twelve pence laid upon every hide of land 

by the Danes, after they had invaded 

DANGERS to which land forces are 
exposed, (dangers pour les troupes de 
terre, Fr.) Under this title are compre- 
hended unknown defiles, certain passages 
in a country that have not been recon- 
noitred ; bridges which, from the stra- 
tagem of the enemy, are rendered unsafe; 
rocks, straits of rivers, a wood, a forest, 
an ambuscade ; a height in the shape of 
a curtain, behind which troops are con- 
cealed ; marshes, sandy grounds; false in- 
formation; traitors; weariness; the want 
of pay and of provisions; hard treatment ; 
want of discipline; the bad example 
given by the officers; neglect; unbound- 
ed security; bad morals; plunder allowed 
unseasonably: all the above are things 
which at various times may expose an 
army ; but a wise and prudent general 
knows how to remove all dangers of the 
kind. Mistrust and want of confidence, 
occasioned by the improvident appoint- 
ment of weak commanders, are likewise 
great dangers for an army. 

DANSE militaire, Fr. a military dance 
used among the ancients. 

DARD.'JV. a dart. 

Dard a J'ru, Fr. a javelin trimmed 
with lire-works, that is thrown on ships, 
or against places which you wish to set 
on fire. 

DARDER, Fr. to throw a dart, or 
any other pointed weapon. 

D ARDEUR, Fr. a person who throws 
a dart. 

DARE, a challenge or defiance to 
single combat. 


DA USE, Fr. the interior part of a 
port, which is shut with a chain, and 
where gallies and other small craft are 

DART, in ancient military history, im- 
plies a small kind of lance, thrown by the 
hand. It was invented by Etholus or 
GEtolus, the son of Mars. 

DAUPHIN, a title given to the eldest 
SOU "t France, and heir presumptive to 
the crown, on account of the province of 
Dauphiny, which, in 1343, was given to 


( 151 ) 


Philip of Valois, on this condition, by 
Humbert, dauphin of the Viennois. 

Dauphin, Fr. a warlike engine used 
by the ancients to pierce through and 
sink the gallies of their enemy. It threw 
a heavy mass of lead or of iron with 
such impetuosity as to do great execu- 
tion. This engine is mentioned in the 
account of the naval engagement in 
which the Athenians, under the com- 
mand of Nicias, were defeated by the 

Dauphins des canons, Fr. dolphins 
which are made in relief on the trunnions 
of field pieces. 

DAY, in a military sense, implies any 
time in which armies may be engaged, 
from the rising of one day's sun to that 
of another. According to Johnson it 
signifies the day of contest, the contest, 
the battle. Hence a hard-fought day. 

DAYSMAN, an umpire of the com- 
bat was so called. 

DE, Fr. See Die. 

DEA.TH's-head Hussars. SeellussARS. 

DEBACLE, Fr. breaking of a frozen 

DEBACLEUR, Fr. water-bailiff. 

DEBANDADE, Fr. £ la dcbandade, 

Se battre a la Debandade, to fight in 
a loose, dispersed manner. 

Laisser a la Debandade, to leave at 
random, or in disorder, as the late Em 
peror of the French left his army on the 
18th day of June, 1815, after the battle of 

DEBANDEMENT, Fr. the act of 
being out of the line, or irregularly 

DEBARCADEUB, Fr. place for the 
landing of a ship's cargo. 

DE BARD EUR, fr. a lighterman. 

DEBARK. See Disembark. 

DEBARQUEMEN T, Fr. disembark- 

DEBAUCHERi, Fr. to debauch, se- 
duce, or entice a .soldier iVum the ser- 
vice of his king and country. During 
the reign of Louis XV. and in former 
reigns, it was enacted, that any person 
who should be coinicted ol having de- 
bauched, or enticed, a soldier from his 
duty should sutler death. By a late act 
of parliament it is made a capital offence 
to entice, or seduce, a soldier from any 
regiment in the British service. 

DEBENTURE is a kind of war- 
rant, given in the office of the board of 
ordnance, whereby the person whose 

name is therein specified, is entitled to 
receive such a sum of money as by for- 
mer contract had been agreed on, whe- 
ther wages or otherwise. Debenture, in. 
some of the acts of parliament, denotes 
a kind of bond or bill, first given in 1649, 
whereby the government is charged to 
pay the soldier, creditor, or his assigns, 
the money due on auditing the account 
of his arrears. The payments of the 
board of ordnance for the larger services 
at home are always made by debentures; 
and the usual practice has been to make 
those payments which are said to be in 
course of ollice, at a period which is 
always somewhat more than three 
months after the date of each debenture, 
and which can never exceed six : to pay, 
for instance, at once for the three 
months of January, February, and 
March, as early as possible after the 
30th of June. 

Army-Debentures are generally made 
up at the Pay-Onice, by virtue of war- 
rants from the War-Orhce, with the 
state of regimental charges annexed, 
after which is issued the final, or clearing 
warrant. See Warrant. 

DEBET, Fr. balance. It also signi- 
fies the same as dibit ens, debtor. 

DEBILLER, Fr. to take off the 
horses that are used in dragging boats 
up a river. 

DE BITER, Fr. to saw stones for 
the purpose of converting the several 
pieces into flag-stones, &c. It also sig- 
nifies to saw wood into thin planks. 

DEBLAI, Fr. the depth, or exca- 
vation, made by dicing. 

DEBLAYER, Fr. to make holes or 
excavations in the earth with spades or 
pick-axes, &c. 

Deiilaver un camp, Fr. to evacuate 
a camp for the purpose of cleaning and 
purifying the ground. 

Deblaver les terres d'unjhsse, Fr. to 
throw away the superfluous earth which 
is not used in constructing a parapet. 

ToDEBLOCADE, from the French 
Dcbloquer ; to raise the sis-ge of a place, 
or to clear the avenues to a town of an 
enemy that prevents ready access to it. 

DEBORDEMENr, IV. This word 
is applied to that excess and want of 
gootl order among troops, which induce 
them to overrun a country that is friend- 
ly or otherwise. Debordanmt was the 
ancient appellation given to the irrup- 
tion of a tribe of barbarians, who came 
from afar to invade a strange country. 


( *& ) 


DEBORDER, Fr. to extend to the 
right or left so as to he be von d the ex- 
treme points of a Fortified town or place. 

DEBOUCH^, Fr. the outlet of a 
wood, or narrow pass. 

Debouche de tranchee, Fr. the open- 
ing which is made at the extremity of a 
trench, in order to carry the work more 
forward, by forming new boyaus, and 
to attack a place more closely. 

DEBOUCHEMENT, Fr. the march- 
ingot' an army from a narrow place into 
one more open. 

DEBOUCIIER, Fr. to march out 
of a defile or narrow pass, or out of a 
wood, village, &c. either to meet an 
enemy or to retire from him. It also 
signifies to begin a trench or boyau, in 
fortification, in a ziz-zag direction from 
a preceding one. 

D&boochbr une grosse louche a feu, 
Fr. to take the wadding out of a heavy 
piece of ordnance. 

DEBOURRER, Fr. to take the wad- 
dingout of a cannon, or musket. 

DEBOURS, Fr. disbursements. 

DEBOUT, Fr. Up! a word of com- 
mand in the French service, when troops 
kneel upon one knee in the presence of 
the consecrated host. 

DEBRIS it'inie urmee, Fr. the remains 
of an army which has been routed. 

DEBTS and Credits. Every captain 
of a troop or company in the British 
service is directed to give in a monthly 
statement of the debts and credits of his 
men ; and it is the duty of every com- 
manding officer to examine each list, and 
to see that no injustice or irregularity has 
been countenanced or overlooked, in so 
important an object as every money mat- 
ter between officer and soldier most un- 
questionably is. 

DEBUSQUER, Fr. to drive an ene- 
my's party from au ambuscade or ad- 
vantageous position. 

DECAGON, (decagonc, Fr.) in for- 
tification, is a polygon figure, having 10 
sides, and as many abgles, and if all the 
sides and angles be equal, it is called a 
regular decagon, and may be inscribed 
in a circle. The sides of a regular deca- 
gon are, in power and length, equal to 
the greatest segment of an hexagon in- 
scribed in the same circle, and cut in 
extreme and mean proportion. 

To DECAMP, (dkamper, Fr.) to 
march an army or body of men from 
the ground where it before lay en- 
camped. It also signifies to quit any 

any place or position in an unexpected 


DECAMPEMENT, Fr. the break- 
ing up of an encampment. 

DECAMPER, Fr. to leave one camp 
in order to go and occupy another. 

DECANI S, in Roman military his- 
tory, an officer who presided over ten 
other officers, and was head of the con- 
tubernium, or serjeant of a file of Ro- 
man soldiers. 

DECASQUER, Fr. to take off one's 

DECEDER, Fr. to die a natural 
death ; hence decease. 

DECEMPEDAL, ( decern fede, Fr.) 
an ancient measure of ten feet. 

DECEMVIR, (dicemvir, Fr.) In 
Roman history one of the ten magis- 
trates that were created, on various occa- 
sions, under the republican government. 

DECEMVIRATE, (dicemvirat, Fr.) 
the station, or dignity, of a decemvir; 
also the period of its duration. 

DECIIARGE, Fr. the act of firing 
off a musket. 

Decharge generate, Fr. a general 

Decharge etarmessur un mort, Fr. a 
discharge of musketry over a dead body. 

Une Decharge de coups de batbn, Fr. 
a bastinado; a volley of blows. 

DECIIARGEURS, Fr. men appoint- 
ed to attend the park of artillery, and to 
assist the non-commissioned officers,&c. 
who are employed on that service. It is 
the duty of the former to keep a specific 
account of articles received and consumed^ 
in order to enable the latter to furnish 
their officers with accurate statements. 

DECIIIRER la cartouche avec les 
dents, Fr. to bite cartridge. 

DECHOUER, Fr. a sea term, sig- 
nifying to get a ship afloat, which has 
touched or been stranded. 

To DECIMATE (decimer, Fr.) to 
chuse one out of ten, by lot. 

DECIMATION, in "Roman military 
history, a punishment inflicted upon 
such soldiers as quitted their post, or 
behaved themselves cowardly in the field. 
The names of all the guilty were put 
into an urn or helmet, and as many were 
drawn out as made the tenth part of the 
whole number; the latter were put to 
the sword, and the others saved. 

DECLARATION of tear, (declara- 
tion de guerre, Fr.) a public proclama- 
tion of a state, declaring it to be at 
war with any foreign power, and forbid- 


( 153 ) 

D E D 

ding all and every one to aid or assist 
the common enemy, at their peril. 

To Declare rear, (declarer la guerre, 
Fr.) to make it publicly known that one 
power is upon the eve of acting offensive- 
ly against ahother. 

DECLICQ, DECEIT, Fr. a rammer; 
a machine used to drive down piles, staves, 
&c. It also signifies a battering ram. 

DECLIVITY, as opposed to acclivity, 
means a gradual inclination or obliquity 
reckoned downwards. 

DECOIFFER, Fr. to uncap. 

Decoiffer une fusee, Fr. to take 
off the wax, or mastic composition, by 
which the inflammable matter is con- 
fined. This term is also used with re- 
gard to shells. The French sometimes 
say, grater la fusee des bombes, to scrape 
oft" the fuse of a bomb. 

DECOLLER, Fr. to behead. For- 
merly, no person under the rank of a 
gentleman could be beheaded in Fiance. 
In Austria it is an ignominious punish- 

DECQMBRER, Fr. to carry away 
the loose stones, &c. which have been 
made in a breach by a besieging enemy. 

DECOMBRES, Fr". the rubbish 
which is the consequence of a breach 
being made in a work; or any other 
loose ruins that may have been occa- 
sioned by time. 

DECOMPTE, Fr. in a general sense, 
discount, or deduction made, on any 
given sum or allowance. 

Decompte also signifies a liquidation, 
or balance, which from time to time was 
made in the old French service, between 
the captain of a company and each pri- 
vate soldier, for monies advanced, or in 

DECONFIRF., Fr. discomfit; route. 

DECOUCHER, Fr. to sleep out of 

DECOUDRE, ctre en decoudre, Fr. 
to be on bad terms; to be determined 
to fight. 

DECOURAGER, JV. to dishearten. 

DECOUSU, Fr. unstitched, disorder- 
ed, from decoudre : thus an army may 
be partially broken, vet not discomfited. 

DECOUSURE, Fr. a part unstitch- 
ed, or broken, after having been sewed. 
Cela n'est pas dechire, ce n'est qu'une 

A DECOUVERT, Fr. exposed; not 
covered or protected. 

Aller a Decouvert attaquer I'enne- 
mi, Fr. to attack an enemy in open day. 

DECOUVERTE, allcr a la dicou- 
verte, Fr. to patrole; to reconnoitre. 

Decouverte sur ?ner, ctre a la decoa- 
verte, Fr. to be placed in the round-top, 
6r at the mast-head, for the purpose of 
keeping a good look-out. 

DECOY, a stratagem to carry oft' the 
enemy's horses in a foraging party, or 
from the pasture ; to execute which, you 
must be disguised, and mix on horseback 
in the pasture, or amongst the foragers 
on that side on which you propose to 
fly: you must then begin by firing a few 
shots, which are to be answered by such 
of your party as are appointed to drive 
up the rear, and are posted at the oppo- 
site extremity of the pasture, or forag- 
ing ground; after which they are to gal- 
lop from their different stations towards 
the side fixed for the flight, shouting and 
firing all the way : the horses being thus 
alarmed, and provoked by the example 
of others, will break loose from the 
pickets, throw down their riders and their 
trusses, and setting up a full gallop, will 
naturally direct their course to the same 
side; insomuch that, if the number of 
them was ever so great, you might lead 
them in that manner for several leagues 
together: when you are got into some 
road, bordered by a hedge, or ditch, you 
must stop as gently as possible; and 
without making any noise; the horses 
will then suffer themselves to be taken 
without any opposition. It is called in 
French Haraux, and Count Saxe is the 
only author that mentions it. 

to Decoy, to allure, entice, or draw 

DECOYED, an enemy is said to be 
decoyed when a small body of troops 
draws him into action, whilst the main 
body lies in ambush ready to act with 
the greatest effect. 

DECRIRE un pays, Fr. to give a de- 
scription of a country. 

DECUPLE, in arithmetic, a term of 
relation or proportion, implying a thing 
to be ten times as much as another. 

DECURION,in Roman military his- 
tory, a commander of ten men in the 
army, or chief of a decury. 

DECURY, (decurie, Fr.) ten RomajP 
soldiers ranged under one chief, or leader, 
called the Decurion. 

DECUSSATION, in geometry, op- 
tics, ecc. the point at which two lines, 
rays, &c. cross, or intersect, each other. 

DEDANS d'une rille de guerre, Fr. 
the inside of a fortified town, i. e. all tks 

D E F 

( 154 ) 

J) E V 

works whi< h are within the line of cir-jtown or place may be entirely ovcr- 


(lowed and become an inert stagnant 

DEEP, a term used in the disposition pool. Mere submersion is, in fact, the 
or arrangement of soldiers that arfe distinguishing character of this species 
placed in ranks before each other; of defence, which does not afford any 
hence two deep, three deep, 8cC. Troops other movement than what naturally 
are told off in ranks of two, or three ; arises from the greater or lesser elevation 
deep, and on some occasions in four or 

DEFAIRE, Fr. to defeat. 

of the waters, without the means of urg- 
ing them beyond a given point. 

Distant Defence consists in being 
DEFAITE, Fr. defeat. The loss of able to intet nipt the enemy's movements 

a battle. An army is vaincue (ovcrpow 
ered) when the field of battle is lost; it 

is dt/'uilc when, besides the loss of the passing, or to insulate batteries, ihe 

by circuitous inundations; to inundate, 
for instance, a bridge, when a convoy is 

held of battle, there are a great number 
killed, wounded, and made prisoners. 
The word defaite is only applicable to an 
army, but never to a detachment; in the 
latter case it -is said to have been over- 

DEFAULTER. See Deserter. 

Defaulter, a term generally used to 
signify any person whose accounts are 
incorrect, particularly with the public; 
as a public defaulter. 

DEFEAT, {defaite, Fr.) the over- 
throw of an army. 

DEFECTION, an abandoning of a 
king or state; a revolt. 

DEFENCE, in fortification, consists 
of all sorts of works that cover and de- 
fend the opposite posts; as flanks, para- 
pets, caesinates, and fausse-brays. It 
is almost impossible to fix the miner to 
the face of a bastion, till the defences of 
the opposite one are ruined; that is, till 
the parapet of its Hank is beaten down, 
and the cannon, in all parts that can 
fire upon that face which is attacked, is 
dismounted. See Fortification. 

Active Defence, generally consider- 
ed, means every spei ies of offensive ope- 
ration which is resorted to by the be- 
sieged, to annoy the besiegers. Such, 
for instance, is the discharge of heavy 
ordnance from the walls, the emission of 
shells, and the firing of musketry. A 
mass of water may likewise be under- 
stood to mean active defence, provided 
it can lie increased according to the exi- 
gency of the service, and be suddenly 
made to overflow the outworks, or en- 
trenchments of the besieging enemy. 
Mines which ;ue carried beyond the for- 
tifications may likewise be included un- 
der this head. 

Passive Defence is chiefly confined 
to inundations, and is effected by letting 
out water in such a manner, that the 
level ground which lies round a fortified 

heads of saps or lodgments which have 
been made in the covert-way, is to act 
upon a distant defence. By this species 
of defence, an enemy's communications 
may be perpetually intercepted, and his 
approaches so obstructed as to force 
him to leave dangerous intervals. 

See Belidor's treatise on Hydraulic 

Line of Defence represents the 
flight of a musket-ball from the place 
where the musketeers stand, to scour the 
face of the bastion. It should never ex- 
ceed the reach of a musket. It is either 
fichant, or razant: the first is when it is 
drawn from the tingle of the curtain to 
the flanked angle; the last when it is 
drawn from a point in tfie curtain, raz- 
ing the face of the bastion. 

Line of Defence is the distance be- 
tween the salient angle of the bastion 
and the opposite flank; that is, it is th^ 
face produced to the flank. See Forti- 

Defence of rivers, in military affairs, 
is a vigorous effort to prevent the ene- 
my from passing; to effect which, a care- 
ful and attentive officer will raise re- 
doubts, and if necessary join curtains 
thereto: he will place them as near the 
banks as possible, observing to cut ft 
trench through the ground at the wind- 
ings of the river, which may be favoura- 
ble to the enemy, and to place advanced 
redoubts there, to prevent bis having 
any £ rou ml lit to form on, &c. See Rivers. 

To be in a posture of Defence is to 
lie prepared to oppose an enemy, whe- 
ther in regard to redoubts, batteries, or 
in the open field. 

To DEFEND, to fortify, secure, or 
maintain a place, or cause. 

Dlii E\ ID ANT, Fr. a synonimous 
word for jlanquant. 

DEFENSE, Fr, prohibition. Anorder 
issued by some superior officer forbid- 

D E F 

( 155 ) 

D E G 

ding the troops of a garrison, or camp, to 
do certain things. 

Defenses (Tune place, Fr. the works 
of a fortified place. See Defence in 

Relative to the defence of fortified 
places, the reader may he gratified by 
referring to the Reveries or Memoires of 
Marshal Saxe, and to a work entitnled 
Reflexions, by Baron D'Espagnuc, in his 
Supplement to these Reveries, page 91. 

DEFENSIVE, serving to defend; in 
a state, or posture, of defence. 

DEFENSivE-IFa?-. See War. 

DEFERLER, Fr. to unfurl; to 
spread out. This term is only used by 
the French in a naval sense, as Diferler 
l.cs voiles, To let go the sails, or sheets. 

DEFIANCE. See Challenge. 

DEFICIENT, wanting to complete, 
as when a regiment, troop, or company 
has not its prescribed number of men. 

Deficient numbers, in arithmetic, 

are such whose parts added together 

.make less than the integer. Thus 8, 

whose quota parts are 1, 2, and 4, which 

together make onlv 7. 

D±FI,Fr. a challenge. 

Defi (Tarmes, Fr. a challenge, or pro- 
vocation, to fight, much in practice some 
centuries back. 

DEFIER, Fr. to set at defiance. 

To DEFILADE, to move, or pass oft' 
by files; also to march through narrow 

DEFILE, {defile,, Fr.) in military 
affairs, a narrow passage, or road, through 
which the troops cannot inarch, other- 
wise than by making a small front, and 
filing off; so that the enemy may take 
an opportunity to stop or harass their 
march, and to charge them with so much 
the more advantage, because the rear 
cannot come up to the relief of the front. 

Defile, among the French is also 
called filitre. 

To Defile, (difiler, Fr.) is to reduce 
divisions or platoons into a small front, 
in order to march through a defile; 
which is most conveniently done by fac- 
ing to either the right or left, and then 
wheeling to either right or left, and 
marching through by files, ike. It has 
been mentioned by a writer on military 
manoeuvres, that defiling should be per- 
formed with rapidity, for this obvious 
reason, that a body of men which ad- 
vances towards, or retires- from an ap- 
proaching enemy, may get into line, or 
into columns, prepared for action, with- 

out loss of time. There may, however, 
be exceptions to this general rule. For 
instance, if the regiment is passing a 
bridge, either retreating or advancing, 
and the bridge is not firm, the pressure 
upon it must be as little as possible; 
because if it should break down, the re- 
giment is suddenly separated, and the 
remainder may be cut to pieces. In 
passing a common defile, the pace must 
be proportioned to the nature of the 

DEFILEMENT, the art of disposing 
all the works in a fortress so that they 
may be commanded by the body of the 
place. See Fortification. 

DEFILING a lodgment. See Enfi- 

DEFORMER, Fr. in a military 
sense, signifies to break: as d "ej or merune 
co/onne, to break a column. 

DEFY. See Challenge. 

DEGAGEMENT, Fr. the absolute 
discharge of a soldier. - 

Degagement, Fr. a small passage, or 
staircase, belonging to a suite of apart- 
ments, through which a person may go, 
without being obliged to return the same 
way he came. 

DEGAGER un soldat, Fr. to give a 
soldier his discharge. 

DEGAINER, Fr. to draw one's 

DEGAINEUR, Fr. a hector; a bully. 

DEGARNIR uneforteresse,une ligne, 
tin poste, Fr. &c. to dismantle a fortress, 
a line of fortification* a post, by with- 
drawing the troops, and sending away 
the cannon. 

DEGAST, Fr. the laying waste an 
enemy's country, particularly in the 
neighbourhood of a town which an army 
attempts to reduce by famine, or which 
refuses to pay military exactions. 

DEGAT, Fr. waste; spoil; devasta- 

DE GA UC HI R, Fr. to plane; to 
level ; to make smooth and even, as car- 
penters i\o wood, and masons stone; 
also to level a talus by a slope of earth. 

DEGORGEOIR, Fr. a sort of steel 
pricker used in examining the touch- 
hole of a cannon. 

DEGORGER, Fr. to clear out some 

D egorger une embrasure, Fr. to lower 
the earth in an embrasure, so as to have 
a perfect view of any object against 
which u piece of ordnance is to be point- 

D E G 

( 156 ) 


DECOURDl, Jr. polished. It is 
baid proverbially of a soldier who under- 
stands liis duty well, that he is a man 
degourdi; in the like manner it is said 
of a clumsy, awkward recruit, that he 
must be degourdi, that is to say, that he 
must^be properly drilled. 

DEG0UTER, Fr. to disgust; to set 
against any tiling. 

Chcxal DEGOUTE, a horse that is 
off his feed. 

DEGRADATION, {degradation, Fr.) 
in a military life, the act of depriving an 
officer for ever of his commission, rank, 
dignity, or degree of honour; and tak- 
ing away, at the same time, title, badge, 
and every other privilege of an officer ; 
also a sentence passed on non-commis- 
sioned officers only, who before they can 
receive any corporal punishment, except 
imprisonment, must be degraded to the 
ranks, or station of a private soldier. So 
late as the reign of Charles I. private 
soldiers, for misbehaviour in action, were 
degraded to pioneers. 

Degradation sue les Ouvrages par 
Zercu de /'enntmi, Fr. See Ouvrages 

DEGRADE, Fr. This is said of a 
building, when, from want of the neces- 
sary repairs, it becomes uninhabitable. 
The term also applies to a wall, when the 
plaster or mortar is fallen oil", and the 
shards, or bricks, are w ithout any cement, 
or connexion. 

To DEGRADE, to lessen; to lower 
in the estimation of others. 

DEGRADER, Fr. to degrade. In 
France, military criminals were never de- 
livered over to the charge of the civil 
power, or sent to be executed, without 
having been previously degraded; which 
was done in the following manner: 

As soon as the serjeant of the com- 
pany to which the culprit belonged had 
received orders from the major of the 
regiment, to degrade and render him in- 
capable of bearing arms, he accoutred 
him cap-a-pee, taking care to place his 
right hand upon the butt end of the 
musket, while the soldier remained tied. 
lie then repeated the following words: 
" Te trouvant indigne de porter 
amies, nous t'en degradons." 
thee unuort/ij/ to bear arms, we thus de- 
grade and remhr tine ineupable of t/ici/i. 
lie then drew the musket from his arm 
backwards, took off his cross-belt, sword, 
&c. and finally, gave him a kick upon 
the posteriors. After which, the serjeant 


retired, and the executioner seized tho 
criminal. Set Drum-out. 

DEGRADER une muraille, Fr. to 
beat down a wall, 

Terre « DEGRAISSER, Fr. fuller's 
earth; the use and application of which 
are well known. 

DEGRAYOYER, Fr. to wash away 
the gravel, &c. in loosen; to undermine. 

DEGREE, (degre, Fr.) a division of a 
circle, including a 360th part of its cir- 
cumference. Every circle is supposed to 
be divided into 360 , parts called degrees, 
and each degier into ti(/, other parts, 
called minutes; each of these minutes 
being divided into CO" seconds, each se- 
cond into thirds, and so on. 

Degree of latitude, (degre de lati- 
tude, Fr.) a portion of land between two 

Degree of longitude, (degfk de I »igi- 
lude, Fr.) a portion of land between two 

DEGROSSER on 1) 1 £G R( )SSI R, Fr. 
to take oil the rough or outside of any 
thing; to chip; to clear up; to fashion. 

DEHARNACHER, Fr. to unsaddle 
a horse, and tale off every part of his 
harness and armour. 

DEHORS, in the military art, are all 
sorts of out-works in general, placed at. 
some distance from the walls of a forti- 
fication, the better to secure the main 
places, and to protect the siege, &c. See 

DE.1ETTER, Fr. to open; to give; 
as wood will when it has not been 
thoroughly dried before it is used. 

DELAL5RER, Fr. to tear to pieces; 
to rend ; to ruin; to destroy. 

DELATION, Fr. information, such 
as is given by a reporter, tale-bearer, or 


DELATOR, (de/ateur, Fr.) an in- 
former. Under the Roman emperors 
these contemptible creatures were veiy 
common. Tacitus informs us, that the 
tyrants encouraged them to carry on that 
infamous trade by granting them re- 
wards. Caligula allowed them one- 
eighth of the property of the accused 
person. As the informers consulted 
only their own interest, they invariably 
lodged their informations against the 
most respectable citizens, so that tran- 
quillity and personal safety were entire- 
ly out of the question ; till at last Titus 
and Trajan put an end to that public 
nuisance, and had the informers put to 
death. The same infamous system was 

D E M 

( 157 ) 

D E M 



revived in France in the espionnage 
practised under Robespierre, and 
throughout the French Revolution. 

DELIAISON, Fr. See Liaison. 

DELINEATION, an outline, 
tketch. See Design. 

DELIVER. See Surrender. 

To Deliver up, to surrender; 
give up. Thus Charles I. was delivered 
up to Oliver Cromwell's army. 

To Deliver battle, {a term taken from 
the French Livrer batuille,) to attack an 
enemy, and come to blows. 

DELIVRER une troupe, une ville 
assie'g'ce, Fr. to relieve a body of men, or 
besieged town, by forcing the enemy to 

DELLIS, Fr. select men from Alba- 
nia, who volunteer their services for the 
armies of the Grand Siguor, and receive 
no pay: their undaunted courage is su- 
perior to that of any other nation. No 
man is admitted into that body unless 
lie be of a proper height, robust, and of 
a martial countenance. Previous to 
their being embodied, they must give 
proofs of their valour. The Sanjacs 
and Beyglerbeys select their guard from 
amongst these Albanians, on account of 
their courage and fidelity. They are 
armed with a sabre, a lance, a battle- 
axe, and sometimes with pistols; but 

pressibn; for, amongst civilized nations., 
to iiive the lie is a very gross insult; 
amongst military men it is reckoned the 
greatest offence: and the satisfaction re- 
quired is not so easily given as it was 
among the Romans, when the offender 
had only to say to the affronted person, 
Nollrm dictum, lam sorry for zchat I said. 

DEMEURER, Fr. to lodge; to re- 
main; to stay. This word is used figu- 
ratively among the French, to signify 
possession of any thing, as le champ de 
batuille ?n'est demeure, the field of battle 
was mine. 

Demeurer sur la place, Fr. to be left 
dead on the spot. 

DEMI-BASTION is a work with 
only one face and one flank. See For- 

DEMI-CANNON. See Cannon. 



DEMLD1STANCE des polygones, 
Fr. is the distance between the exteriof 
polygons and the angles. 

Demi-Distances, Fr. half-distances; 
as serrez la colonne a demi-distanccs, 
close the column at half-distances. 

DEMI-FILE, Fr. is that rank in a 
French battalion, which immediately 
succeeds to the serre-demi-file, and is at 

they prefer other weapons to fire-arms, the head of the remaining half of its 

as they may, in their opinion, acquire 
more glory by making use of the former. 

DELOGER, Fr. to dislodge; to 
march off. This term is used among the 
French both to signify the act of with- 
drawing one's self, and that of forcing 
another to quit a position. Hence, di- 
loger Vennemi, to dislodge an enemy. 

DELOGEMENT, Fr. the act of 
suddenly quitting a town or village upon 
which troops have been quartered, or of 
breaking up camp. Decamper is a more 
appropriate term. 

DELOYAL, Fr. disloyal; regardless 
of all faith and honour; perfidious. 

DEMANTELER, Fr. to dismantle; 
to destroy the works of a fortified place. 

D EMARCATION, {demarcation,Fv.) 
a stipulated separation, or division of ter- 
ritory, ike. See Line of Demarcation. 
DEMENTI, Fr. the lie. A young 
soldier must know, from the moment he 
embraces the profession of arms, that 
this word can never escape with impuni- 
ty from the lips of a man of honour, and 
especially of asoldier; in short, upon no 
occasion whatever must he use the ex-, 


DEMI-GORGE is half the gorge, or 
entrance into the bastion, not taken di- 
rectly from angle to angle, where the 
bastion joins the curtain, but from the 
angle of the flank to the center of the 
bastion ; or the angle which the two 
curtains would make by their prolonga- 
tion. See Fortification. 

DEMI-LANCE, a light lance, or 

DEMI-LUNE, in fortification, is a 
work placed before the curtain to cover 
it, and prevent the flanks from being 
discovered sideways. It is made of two 
faces, meeting in an outward angle. 
See Fortification. 

DEMi-lunes dctachces,Fr. These works 
are constructed like bastions, either 
level, flat, or elevated, according as cir- 
cumstances require, and which depends 
upon the elevation, or depth, of the 

Dzm-parabole, Fr. a curved line, 
but less so than that of the parabola. 
Vide Parabola. 

DEiii-parallcles, or Places cCarmes, 


( 158 ) 

D E P 

Fr. parts of trenches conducted in pa- 
rallel lines in front of the place between 
the second and third parallel, with a 
view of protecting from a shorter dis- 
tance, the head of the saps, until the 
third parallel be completed. Their length 
and depth are the same as those of the 
parallels: they are from forty to fifty 
toises long. 

Dzui-pigue, Fr. a long javelin, or 

Dsm-revitement, Fr, a rrvetement 
made of brick-work, which supports the 
rampart from the bottom of the ditch, 
to a foot above the level of the country. 
The demi-rev&tement costs less than the 
r&oetement entier, and is equally as ad- 
vantageous in every respect. 

Dr,Mi-/(K/r a droite, rr. See Right 


T)EMi-four a gauche, Fr. See Left 


DEMISSION, Fr. resignation; the 
act of giving up any place of trust, &c. 

DEMOISELLE, IV. a pavior's instru- 
ment ; a rammer. It is also called a hie. 

DEMOLIR uric place, Fr. to destroy 
the fortifications of a fort, that it may 
jio longer be in a state of defence. 

DEMOLITION, the act of over- 
throwing buildings. 

DEMONTER une piece d'artillerie, 
Fr. to dismount a piece of artillery; to 
take it off its carriage. 

Demonter une troupe a clieval, Fr. 
to wound or lame the horses of a troop 
of cavalry, so as to render them unfit 
fur service. 

DEMUNIR, Fr. to take away from 
a place the provision and ammunition 
it contained. 

DEMURER, Fr. to unwall ; also to 
drain a place of stones. 

DENISON, a free man, or native 
of a country or state, as opposed to 
alien. It is also written Denizen. 

DENOM BREMEN!', Fr. list; sur 
vey; the complement of a troop or 
company ; also the number of battalions, 
&c. which compose an army, or of in- 
habitants that dwell in a town. 

DENONCER un soldat, Fr. to gi 
notice to the captain of a troop or com- 
pany, or to the regiment, of a soldier's 
intention to desert. 

Dexgncer une troupe, Fr. to give 
intelligence of the movement of an 
armed body of men, of its strength, 
proposed route, &c. 

DENONCIATEUR, Fr. an iafor 

mer; or, to speak in the courteous lan- 
guage of government, a reporter. 

Denoxciateur d'un d'eserteur, Fr. 
the person who discovers and gives up a 
deserter for a specific reward. 

DENREE, Fr. commodity; ware; 

DENSITY of bodies. See Motion. 

DEPARTMENT (dipartement, Fr.) 
separate allotment; province or busi- 
ness assigned to a particular person or 
place; hence Civil or Military Depart- 
ment; Home or Foreign Department, 
signifying the same as office. Also, in 
French, any particular district. 

J)EPASSER, (or Deuorder,) Fr. 
to over-run. 

Se laisserTiEPASSKR, Fr. to suffer your- 
self to be overtaken. 

DEPECHES, Fr. dispatches, letters, 
&c. which are carried by a special mes- 

DKPENSES secretes, Fr. imply secret 
service money. 

DEPERIR, Fr. to waste away; an 
army is said to be in this state when it 
is afflicted with a pestilential or epi- 
demical disorder; when it is short of 
provisions; when the troops do not 
enter into cantonments as the season 
requires it, or if they suffer from any 
other accident. 

DEPEUPLER, Fr. to depopulate. 

DEPLOY, (dcplouer, Fr.) to display, 
to spread out ; a column is said to de- 
ploy, when the divisions open out, orex- 
tend to form line on any given division. 

DEPLOYMENT, (d'eploiement, Fr.) 
or flank march, in a military sense, the 
act of unfolding or expanding any given 
body of men, so as to extend their front. 

Deployment into Une on a front di- 
vision, the rigid in front, is effected by 
halting that division in the alignment, 
and all the others in their true situations, 
parallel and well closed up to it ; and 
then by taking a point of formiug upon, 
and dressing by the prolongation of that 
division. For a minute explanation of the 
deployments on a rear and central divi- 
sion, sec Rules and Regulations, p. 186. 

Oblique Deployments differ from 
those movements which are made when 
a battalion stands perpendicularly to the 
line on which it is to form. These de- 
ployments are frequently made on an 
oblique line advanced, on an oblique 
line retired; and when the close column 
halted is to form in line in the prolon- 
gation of its Hank, and on either the 

D E P 

( 159 ) 

D E P 

front, rear, or central division. See In- 
fantry Regulations, p. 192. 

DEPORTATION,! 1 /-, the act of trans- 
porting or sending away; what we call 

DEPORTER, Fr. to transport; to 
send away. 

DEPOSTER un ennemi, on une 
troupe, Fr. to oblige an enemy to quit 
his position; to drive him out of a for- 
tified place, &c. 

DEPOT, {depot, Fr.) any particular 
place in which military stores are depo- 
sited for the use of the army. In a more 
extensive sense, it means several maga- 
zines collected together for that purpose. 
It also signifies an appropriate fort, or 
place for the reception of recruits, or 
detached parties, belonging to different 
regiment's. The barracks near Maid- 
stone are depots for the British cavalry, 
and the Isle of Wight is allotted for the 

During hostilities, the greatest atten- 
tion should be given to preserve the 
several depots which belong to the fight- 
ing army. Hence the line of operation 
should be invariably connected with 
them ; or rather, no advance should be 
made upon that line, without the strictest 
regard being paid to the one of com- 

Depot is also used to denote a par- 
ticular place at tiie tail of the trenches, 
out of the reach of the cannon of the 
place. It is here that the besiegers ge-j 
nerally assemble, who are ordered to 
attack the outworks, or support the 
troops in the trendies, when there is 
reason to imagine the besieged intend 
making a vigorous sally. 

DEPOUILLE, Fr. " Mcttre endipou- 
ille is an expression made use of in the 
casting of cannon, and signifies to strip 
it of the matting, clay, &c. 

Depouilles de V ennemi, Fr. See 

of stripping another. In the French 
army this crime is punished most se- 
verely, and is thus distinguished in 
the last military code. 

Depouillement <Tun mart; sans or- 
dre, Fr. the stripping of the dead with- 
out any authority for so doing; punished 
by five years imprisonment in irons. 

Depouillement d'un vivant, Fr. 
the stripping of the living; ten years 
imprisonment in irons. 


the robbing or stripping of any person 
by a victualler or camp follower; twen- 
ty years imprisonment in irons. 

Depouillement avec mutilation, ou 
assassinat, Fr. the stripping of an indi- 
vidual, accompanied by blows or muti- 
lation, or with assassination, death. 

DEPOUILLER, IV. to strip. The 
French say figuratively, Juuer an Rot 
depouille, to strip one of all his property. 

DEPRESSION, the placing of any 
piece of ordnance, so that its siiot be 
thrown under the point blank line. 

DEPRESSED gun, any piece of ord- 
nance having its mouth depressed below 
the horizontal line. 

DEPTH, a technical word peculiarly 
applicable to bodies of men drawn up in 
line or column. 

Depth of a battalion or squadron, the 
number of ranks, or the quantity of 
men. Infantry were formerly drawn up 
6 or 8 deep, that is, it consisted of so 
many ranks; but now troops are gene- 
rally drawn up only 3 deep, and in de- 
fence of a breast-work but 2 deep; also 
in line of battle. 

Depth of formation. The funda- 
mental order of the infantry in which 
they should always form and act, and 
for which all their various operations 
and movements are calculated, is three 
ranks. The formation in two ranks is to 
he regarded as an occasional exception 
that may be made from it, where an ex- 
tended and covered front is to be oc- 
cupied, or where an irregular enemy, 
who deals only in fire, is to be opposed. 
The formation in two ranks, and at open 
files, is calculated only for light troops 
in the attack and pursuit of a timid ene- 
my, but not for making an impression 
on an opposite regular line, which vigo- 
rously assails, or resists. 

Depth is also applicable to an army 
marching towards any given object, in 
desultory columns. 

DEPUTY, a person appointed by 
commission to act instead of another. 

Deputy barrack-masters. 

Dtp u tv commissaries. 

Deputy judge-advocate. 

Deputy lieutenants, civil officers be- 
longing to the militia of Great Britain, 
and appointed by the several county 
lieutenants. His Majesty may authorise 
any three to grant commissions, and to 
act when the county-lieutenant is abroad, 
or when there is none. If twenty quali- 
fied persons can be found, -it is usual to 

D E S 

160 ) 

D E S 

appoint that number for each county. 
For specific qualifications, see the 26th of 
George III. 

Df.pi'ty muster-masters. 

DERIVE, Fr. a marine term, signify- 
ing the driving of a ship; the angle of 
Ice-way, or drift; also tlie stray line, or 
allowance made for stray line; likewise 

Belle Derive, Fr. a good offing. 

DEROBER une marclie, Fr. to steal 
a march. 

DEROUILLER, Fr. to take of the 
rust; as derouillcr clcs amies, to clean 
and new-furbish arms. 

D E ROUTE, Fr. the total overthrow 
of an army, battalion, or of any armed 

DEROUTER Vennemi, Fr. to disc in- 
sert an enemy; to get him into such a 
precarious situation, that he can form on 
judgment of the issue of an engagement. 

DESACOTER, Fr. to take down the 
props, or stays by which any thing has 
been supported. 

DESAR9ONNER, Fr. to dismount 
a horseman : the same as Dimontcr. 

DESARMEMENT, IV. the act of 
disarming, or reducing troops. 

DESARMER, Fr. to reduce any given 
number of troops, by taking away their 
arms, &c. 

Desarmer une piece d'artillerie, Fr. 
to draw the charge out of a piece of 
artillery; it also signifies to dismount it 

DESARROI, Fr. disorder; confusion. 

DESASSIEGER, Fr. to cause a siege 
to be raised. (This word is become 
obsolete; it is not to be found in the 
T)ictionnairc tie T 'Academic Francoisc ; 
but it is a military expression.) 

DESAVANTAO E, Fr. disadvantage; 
a state not prepared for defence. 

To DESCEND signifies to leave any 
position on an eminence for immediate 

To Descend upon, to invade. When 
an enemy from surrounding heights sud- 
denly marches against a fortified place, 
he is said to descend upon it. Thejerm 
is also applied to troops debarking from 
'their ships for the purpose of invasion. 

DESCENDRE /a garde, Fr. to come 
oft* guard, alter being regularly relieved. 

Descendhe la tranc/iec, Fr. to quit 
the trench, on being regularly relieved. 

Descendue une riviere, Fr. to follow 
the stream of a river. 

DESCENT, (descente, Fr.) hostile in- 

vasion of any state or kingdom; the de- 
barkation of troops on any coast, for the 
pui pose of acting offensively. 

DESCENTE de Josse, Fr. a hollow 
passage which is made by the besiegers, 
to get under the glacis of a fortress into 
its fosse. 

Descente de fosse sou t era inc. ou cou- 
vertc, Fr. a hollow passage which may 
have been effected under ground. 

Descente de fosse a del ouverte, Fr. 
a passage towards the ditch or fosse of a 
fortified place, which has not been ef- 
fected under cover. 

I ) ESC ENTS into the ditch, (descente* 
dans le fosse, Fr.) cuts and excavations 
made by means of saps in the counter- 
scarp beneath the covert-way. They 
are covered with thick boards and hur- 
dles, and a certain quantity of earth is 
thrown upon the top, in order to obviate 
the bad elfects which might arise from 
shells, &c. See Fortification. 

DESCLIQUER, Fr. This word is 
expressive of the action of the ancients 
when throwing stones at the besiegers. 

DESCRIBENT, in geometry, a term 
expressing some line, or surface, which 
by its motion produces a plane figure, 
or a solid. 

DESEMPARER un camp, break 
up camp; to strike the tents. 

out of prison. 

DESENBRAYER, Fr. to unskid a 

DESENCLOUER, Fr. to take the nail 
out of a cannon that has been spiked; 
it also signifies to remove obstructions 
from any passage that has been incum- 

Desencloulr un chcral, Fr. to take 
out the nail that pricks a horse. 

DESENRAYER, Fr. to unskid a 
wheel ; to take off the chain, or cord, by 
which it is kept fast. 

DESENROLER, Fr. to give a soldier 
his discharge, to strike him off the mus- 

To DESERT, (deserter, Fr.) to go 
away by stealth after having been regu- 
larly enlisted ; to abandon any person, 
or cause. 

DESERTER, in a military sense, a 
soldier who, by running away from his 
regiment, troop, or company, abandons 
the service. 

Deserters from the militia may be 
apprehended by any person in the same 
manner that deserters are from the 


( 161 ) 


Regular army. And every person who 
shall lie discovered in the act of conceal- 
ing, or assisting a deserter, is to forfeit 
51. Persons apprehending a deserter 
are entitled to 20s. 

Penalty of Desertion. All officers 
and soldiers, who, having received pay, or 
having been duty enlisted in our service, 
shall be convicted of having deserted the 
same, shall suffer death, or such other 
punishment , as by a court-martial shall 
be inflicted. 

Any non-commissioned officer or sol- 
dier, who, shall, without leave from his 
commanding officer, absent himself from 
his troop or company, or from any de- 
tachment with which he shall be com- 
manded, shall, upon being convicted 
thereof, be punished according to the 
nature of the offence, at the discretion 
uf a cotirl-marliaf. 

No non-commissioned officer or sol- 
dier shall enlist himself in any other regi- 
ment, troop, or company, without a re- 
gular discharge from the regiment, troop, 
or company, in which he last served, on 
the penalty of being reputed a deserter, 
and suffering accordingly: and in case 
any officer shall knowingly receive and 
entertain such non-commissioned officer 
or soldier, or shall not, after his being 
discovered to be a deserter, immediately 
confine him, and give notice thereof to 
the corps in which he last served, he, the 
said officer so offending, shall by a court- 
martial be cashiered. 

Whatsoever officer or soldier shall he 
convicted of having advised any other 
officer or soldier to desert our service, 
shall suffer such punishment as shall be 
inflicted upon him by the sentence of a 

Justices may commit Deserters. And 
whereas several soldiers being duly en- 
listed, do afterwards desert, and are often 
found wandering, or otherwise absenting 
themselves illegally from his Majesty's 
service; it is further enacted, that it 
shall and may be lawful to and for the 
constable, heudborough, or tything-tnan 
of the town or place, where any person, 
who may be reasonably suspected to be 
such deserter, shall he found, to appre- 
hend, or cause him to be apprehended, 
and to cause such person to be brought 
l>eiore any justice of the peace, living in 
or near such town or place, who hath 
power to examine such suspected per- 
son: and if by his confession, or the 
testimony of one or more witness or wit- 

nesses upon oath, or by the knowledge 
of such justice of the peace, it shall ap- 
pear, or be found, that such suspected 
person is a listed soldier, and should be 
with the troop or company tt> which he 
belongs; such justice of the peace shall 
forthwith cause him to be conveyed to 
the gaol of the county or place where 
he shall be found, or to the house of cor- 
rection, or other public prison, in such 
town or place where such deserter shall 
be apprehended ; or to the Savoy, in 
case such deserter shall be apprehended 
within the citv of London or West- 
minster, or places adjacent ; and trans- 
mit an account thereof to the secretary 
at war for the time being, to the end 
such person may be proceeded against 
according to law : and the keeper of 
such gaol, house of correction, or prison, 
shall receive the full subsistence of such 
deserter or deserters, during the time 
that he or they shall continue in his 
custody, for the maintenance of the said 
deserter or deserters; but shall not be 
entitled to any fee or reward, on account 
of the imprisonment of such deserter or 
deserters, any law, usage, or custom to 
the contrary notwithstanding. 

Reuard for taking up Deserters. 
And for the better encouragement of 
any person or persons to secure or ap- 
prehend such deserters as aforesaid ; be 
it further enacted by the authority afore- 
said, that such justice of the peace shall 
also issue his warrant in writing to the 
collector or collectors of the land-tax 
money of the parish or township where 
such deserter shall be apprehended, for 
paying, out of the land-tax money aris- 
ing or to arise in the current year, into 
the hands of such person who shall ap- 
prehend, or cause to be apprehended, 
any deserter from his majesty's service, 
the sum of 20s. for every deserter that 
shall so he apprehended and committed; 
which sum of 20s. shall he satisfied by such 
collector to whom such warrant shall be 
directed, and allowed upon his account. 

Penalty for concealing Deserters, or 
buying their arms, clothes, &c. Provided 
always, that if any person shall harbour, 
conceal, or assist any deserter from his 
Majesty's service, knowing him to be 
such, the person so offending shall for- 
feit, for every such offence, the sum of 
5l. or if any person shall knowingly 
detain, buy, or exchange, or otherwise 
receive, any arms, clothes, caps, or other 
furniture belonging to the king, from 


( 162 ) 


any soldier or deserter, or aDy other 
person, upon any account or pretence 
whatsoever, or cause the colour of such 
clothes to be changed ; the person so 
offending shall forfeit for every such 
offence the sum of 5 1, and upon convic- 
tion by the oath of one or more credible 
witness or witnesses, before any of his 
Majesty's justices of the peace, the said 
respective penalties of 5l. and 51. shall 
be levied by warrant under the hands 
of the said justice or justices of the 
peace, by distress and sale of the goods 
and chattels of the offender; one moiety 
of the said first mentioned penalty of 
51. to be paid to the informer, by whose 
means such deserter shall be appre- 
hended ; and one moiety of the said 
last-mentioned penalty of 5l. to be paid 
to the informer; and the residue of the 
said respective penalties to be paid to 
the officer to whom any such deserter or 
soldier did belong : and in case any such 
offender, who shall be convicted, as afore- 
said, of harbouring or assisting any such 
deserter or deserters, or having know- 
ingly received any arms, clothes, caps, 
or other furniture belonging to the king, 
or having caused the colour of such 
clothes to be changed, contrary to the 
intent of this act, shall not have suffi- 
cient goods and chattels, whereon dis- 
tress may be made, to the value of the 
penalties recovered against him for such 
offence, or shall not pay such penalties, 
within 4 days after such conviction; 
then, and in such case, such justice of 
the peace shall and may, by warrant 
under his hand and seal, either commit 
such offender to the common gaol, there 
to remain without bail or mainprize for 
the space of three months, or cause such 
offender to be publicly whipped, at the 
discretion of such justice. 

DESERTEUR, Fr. See Deserter. 

DESIIONNEUR, Fr. dishonour, loss 
of character. 

Se DES110NORER, Fr. to disgrace 

DESIGN, (dessein, Fr.) in a general 
sense, implies the plan, order, repre- 
sentation or construction of any kind of 
military building, chart, map, or draw- 
ing, &c. In building, the term Ichno- 
graphy may be used, when by design is 
only meant the plan of a building, or a 
flat figure drawn on paper: when some 
side or face of the building is raised 
from the ground, we may use the term 
orthography j and when both front and 

sides are seen in perspective, we may 
call is xenography. 

DESIGNING, the art of delineating, 
or drawing the appearance of natural 
objects, by lines on a plain. 

DESIGNS, (desseins, Fr.) premedi- 
tated plans, schemes for execution, &c. 

DESOBEISSANCE, Fr. disobedience 
of orders. During the war in Italy, (as 
may be seen in the Histoire de France, 
vol. 37, by Gamier,) an act of laudable 
disobedience (if it may be so called) is 
said to have been committed by a private 
soldier, whilst an expedition ot great 
moment was taking place under the 
command of Marechal de Brisac. 

DESOLER, Fr. to ravage, to ruin a 
country by heavy exactions, to destroy 
it by sword and fire. 

DESORDRE, Fr. disorder; confu- 
sion, such as occurs among troops when 
they are defeated ; the licentious con- 
duct manifested among troops when 
entering a conquered place. A general 
has it always in his power, when his 
troops enter a conquered town, to pre- 
vent their committing any disorder. — 
Marshal Saxe having taken Prague in 
1741, previous to his entering the town, 
^ave the most positive and strict orders, 
that not the least disorder should be 
committed. These orders were so punc- 
tually obeyed, that most of the inhabi- 
tants did not perceive, till the following 
day, that they had changed their sove- 
reign. The magistrates, through grati- 
tude, went in a body to present to tha 
marshal, a diamond worth 40,000 livres, 
on a magnificent gold dish : there had 
been engraved in the setting an inscrip- 
tion relative to the transaction : they 
likewise caused rich presents, and large 
bounties to be distributed amongst the 
French officers and soldiers. When war 
is carried on in this way, half its calami- 
ties are softened down ; it secures im- 
mortality to the conqueror, at the same 
time that he acquires the love and the 
esteem of the conquered. Conquerors 
of this cast experience to the very last 
a pleasing retrospect, which those who 
only think of filling their pockets, are 
ever strangers to. The discipline esta- 
blished by Charles XII. was so severe, 
that even those towns, which were taken 
by storm, after having been summoned 
three times, were not plundered without 
a particular permission proclaimed by 
the trumpeters of the army, and the. 
pillage was carried on in such good or- 

D E T 

der, that it subsided the instant the se- 
cond signal was given. 

DESSELLER, Fr. to unsaddle. 
DESSINATEUR, Fr. a draftsman; 
or the person who sketches out and 
finishes the plans, profiles and elevations 
of works intended to be made by direc- 
tion of a chief engineer. 

DESTINATION, (destination, Fr.) 
the place, or purpose, to which any body 
of troops is appointed, in order to do, or 
attempt, some military service. 

To DETACH, to send out part of a 
greater number of men on some parti- 
cular service, separate from that of the 
main body. 

DETACHED pieces, (pieces detachces, 
Fr.) in fortification, are such out-works 
as are detached, or at a distance from 
the body of the place; such as half- 
moons, ravelins, bastions, &c. 

DETACHMENT, (detachement, Fr.) 
an uncertain number of men drawn out 
from several regiments, or companies, 
equally, to be marched or employed as 
the general may think proper, whether 
on an attack, at a siege, or in parties to 
scour the country. Detachments are 
sometimes made of entire squadrons and 
battalions. One general rule, in all mi- 
litary projects which depend upon us 
alone, should be to omit nothing that 
can ensure the success of our detach- 
ment and design ; but in that which de- 
pends upon the enemy, to trust some- 
thing to chance. 

DETAIL of duty, a roster or table 
for the regular and exact performance 
of duty, either in the field, garrison or 
in cantonments. The general detail of 
duty is the proper care of the majors of 
brigade, who are guided by the roster of 
the officers, and by the tables for the 
men to be occasionally furnished. The 
adjutant of a regiment keeps the detail 
of duty for the officers of his regiment, 
as does the serjeant-major that for the 
non-commissioned, and the latter that 
for the privates. 

To beat an enemy in Detail, (battre 
Vennemi en detail, Fr.) to destroy one 
corps after another; to drive an enemy 
from his several positions by desultory 

An officer o/Detail, one who enters 
minutely into the whole interior of a 
corps, troop, or company. 

Detail. This word is sometimes 
used for detachment; hence, lo send out 
small details. 

( i6s ) D E T 

DETAIL, Fr. Faire le detail d'unc 

armee, d'une compagnie, ou d'un corps 
de gens de guerre, is to keep a strict 
eye upon every part of the service, and 
to issue out instructions or orders, that 
every individual belonging to a military 
profession may discharge his trust with 
accuracy and fidelity. Faire le detail 
d'une compagnie likewise means to make 
up a company's reports, &c. 

Detail de fortification, Fr. a private 
account of the materials and expenses 
attending a work. 

DETENDRE, Fr. This word lite- 
rally means to stretch. The French say, 
ditendre an camp, to strike the tents of 
a camp. 

DETENTE, Fr. a trigger. 
DETENU, Fr. detained; kept against 
one's will. A term adopted, and en- 
forced beyond its legitimate meaning, by 
the French government, at the continua- 
tion of hostilities between France and 
England in 1803; when, for reasons best 
known to himself, Bonaparte, then First 
Consul, judged it expedient to detain 
and imprison all British subjects who 
were found about the French dominions 
after the departure of their ambassador^ 
It is not within the limits of our under- 
taking to discuss this question; but, 
viewing it, as we must, in a military 
point of view, we do not hesitate to say, 
that the sudden and unexpected seizure 
of so many innocent and unoffending 
travellers is an indelible stain in the 
character of a powerful enemy. The 
act has certainly a precedent; but where 
and when is that precedent to be found? 
In civil discord and convulsion, and at a 
period when humanity was a crime, and 
death and carnage were the order of the 
day. It has been said, that this measure 
was embraced to reconcile the Irish to 
their probable destiny, if ever it should 
be found necessary to make use of them, 
as enfans perdus, against their native 
country, and that these detenus (we are 
borne out by the public prints for using 
the term) would remain as hostages to 
secure to men in open rebellion all the 
rights and privileges of fair warriors. 
So much for the new-fangled law of na- 
tions quoad Fiance. 

DETERMINER une action, ou un 
mouvement, Fr. to put into motion a 
project or design which has been pre- 
viously weighed and concerted; it also 
means to force the enemy to come to 


D E V 

( 164 ) 

D E V 

DETONATION, (detonation, Fr.) a 
sudden and violent inflammation and ex- 
plosion, such as occur iu t lie ignition of 

gunpowder and of nitre. 

DETRAQUER, Fr. a French ex- 
pression which is peculiarly applicable 
to bad horsemanship. It literally sig- 
nifies, to put out of order ; to spoil. A 
Trench military writer very properly 
observes on the subject, that many 
young riders imagine themselves extreme- 
ly clever and expert, if they can make 
their horses exhibit a fine curved neck, 
flee, by suddenly applying the spurs, and 
checking on the bit; the consequence of 
which is, that the poor animal reaches 
the spot of destination heated and al- 
most mired to death. 

DETREMFE, Fr. water colours. 

1'undre en Detrempe, Fr. to paint 
in water colours. 

DETRIER, Fr. a led horse. 

DETRIPLER les files, Fr. to take 
borne files out of a battalion, troop, or 
company, when the men are drawn up 
.three deep. 

DETROIT, Fr. any narrow arm of 
.the sea; a canal ; a narrow passage, &c. 

Detroit, ou Detresse, Fr. the critical 
state into which an army may be brought 
by having its line of communication cut 

DEVANCER une armce, une troupe, 
Tr. to take an advantageous position in 
front of an army, or of any other armed 
body of men, by means of a forced 
march, &c. 

DEVANS, Fr. places in front of an 
army. The King of Prussia, in his Art 
of War, says — " Plucez pour sureti des 
corps sur vos devans." Vide his Art of'War. 

DEVANT, Fr. before; hi front. Avoir 
le pus devant, to take precedence. 

DEVANTURH, Fr. a fore work. 

DEVASTATEURS, Fr. a term ap- 
plied by the French to the Spaniards, 
on account of their barbarous and in- 
human conduct in Mexico and Peru. It 
now generally signifies soldiers who are 
not disciplined, and pillage every country 
thev enter. 

Devastation, the act of destroy- 
ing, laying waste, demolishing or un- 
peopling towns, cvc. 

DEYASTER, Fr. to lay waste. 

DEVELOPPEE, Fr. a curve formed 
by the opening, or unfolding of another 

DEVELOPPEMENT de dessein, Fr. 
the representation of all the plans, faces 

and profiles of works constructed or pro- 

DEVELOPPER, Fr. to unfold, to 
unravel ; as Se dcveloppcr sur la tete 
d'une colonne, to form line on the head 
of a column. 

DEVELOFr-Er. une armec, Fr. to draw 
up an ;u in v in tegular array. 

DEYERSOIR, Ft: any place into 
which v\ t iter empties itself; as from a 
sluice, &c. 

DEVICE, (devise, Fr.) a motto; the 
emblems on a shield or standard. The 
origin of mottos is connected with that 
of heraldry. The study of mottos will 
lifclp us to trace back the military expe- 
ditions of the remotest antiquity. The 
standard?, the banners, the pennons, the 
coats of mail, the shields of the ancients, 
discover historical facts under an un- 
known cypher, or a motto composed 
only of a few words. Parables were the 
mottos of the Hebrews, and hieroglyphics 
those of the Egyptians. The Greeks, 
Athenians, Carthaginians, in short, all 
the European nations had their mottos 
and emblematical figures; and we may 
venture to say, that military institutions 
gave rise to the civil ones. 

DEUIL mililuire, Fr. military mourn- 
ing. The Author of the Dictionnaire 
Militaire makes the following singular 
remark respecting military mourning: 

"With regard to the military mourn- 
ing which is worn by British officers, it 
appears, peihaps, singular and not suf- 
ficiently dignified in a Frenchman's eye, 
because the French peasants, out of 
economy, adopt the same; it is, how- 
ever, in my opinion, noble and impres- 
sive. Whereas the mourning which our 
officers observe, is too fantastic and 
com tier-like, without a sufficient indi- 
cation of martial sentiment, by which 
alone it ought to be suggested." 

DEVIS, Fr. estimate, plan, &c. of a 

DEVISE, Fr. motto. See Device. 

DEVOIR Militaire, Fr. a strict and 
correct observance of military duty. 

DEV ON. The tinners belonging to 
that county may be arrayed by the war- 
den of the stannaries. 

DEVOTE Dtt ESS; (denouement, Fr.) 
such as a good army manifests towards 
able generals. 

turn any thing from its straightforward 
direction; fjgu rati very to mislead. 

DEVLTDER, Fr. in the manege, is. 

D I A 

( 165 ) 

D I A 

applied to a horse that, upon working 
upon volts, makes his shoulders go too 
fast for the croupe to follow easily. 

DEY, the chief of the government 
of Tunis, a vassal to the Grand Turk. 

DIA, Fr. a noise which is made bv 
the French drivers of carriages to make 
their horses turn to Uie left. They use 
the word hu-hau, to make them go to 
the right. The French say, figuratively, 
of an obstinate man, who will not hear 
reason — It rCentend n i a Dia, ?ii a hu-hau. 

DIABLE, Fr. See Chat. 

DIABLESSE de Boix le Due, Fr. a 
piece of ordnance so called from having 
nist been used at Bnis le Due, a strong 
town of Dutch Brabant, in the Nether- 

DIADEM, (diudime, Fr.) the mark 
of royalty worn round the head. 

DIAGONAL, (diagonale, Fr.) reach- 
ing from one angle to another; so as to 
divide a parallelogram into equal parts. 

Diagonal movements. See Eche- 

DIAMETER, (diametre, Fr.) in both 
a military and geometrical sense, implies 
a right line passing through the center 
of a circle, and terminating at each side 
by the circumference thereof. See 

The impossibility of exnressing the 
exact proportion of the diameter of a 
circle to its circumference, by any re- 
ceived way of notation, and the absolute 
necessity of having it as near the truth 
as possible, lias put some of the most 
celebrated men in all ages upon endea- 
vouring to approximate it. The first 
who attempted it with success was the 
celebrated Van Cuelen, a Dutchman, 
who, by the ancient method, though so 
very laborious, carried it to 36 decimal 
places: these he ordered to be engiaven 
on his tomb-stone, thinking he had set 
bounds to improvement. However, the 
indefatigable Mr. Abraham Sharp carried 
to 75 places in decimals: and since that, 
the learned Mr. John Machin has carried 
it to 100 places, which are as follows: 

If the diameter of the circle be 1, the 

.circumference will be 3.1415926535, 89 

79323846, 2643383279, 5028841971, 69 

39937510, 5820974944, 5923078164, 

0523620899, 8628034825, 3421170* 
79, + of the same parts; which is a 
degree of exactness far surpassing all 

But the ratios generally used in the 
practice of military mathematics are 
these following. The diameter of the 
circle is to its circumference as 113 is 
to 355 nearly. — The square of the dia- 
meter is, to the area of the circle, as 
452 to 355. — The cube of the diameter 
is, to the solid content of a sphere, as 
678 to 355. — The cubes of the axes are, 
to the solid contents of equi-altitude 
cylinders, as 452 to 355. — The solid 
content of a sphere is, to the circum- 
scribed cylinder, as 2 to 3 — . 

How to find the Diameter of shot or 
shells. For an iron ball, whose diameter 
is given, supposing a 9-pounder, which is 
nearly 4 inches, say, the cube root of 
2.0S of 9 pounds is, to 4 inches, as the 
cube root of the given weight is to the 
diameter sought. Or, if 4 be divided bv 
2. 08, the cube root of 9, the quotient 
1.923 will be the diameter of a 1-pound 
shot; which being continually multiplied 
by the cube root of the given weight, 
gives the diameter required. 

Or by logarithms much shorter, thus: 
If the logarithm of 1.923, which is 
.20397 9, be constantly added to thf 
third part of the logarithm of the weight, 
the sum will be the logarithm of the 
diameter. Suppose a shot to weigh 24 
pounds: and the given logarithm .2839 
79 to the third part of 460070 of the 
logarithm ' 1.3802112 of 24, the sum 
.7440494 will be the logarithm of the 
diameter of a shot weighing 24 pounds, 
which is 5.5468 inches. 

If the weight should be expressed by 
a fraction, the rule is still the same: for 
instance, the diameter of a 1^ pound 
bail or j, is found by adding the loga- 
rithm .2839793, found above, to .0586 
97 H of the logarithm of f, the sum 
.3426764 will be the logarithm of the 
diameter required, i. e. 2.2013 inches. 

As the diameter of the bore or the 
caliber of the piece is made ^ part 
larger than that of the shot, according 
to the present practice, the following 
table is computed. 

D I A 

( 166 ) 

D I F 

Diameters of the shots and calibers of English guns. 










' 7 


































































































6.90 1 






7 234 





The numbers in the first horizontal 
lines are units, and those in the first 
vertical column tens ; the other numbers 
under the one, and opposite to the others, 
are the respective diameters of shot and 
calibers. Thus, to find the diameter of 
the shot, and the caliber of a 24 poun- 

der, look for the number 2 on the left- 
hand side, and for 4 at top ; then the 
number 5.547, under 4, and opposite 
2, will be the diameter of the shot, in 
inches and decimals, and the number 
5.824, under the first, the caliber of a 
24 pounder, &c. 

Diameters of leaden bullets from 1 to 39 in the pound. 

























.65oj .637 























The diameter of musket bore9 dif- 
fers about l-50th part from that of the 
bullet. The government allows 11 bul- 
lets in the pound, for the proof of mus- 
kets, and 14 in the pound, or 29 in 2 
pounds, for service; 17 for the proof 
of carbines, and 20 for service; 28 in 
the pound for proof of pistols, and 34 
for service. 

Diameter of powder measures. See 
Powber measures. 

Lu DIANE, Fr. the Reveillee. 

DICTATOR, a magistrate of Rome, 
elected in times of exigence and public 
distress, and invested with absolute au- 

DIET, (Diete, Fr.) an assembly of 
princes or estates; particularly so calle4 
in Germany, Poland, and Sweden. 

DIFFERENCE, the sum paid by 
an officer in the British service, when he 
exchanges from half to full pay. It like- 

D I N 

( 16? ) 

D I S 

wise means the regulation price between 
an inferior and a superior commission. 
Officers who retire upon half-pay, and 
take the difference, subject themselves 
to many incidental disadvantages, should 
they wish to return into active ser- 

DIFFERENCES among officers of a 
town, &c. (Differences entre les officiers 
d'une place, Fr.) Whenever any differ- 
ences, disputes, &c. occur between the 
staff officers of a town and those of a 
garrison, in case they do not come under 
any specific military code, all such dif- 
ferences must be settled by the governor 
or commandant. 

DIFFERENTIEL, Fr. an epithet 
given in geometry to that species of 
calculation, whose object is to ascer- 
tain quantities infinitely smail, and their 
reciprocal differences. See Integral. 

DIGERER un projet, Fr. to weigh 
well every thing which may conduce to 
the good success of an enterprize. 

DIGGING. See Mining. 

DIGLADIATION, a combat with 

DIGUE, Fr. See Dyke. 

DIGUON, Fr. a staff, at the end of 
which is suspended a vane or streamer. 
This term is properly marine. 

DIKE or Dyke, a channel to receive 
water, also a mound or dam to prevent 

DILAPIDATION, Fr. embezzle- 
ment, misapplication of public monies. 

DIMACHJE, in ancient military af- 
fairs, were a kin.d of horsemen, answer- 
ing to the dragoons of the moderns. 

DIMICATION. See Battle. 

To DIMINISH or increase the front 
of a battalion, is to adopt the column of 
march or manoeuvre according to the 
obstructions and difficulties which it 
meets in advancing. This is one of 
the most important movements; and a 
battalion, which does not perform this 
operation with the greatest exactness 
and attention, so as not to lengthen out 
in the smallest degree, is not fit to move 
in the column of a considerable corps. 

DIMINUE, Fr. diminished. A term 
used in fortification. See Angle dimi- 

DINATOIRE, Fr. the hour, or cir- 
cumstance of dining, or going to mess. 
Hence heure dinatoire, the dining hour, or 
dinner time. The French also say, heure 
soupatoire, supper time ; and of a very 
late breakfast or dinner — such as the 

mess dinner at St. James's, Dijenni 
dinatoire, smpcr dinatoire. 

DIRECTEUR G'tncral, Fr. a mili- 
tary post of nominal importance, which 
was originally instituted by Louis XIV. 
This charge was entrusted to eight 
lieutenant-generals, four to command 
and superintend the infantry, and four 
the cavalrv. 


DIRECTION, in military mechanics, 
signifies the line or path of a body in 
motion, along which it endeavours to 
force its way, according to the propelling 
power that is given to it. 

Angle of Direction, that formed by 
the lines of direction of two conspiring 

Quantity of Direction, a term used 
by military mathematicians for the pro- 
duct of the velocity of the common cen- 
ter of gravity of a system of bodies, by 
the sum of their quantities of matter; 
this is no ways altered by any collisions 
among the bodies themselves. 

DIRECTOR (directeur, Fr.) The 
chief officer belonging to the late corps 
of Royal Engineers in Ireland was so 

DIRECTLY, in geometry, a term 
used of two lines which are said to be 
directly against each other, when they 
are parts of the same right line. 

In mechanics, a body is said to 
strike directly against another, if it 
strike in a right line, perpendicular to 
the point of contact. 

A sphere is said to strike directly 
against another, when the line of direc- 
tion passes through both their centers, 

DIRECTORY, (Directoire, Fr.) a go- 
vernment which prevailed in France 
after the death of Robespierre ; also a 
civil or military tribunal. 

DIRK, a kind of dagger used by th© 
Highlanders in Scotland, which they ge- 
nerally wear stuck in their belts. 

To DISALLOW, in a military sense, 
not to admit charges which may be 
made against the public by officers and 

DISALLOWANCES, deductions 
made from military estimates, when the 
charges against the public do not appear 

To DISARM, to deprive a soldier 
of every species of offensive, or defen- 
sive weapon. 

DISARMED, soldiers divested of 
their arms, either by conquest, or in 
consequence of some defection. 

D I S 

C 168 ) 

D I S 

DISBANDED, the soldiers of any 
regiment, who are in a bodv dismissed 
from the conditions of their mitotan 

DISBARS. See Disemuark. 

DISCHARGE, remission of service. 
There are three different sorts of dis- 
charge made use of, according to the 
merit or demerit of the individual to 
whom it may be granted. See General 
Regulations and Orders, pages 47, 50, 
187 to 203; 219, 268, 203,823 to 385. 

This term is also applied to the firing 
of cannon or muskets; as, a discharge 
of cannon, or small arms. 

DISCIPLINARIAN, an officer wl„> 
pays particular regard to the discipline 
of the soldiers under his command. 

DISCIPLINE, in a military sense, 
signifies the instruction and government 
of soldiers. 

Military Discipline,) By military 

Military Constitution. ) constitution 
is meant, the authoritative declared laws 
for the guidance of all military men, and 
all military matters; and by discipline is 
meant, the obedience to, and exercise, of 
those laws. As health is to the natural 
body, so is a sound military constitution 
to the military one; and as exercise is 
to the first, so is discipline to the last. 
Bravery will perchance gain a battle; 
but every one knows that by discipline 
alone the long-disputed prize of a war 
can be ultimately obtained. 

Discipline is the right arm of a 
general, and money is his shield; with- 
out those two ingredients, it would be 
better to be a d ruin-boy, or a filer, than 
the general of an army. 

Marine Discipline is the training 
up soldiers for sea-service, in such exer- 
cises and various positions as the mus- 
ket and body may require; teaching 
them likewise every manoeuvre that can 
be performed on board ships of war at 
sea, &c. 

DISCOBOLOS, (discobole, IV.) a 
person who threw the disk; an athletic 
exerciser. The range of the discus 
thrown from a vigorous arm was con- 
sidered as a measure which served to 
name a certain distance, the same as 
we say, within musket-shot, or cannon- 

DISCORD, (Discorde, Fr.) according 
to heathen mythology, an ill-tempered 
goddess, whom Jupiter turned out of 
heaven, on account of her continually 
setting the gods at variance with one 

another. She was represented as having 
serpents instead of hair, holding at 
lighted torch in one hand, and a snake 
and dart in the other; her complexion 
was olive colour, her looks wild, her 
mouth foaming with rage, and her hands 
stained with gore. Ever since she was 
driven from the heavens, she has re- 
sided on earth, and is chiefly visible in 
courts and cabinet councils. She is 
continually travelling from the one to 
the other, in order to excite all sove- 
reigns to wage war against one another; 
and in the course of her excursions, 
she often disturbs the peace of private 
individuals. This description is figura- 
tive, and ought to convince young mili- 
tary men, that the slightest differences 
between the members of a corps may 
become epidemical, and ruin the whole 
body. Discord among troops in a gar- 
rison town may be attended with fatal 
consequences; for the garrison are in- 
terested in obtaining the esteem and 
attachment of the inhabitants, whose 
assistance they may chance to be in 
great need of, should a long siege take 

DISCOVER MB, a scout; one who is 
set to descry the enemy. 

DISCRETION, Fr. discretion. Se 
rendre a discretion, to surrender at dis- 
cretion, implies to throw one's-self upon 
the mercy of a victorious enemy. The 
French likewise say, let solilats vivent & 
discretion dans un pays ; which, in fami- 
liar English, signifies, soldiers live scot* 
free in a country. 

DISCRETION, (discretion, Fr.) Un- 
der this term are comprehended circum- 
spection, prudence, wisdom, and acti- 
vity; qualities which essentially contri- 
bute to the ultimate success of an un- 

DISCUS, a quoit, made of stone, lead, 
or some other metal, one foot long, and 
eight inches wide. It was used among 
the Greeks and Romans at their public 
games and festivals. He who threw it 
highest, or to the greatest distance, car- 
ried the prize. Discus was also the 
name of a round shield which was con- 
secrated to the memory of some hero, 
and was suspended in a temple. There 
was one to be seen at the Cabinet dex 
Antiques in Paris, which had been found 
in the Rhone. 

DISEMBODIED. See Disbanded. 

To DISEMBODY, when applied to 
the British militia, signifies to disarm 

D I S 

( 169 ) 

D I S 

that body, and to dispense with their mi- 
litary services for a stated period. 

To DISEMBARK, (dibarquer, Fr.) 
to land troops from any vessel. 

ment, Fr.) the disembarking or landing 
of troops. 

To DISENGAGE, (degager, Fr.) to 
clear a column or line, which may have 
lost its proper front by the overlapping 
of any particular division, company, or 
section, when ordered to form up. To 
do this, ground must be taken to the 
right or left. It is, however, a danger- 
ous operation when the army or battalion 
gets into a line of fire. In that case the 
files that overlap must remain in the 
rear, and fill up the first openings. 

To Disengage is also to extricate 
yourself and the men you command from 
a critical situation. A battalion, for in- 
stance, which may have advanced too 
far during an action, and got between 
two fires, may, by an able manoeuvre, 
disengage itself. 

To Disengage the wings of a batta- 
lion. This is necessary when the bat- 
talion countermarches from its center, 
and on its center by files. The battalion 
having received the word " by wings, 
inward face," is next ordered " by wings, 
three side steps to the right, march," by 
which the wings are disengaged from 
each other. In countermarching, &c 
the leading files must uniformly disen- 
gage themselves. 

To Disengage, in fencing, to quit 
that side of your adversary's blade, on 
which you are opposed by his guard, in 
order to effect a cut or thrust where an 
opportunity may present. 

DISETTE, Fr. scarcity. The want 
of some article of the first necessity; 
i. e. some article of life. 

DISGARNISH, (degarnir, Fr.) to 
take guns from a fortress. 

DISHONOUR, (deshonneur, Fr.) loss 
of character and reputation. 

DISLOCATION, Fr. out of joint. In 
a military sense this word signifies distri- 
bution. Hence the dislocation of an army, 
or the distribution of its component parts 
into cantonments, camps, garrisons, &c. 

DISLODGE, to drive an enemy from 
their post or station. 

To Dislodge a camp, (dicamper, Fr.) 
to strike the tents, &c. and march away. 

DISLOYAL, (d'doyal, Fr.) perfidious; 

DISMANTLE, (dimunteler, Fr.) to 

strip a town or fortress of its outworks. 
The French say likewise, digarnir. 

To Dismantle a gun, to render it 
unfit for use, by capsizing it, &c. 

To DISMISS, to discard. 

To Dismiss the service, (congidier, 
Fr.) to take an officer's commission, or 
warrant from him. 

DISMISSED. An officer in the 
British service may be dismissed gene- 
rally or specifically. When an officer is 
dismissed generally, it is signified to him, 
th it his Majesty has not any further oc- 
casion for his services. When an officer 
is dismissed specifically, it is expressly 
notified, that he is rendered incapable of 
ever serving again. Sometimes, indeed, 
this species of dismissal is attended with 
public marks of extreme disgrace and 
degradation. In the Austrian service, a 
colonel has been dismissed at the head 
of his regiment, and has had his sword 
hroken before him,&c. During the war of 
1793, the colonel of a militia regiment was 
not only rendered incapable of ever serv- 
ing again, but was also expelled thellouse 
of Commons for military misconduct. 
The charges against him, together with 
the circumstantial proofs of his guilt, and 
the King's approbation of the sentence, 
were read in the circle of every regiment 
throughout Great Britain, in 1795; and 
nothing hut a plea of severe indisposi- 
tion saved the culprit from having the 
minutes publicly communicated to him 
at the Horse Guards. 

DISMOUNTING, in a military sense, 
is the act of unhorsing. Thus, to dis- 
mount the cavalry, &c. is to make them 

To Dismount cannon, (d'emonter un 
canon, Fr.) is to break their carriages, 
wheels, axle-trees, or any thing else, so as 
to render them unfit for service. It also 
implies dismounting by the gin, &c. 

DISOBEDIENCE of orders, (dho- 
belssance, Fr.) any infraction, by neglect, 
or wilful omission, of general or regi- 
mental orders. It is punishable by the 
5th art. of the 2d Sect, of the Articles of 

To DISPART, in gunnery, is to set a 
mark on the muzzle-ring, so that it may 
be of an equal height with the base- 
ring: hence a line drawn between them, 
will be parallel to the axis of the concave 
cylinder, for the gunner to take aim by 
it, to bit the mark he is to fire at; for 
the bore and this imaginary line being 
parallel, the aim so taken must be true. 

D I S 

This exactness cannot be made use of in 
an engagement, an'i but very seldom at 
a siege; for in those cases practice and 
the eye must be the only guides. 

To Dispart « piece of ordnance, (ca- 
librer up canon, Fr.) See Dispart. 
DisPA&T-froiitlet. Sec From let. 
DISPENSATION, exclusive privi- 
lege to do or omit something. Hence 
a dispensation to receive half-pay, to- 
gether with the emoluments of some 
place or office. 

DISPENSE £age, Fr. a dispensation 
given on account of old age. 

To DISPFRSF, in a military sense, 
may be variously understood, In an ac- 
tive one, it signifies to disperse any body 
of men, arir.ed, or unarmed, who may 
have assembled in an illegal, or hostile 
manner. The cavalry are generally em- 
ployed on these occasions. 

To Disperse likewise means to break 
suddenly from any particular order, in 
line or column, and to repair to some 
rallying point. Hence to sound the dis- 
perse is to give notice that the battalion, 
or battalions, are to retreat from their 
actual position, in a loose and desultory 
manner, and to reassemble according to 
the natural line of formation; taking the 
colours as their central points to dress by. 
To Disperse the enemy, (dispcrser 
Vcnnemi, Fr.) to force him to fly in vari- 
ous directions. The F ench also say, 
dispcrser des soldats, to separate soldiers 
and distribute them in different quarters. 
DISPLACED. Officers in the British 
service are sometimes displaced from a 
particular regiment in consequence of 
misconduct proved upon the minutes of 
a general court-martial; but they are at 
liberty to serve in any other corps. The 
power of displacing an officer is vested 
in the King only. 

To DISPLAY, (dephnjer, ctendrc, Fr.) 
in a military sense, is to extend the front 
of a column, and thereby bring it into 
line. See Deploy. 

DISPOSE. To dispose cannon is to 
place it in such a manner, that its dis- 
charge may do the greatest mischief. 
Formstance, to dispose cannon alo/ig the 
front of the line. 

DISPOSITION, in a general sense, is 
the just or proper placing of an army, or 
body of men, upon the most advantageous 
ground, and in the strongest situation for 
a vigorous attack, or defence. 

Disposiion- de guerre, Fr. warlike ar- 
rangement, or disposition. Under this 

C iro ) D I S 

head may be considered the mode of 
establishing, combining, conducting and 
finally terminating a war, so as to pro- 
duce success and victory. 

Wisdom and discretion in council 
point out the form necessary for the first 
establishment of a warlike enterprize, 
or disposition, afford the means of bring- 
ing it to a conclusion, and assimilate all 
the various parts so as to unite the whole. 
The following maxims are in the Me- 
moirs of General Montecuculi. 

Deli berate leisurely, execute promptly. 
Let the safety of your army be your 
first object. 

Leave something to chance. 
Take advantage of circumstances. 
Use all the means i:i your power to 
secure a good reputation. 

The disposition, or arrangement, of a 
warlike enterprize may be universal, or 

An universal disposition, or arrange* 
ment, of war implies every thing which 
relates to that system upon an extensive 
scale ; such as the combination of many 
parts for the ultimate benefit of the 
whole, &C. 

A particular disposition, or arrange- 
ment, of war signifies the detail of mi- 
nute objects, and the appropriation of 
various parts, one with another, for the 
purpose of effecting; a general combi- 
nation. This disposition (without which 
the other must prove abortive) consists 
in an observance of the strictest dis- 
cipline by every individual that belongs 
to a troop, or company. To this end, 
general officers should be scrupulously 
exact in attending to the inspection of 
particular corps ; specific instructions 
for regimental economy and discipline 
should be given, and the strictest regard 
paid to the execution of orders. 

Fairedes Dispositions, Fr. to make 
the necessary arrangements for a battle; 
or to adopt such measures, that every 
thing may be in a good state to meet the 

To' DISPUTE the ground, (disputer 
le terrein, Fr.) to light foot to foot. 

DISSIPER une armec, Fr. to attack 
an army in such a manner, that the se- 
veral battalions are obliged to disperse, 
and retreat by different routes. 

DISTANCE, in military formation, 
signifies the relative space which is left 
between men standing under arms in 
rank, or the interval which appears be- 
tween those ranks, &c. 

D I S 

( in ) 

D I V 

Distance of files. Every soldier when 
in his true position under arms, shoul- 
dered and in rank, must just feel with 
his elbow the touch of his neighbour 
with whom he dresses; nor in any situa- 
tion of movement in front must he ever 
relinquish such touch, which becomes in 
action the principal direction for the 
preservation of his order, and each file 
as connected with its two neighbouring 
ones, must consider itself a complete 
body, so arranged for the purpose of 
attack, or effectual defence. Close files 
must invariably constitute the formation 
of all corps that go into action. The 
peculiar exercise of the light infantry is 
the only exception. See Infantry Regu- 
lations, p. 75 

of his means of subsistence, ammunition, 
Sjq Spg A liOis Ft 
^ DISTRIBUTION, (distribution, Fr.) 
in a military sense, generally applies to 
any division, or allotment, which is made 
for the purposes of warfare. Thus an 
army may be distributed about a coun- 
try. In a more confined sense it means 
the minute arrangements that are made 
for the interior economy of corps ; as 
distribution of pay, or subsistance, distri- 
bution of allowances, ccc. 

Distribution de plan, Fr. the distri- 
bution, or division of the several pieces 
which compose the plan of a building, 
and which are placed and proportioned 
according to their different uses. 

DISTRICT, in a military sense, one 

Distance of ranks, open distances of i of those parts into which a country is 

ranks are two paces asunder; when 
close, they are one pace: when the body 
is halted and to fire, they are still closer 
locked up. Close ranks, order or dis- 
tance, is the constant and habitual order 
at which the troops are at all times 
formed and move; open ranks, order, 
or distance, is only an occasional excep- 
tion, made in the situation of parade, or 
in light infantry manoeuvres. 

Distance of files and ranks relates to 
the trained soldier; but in the course of 
his tuition, he must be much exercised 
at open files and ranks, and acquire 
thereby independence and the command 
of his limbs and body. 

Distance of the bastions,\n fortifica- 
tion, is the side of the exterior polygon. 
See Fortification. 

Distance in fencing. See Fencing. 

Distance, (distance, Fr.) is properly 
the shortest hue between two points. 

Line o/* Distance, in perspective, is a 
right line drawn from the eye to the 
principal point. 

Point (i/'Distance, in perspective, is 
a point in the horizontal line, at such 
distance from the principal point as is 
that of the eve from the snme. 

To DISTINGUISH one's self, (se dis- 
tinguer, Fr.) to do some extraordinary 
feat of valour in the field, or to discover 
great talents in the management and 
execution of an office, &c. 

A DISTINGUISHED officer, (officier 
distingue, Fr.) a person who, in his mili- 
tary capacity, has given proofs of extra- 
ordinary skill and valour. 

divided, for the convenience of com- 
mand, and to secure a ready co-opera- 
tion between distant bodies of armed 
men. Great Britain and Ireland are 
divided into districts; each being under 
the immediate superintendence of gene- 
ral officers. 

DITCH. See Fortification, Moat. 

Ditch of the counterscarp, a wet or 
dry ditch, which is made under the coun- 

DIVAN, a particular private council 
of war among the Turks, held by the 
Capiculy infantry, in the palace of the 
Zunizeragazy in order to discuss the 
military operations of the corps, &c. 
There is another Divan held by the su- 
preme council of the Grand Signor, at 
which all the generals attend. 

This term is also applied to a grand 
council, or court of judicature, held in 
each province among the Turks and 

DIVERGENT, > in geometry, 

DIVERGING lines, S are such lines 
whose distance is continually increasing. 
Lines which converge one way, and 
diverse the opposite way. 

DIVERSION, (diversion, Fr.) in mi- 
litary history, is when an enemy is at- 
tacked in one place where he is weak 
and unprovided, in order to draw off his 
forces from making an irruption some- 
where else ; or where an enemy is strong, 
and by an able manoeuvre he is obliged 
to detach part of his forces to resist any 
feint, or menacing attempt of his op- 
ponent. To derive advantage from a 

To DISTRESS an enemy, (mcttre un j diversion, taken in an extended accepta- 
ennemi aux abois, Fr.) to cut off his j tion of the term, it is necessary that one 

line of communication : 

to deprive him j state should have greater resources tba» 
Z 2 

D I V 

( 172 ) 

D O D 

another; for it would be alisurd to at- 
tack the territories of another before 
you had seemed your own. 

It is likewise requisite, that the coun- 
try you attack by stratagem or diversion 
should be easy of access, and the inva- 
sion you make must l»e prompt, vigorous 
nnd unexpected, directed against a weak 
and vulnerable quarter. A little good 
fortune is however essentia! to render a 
diversion perfectly successful, as all the 
ways and means by which it ought to be 
made cannot he reduced to rule. 

The most memorable instance of a 
diversion well executed, which we meet 
with in history, was performed by Scipio 
in Africa, whilst Hannibal carried the 
warin to Italy. In 1659, a diversion, no 
less remarkable, was practised by the 
imperial and allied armies against the 

Fuire Diversion, Fr. to oblige an 
enemy to divide his forces: it also signi- 
fies to draw off his attention. 

DIVIDEND, (dividends, Fr.) is the 
number divided into equal parts l>v an- 
other number. In a fraction, the dividend 
is called the numerator. 

DIVISION, (division, Fr.) a certain 
proportion of an army consisting of 
horse and foot together, or of horse and 
foot separately, which is under the order 
of a brigadier, or other general officer. 

Division, (division, Fr.) a certain 
proportion (U a troop or company, which 
is under the command of its respective 
officers. It also means any given num- 
ber which is detached on military duty, 
from an established body of men : hence 
a division of artillery, wagon-corps, 
pioneers, &c. 

Divisions of a battalion are the se- 
veral platoons into which a regiment or 
battalion is divided, either in marching 
or firing; each of which is commanded 
by an officer. 

Divisions of an army are the num- 
ber of brigades and squadrons it con- 
tains. — The advance, the main and the 
rear guards are composed out of the 
several brigades, and inarch in front, in 
the center, and in the rear of an army. 
Each army has its right wing, its center, 
and its left wing. When armies march, 
they advance in column, that is, they 
are divided into several squadrons and 
battalions of a given depth, successively 
formed upon one another. If an army 
be drawn out or displayed in order of 
battle, it is usually divided into the first 

line, which constitutes the front, the 
second line, which makes the main body, 
and the third line, or reserve. 

DIVINE service, in the army, is, or 
should be, performed every Sunday. All 
officers and soldiers, not having just im- 
pediment, shall diligently frequent divine 
service and sermons in the places ap- 
pointed for the assembling of the regi- 
ment, troop, or company, to which they 
belong: such as wilfully absent them- 
selves, or, being present, behave inde- 
cently or irreverently, shall, if commis- 
sioned officers, be brought before a court- 
martial, there to be publicly and severely 
reprimanded by the president; if non- 
commissioned officers or soldiers, every 
person so offending, shall, for his first 
offence, forfeit 12d. to he deducted out 
of his next pay; for the second offence, 
he shall not only forfeit 12d. but be 
laid in irons for 12 hours, ccc. Articles 
of War. 

DOCK. See Troussequeue, Fr. 
DOCKET, a small note or bill con- 
taining the substance of something writ- 
ten elsewhere more largely. 

DOCUMENT, (document, Fr.) pre- 
cept; instruction; direction; voucher. 

Death-bed Document. Officers have 
sometimes delayed sending in their re- 
signation, or signing the same, until their 
lives have been actually despaired of; 
in this case even the original purchase 
of their commissions has not been al- 
lowed. The official term is, a death-bed 
document ; for a remarkable case see 
Rfgimetitat Companion, vol. iv. p. 263, 
6th edit. 

DODECAGON, in geometry, is a re- 
gular polygon, consisting of 12 equal 
sides and angles, capable of being re- 
gularly fortified hy the same number ot 

DODECAHEDRON is one of the 
platonic bodies, or five regular solids, 
and is contained under 12 equal and re- 
gular pentagons. 

The solidity of a dodecahedron is found 
by multiplying the area of one of the 
pentagonal faces of it by 12; and this 
latter product by 1-Sd of the distance 
of the face from the center of the dode- 
cahedron, which is the same as the cen- 
ter of the circumscribing sphere. 

The side of a dodecahedron inscribed 

in a sphere, is the greater part of the 

side of a cube inscribed in that sphere, 

cut into extreme and mean proportion. 

If the diameter of the sphere be 1.0000, 


( 175 ) 


the side of a dodecahedron, inscribed in 
it, will he .35682 nearly.. 

All dodecahedrons are similar, and are 
to one another as the cubes of the sides; 
and their surfaces are also similar, and 
therefore they are as the squares of their 
sides; whence as .509232 is to 10.51462, 
so is the square of the side of any dode- 
cahedron to the superficies thereof: and 
as .3637 is to 2.78516, so is the cube of 
the side of any dodecahedron to the soli- 
dity of it. 

hOG-nuils. See Nails. 
DOLLAR, a foreign coin worth from 
4s. to 4s. 6d., according to the mint from 
which it is issued. 

DOLMAN, DOLIMAN, a robe of 
Thessonica cloth, of which the Grand 
Signor makes a present to the janizaries 
on the first day of their Rumuzun, or 

DOLON, a long hollow stick, con- 
taining a pointed iron, which is thrown 
at discretion. 
DOLPHINS. See Cannon. 
DOME, (dome, Fr.) in architecture, 
a spherical roof, or a roof of a spherical 
form, raised over the middle of a build- 
ing, as a church, hall, pavilion, vestible, 
staircase, &c. by way of crowning. 

Domes are what the Italians call cou- 
polas, and we cupolas; Vitruvius calls 
them tholi. 

DOMMAGE, Fr. in a general accep- 
tation of the term, signified, in the old 
French service, the compensation which 
every captain, of a troop, or company, 
was obliged to make in consequence of 
any damage that their men might have 
done in a town, or on a march. If any 
disagreement occurred between the of- 
ficers and inhabitants, with respect to 
the indemnification, a statement of 
losses sustained was sworn to by the 
latter before the mayor, or magistrates 
of the place, who determined the same. 
But if the officers should refuse to abide 
by their decision, a remonstrance was 
drawn up and transmitted to the secre- 
tary at war, with a copy of the same to 
the intendant of the province. Officers 
have frequently been displaced, or de- 
graded, on this account. Hence the 
term dommage is supposed to have been 
derived from the Latin words damnum, 
jactura, and signifies the loss, or priva- 
tion of a step. 

DONDANE, Fr. a machine which 
was used by the ancients to cast round 
stones and pebbles on their enemies. 

DONJON, Fr. a turret; a dungeon. 
Donjon, Fr. in fortification, a secure 
spot, generally bomb-proof, in a place of 
arms, or in a citadel, to which the garri- 
son sometimes retires, in order to offer 
terms of capitulation. 

Donjon, Fr. in architecture, a small 
wooden pavilion, which is. raised above 
the roof of a house, in order to take the 
air, or to enjoy a fine view of the coun- 
try, or adjacent parts. 

DONNEE, Fr. given; a term gene- 
rally used in mathematics, with respect 
to any thing which we suppose to be 

DONNER, Fr. to charge an enemy, 
to fire upon him. 

Donner, Fr. is to charge the enemy 
as soon as the signal for battle is given. 
Thus it is said, les troupes donnerent iete 
baissee, the troops rushed headlong. 

Donner de t'inquietude a Vennemi, Fr. 
to inarch in various directions, and by 
other manoeuvres to disconcert an enemy. 

Donner, Fr. This word is used in 
the same sense as marcher. As donner, 
ou marchjg contre Vennemi. 

DOOSilES, Ind. palanqueens of a 
simple c Obstruction, for the conveyance 
of the sick. On a march, each company 
of sepoys is allowed one dooly, and of 
Europeans ten. 

GO^iSmilituires, Fr. military rewards. 

DORMANT, Fr. a sleeper, or piece 
of timber laid horizontally in wooden 
quays and dikes, in order to keep fast 
the extremities of the keys which form 
the assemblage. 

Dormant, Fr. also a frieze, or frame 
at the top of a square, or arched door. 

Dormant de fer, Fr. an aperture 
made of iron bars, over a wooden or iron 
door, to give light. 

DORYPHORI, the body guards of 
the Roman emperors; they were armed 
with a pike, and were forced to take a 
particular oath ; they were held in high 
consideration, and were promoted to tha 
first military ranks. 

DOS, Fr. back ; rear. 

Dos d'ane, Fr. This term is applica- 
ble to all bodies that have two inclined 
surfaces which terminate in one line; 
such, for instance, as the head of a ba- 

DOSSER, in military matters, is a 
sort of basket carried on the shoulders 
of men, used in carrying the earth from 
one part of a fortification to another, 
where it is wanted. 

D O U 

( 174 ) 

D R A 

DOSSES, Jr. planks, flitches of wood. 
The same as madriers, which are thick 
beams laid to secure a foundation. 

DOUBLEAU,JV. joist; thechiefarch 
which reaches from one pile to another. 

DOUBLEMENT, Fr. the augmenta- 
tion of the rank and file of a battalion. 

DOUBLER un batailloti, Fr. to ex- 
tend the front of a battalion, so that it 
covers twice the ground it did in line ; 
or to reduce it in such a manner that it 
does the same in column. 

The French also say, doublez les retries, 
dedoublez les rungs, and redoublez lea 

DOUBLING, in the military art, is 
the placing two, or more, ranks or hies 
into one. 

DOUBLE your ranks, is for the 2d, 
4th and 6th ranks (when so drawn up) 
to march into the 1st, 3d, and 5th; so 
that of 6 ranks they are made but 3; 
which is not so when they double by 
half-files, because then 3 ranks stand 
together, and the 3 other come up to 
double them; that is the 1st, 2d, & 3d 
are doubled by the 4th, 5th, & 6th, or 
the contrary. 

Double your files is for every other 
file to march into thai which is next, to 
it, on the right or left, ab the word oi 
command directs; and then the 6 ranks 
are doubled into 12, the men standing 
12 deep; and the distance between the 
files is double what it was before. By 
this method, 3 liles may be doubled into 
G, &c. 

To Double round, in military move- 
ments, is to march by an inversion of a 
second line, on the extremity of a first 
line, thereby to outflank an enemy. 

DouBLE-anwer/ man, a soldier armed 
with a pike and a bow. During the 
reign of Charles 1., in the year 1625, 
one William Nead caused a soldier to 
perform this exercise before the King in 
St. James's Park. 

Le DOUBLE, Fr. This term is used 
in French diplomacy, to signify a species 
of secret intelligence which is conveyed 
by one person to an opposite interest. 
Hence double espionnage. — It is also fami- 
liarly said by the French, U Anglais ne 
connaU pas le double ; that is, to use a 
vulgar phrase, an Englishman does not 
know how to hold with the hare and run 
with the hounds. And yet characters 
of this sort are necessary in state affairs; 
but they ought to be well watched. 

Double tenaille. SeeTENAiLLE. 

To be DOUBLED up. This term is 
applied to the circumstance of two of- 
ficers being put into one barrack-room, 
or one tent, as is the case with the sub- 
alterns, or of sharing the several allow- 

DOVETAIL, (queue d'aronde, Fr.) a 
form of joining two bodies together, 
when that which is inserted has the form 
of a wedge reversed. 

DOUILLE, Fr. a small iron socket 
which is at the heel of the bayonet, 
and receives the extreme end of the 
musket, so as to be firmly united to- 

Douille likewise signifies the cavity 
which belongs to the round piece of iron 
that is fixed to the end of the ramrod, by 
means of two nails through two small 
holes, called yeux or eyes, and to which 
the worm is attached. 

DRA HANTS, a company of two hun- 
dred select men, of which Charles IX. 
of Sweden was captain. They were a 
tine body of men, and of tried courage. 
Charles XII., with one hundred and fifty 
Drabants, has been known to vanquish 
one thousand Russians. 

DRA1TSMAN, (dessinateur, Fr.) a 
person who can draw sketches of forti- 
fications, take the profile of a country, 
and describe upon paper, positions, cv'c. 
Every officer, intended for the staff" 
especially, ought to be more or less a 

DltAO-ro/7fs. See Ropes. 

DRAGON, et DRAGON volant, Fr. 
some old pieces of artillery were ancient- 
ly so called. The Drauon was a 40- 
puunder; the Dragon volant a 32. But 
neither the name, nor the size, of the ca- 
liber of cither piece is now in use. 

Dragon also signifies a piece, which 
Markham, in his Souldier's Accidence, 
published in 16)3, thus describes — "A 
fay re dragon, fitted with an iron work, 
to be carried in a belt of leather, which 
is buckled over, the right shoulder, and 
under the left arm ; having a turnell of 
iron with a ring through which the piece 
runneth up and downe,and these dragons 
are short pieces, of sixteen inches the 
ban ell, and full musquet bore, with fire- 
locks, or snaphaunces." 

DRAGONNADE, Fr. a term given 
by the Calvinists to the barbarous usage 
which was exercised against them in 
France, in 1684. 

DRAGONNE, Fr. a sword-knot, at 
the extremity of which hangs a tassel. 

D R A 

( Ho ) 

D R A 

The sword-knot was originally worn by 
the Germans, and is (with them) the 
distinction of a officer when in plain 
clothes; no other person being permitted 
to wear a gold or silver one. In Austria, 
the sword-knot is gold lace, edged with a 
black stripe, in commemoration of the 
loss of Jerusalem; the British sword- 
knot is made of crimson and gold. 

DRAGONNER, Fr. According to 
the French acceptation of the term, is 
to attack any person in a rude and vio- 
lent manner; to take any thing by force; 
to adopt prompt and vigorous measures; 
and to bring those people to reason by 
hard blows, who could not be persuaded 
by fair words. We say to dragoon. 

DRAGOON-Wse. This term was 
formerly applied by the Americans to 
all regiments that were mounted, from 
their ignorance of the meaning of the 
word dragoon. 

To Dragoon, to abandon a place to 
the rage of the soldiery; to give it up to 
rape and plunder. 

DRAGOONS, (dragons, Fr.) in mili- 
tary affairs, are a kind of cavalry, who 
serve both on horseback and foot; be- 
ing always ready on every emergency, 
as being able to keep pace with the 
horse, and to do infantry duty. In 
battle, or on attacks, they generally fight 
sword in hand after the first tire. In 
the field they encamp on the right and 
left of the lines. They are divided into 
brigades, regiments, and squadrons. 
Their martial music consists of drums 
and trumpets. The first regiment of 
dragoons in England was raised in 1681, 
and called the Royal Regiment of Dra- 
goons of North Britain. This name is 
derived from the Latin word Druconarii, 
used among the Romans. 

DRAIN, (rigole, Fr.) the channel 
through which liquors are generally 
drawn; a water-course; a sink. In the 
military art, it is a trench made to draw 
water out of a ditch, which is afterwards 
filled with hurdles and earth, or with 
fascines, or bundlesfof rushes, and planks, 
to facilitate the passage over the mud. 
See Trench. 

DRAKE, a small piece of artillery. 

DRAPEAU, Fr. flag; colours. 

Eire ni au Drapeau, Fr. to be born 
in the regiment. 

Battre /psDrapeaux, Fr. See Battre. 

DRAUGHT, a plan or delineation of 
any place; a body of troops selected 
from others. 

To Draught, to draw forces from one 
brigade &c. to complete another; to se- 
lect a portion from brigades, regiments, 
or companies for any particular service. 

Draught-/ioo/cs, in a gun carriage, 
are fixed to the transom-bolts on the 
cheeks of artillery carriages, near the 
trunnion holes and trails: they are used 
to draw the guns backwards and for- 
wards by men with drag-ropes fixed to 
those hooks. 

Draught of 'soldier s,(ditachement, Fr.) 
any given number of armed men, se- 
lected from ' the different component 
parts of a regiment, brigade or army, for 
some specific service. 

Draught, or draft compasses, are 
compasses with several moveable points, 
to draw draughts in architecture. 

DRAUGHTSMEN, a body of men 
educated at the Tower, to assist the en- 
gineers in drawing plans, fortifications, 
and surveying. 

Jo DRAW, to delineate, or make a 

To Draw, to pull a sword from the 

To'Draw, to entice; as to draw an 
enemy into ambuscade. 

Draw ramrod/ a word of command 
used in the drill exercise, on which the 
soldier draws his ramrod half from the 
pipes, and seizing it back-handed by the 
middle, waits for the signal for the next 
motion, when he turns it round, and 
with an extended arm places the butt of 
the rod about one inch in the muzzle of 
the firelock; in which position he waits 
for the command ram down cartridge! 

Draw swords! a word of command in 
the sword exercise of the cavalry. 

The drawing of swords is performed 
in 3 motions : 1st. Bring the right hand 
smartly across the body to the sword- 
knot, which being placed on the wrist, 
and secured by giving the hand a couple 
of turns inwards, seize the hilt of the 
sword. 2d. Draw the sword with an 
extended arm ; sink the hand till the 
hilt of the sword is immediately under 
the chin, the blade of the sword perpen- 
dicular and the back of the hand out- 
wards. 3d. Bring down the hilt till in a 
line with the bridle-hand, the blade per- 
pendicular, the edge turned towards the 
horse's left ear. 

Officers of infantry, when the men are 
under arms, draw their swords without 
wailing for any command. 

Draw; charge! a word of command 


( 176 ) 


in the cavalry, when a body of that arm 
are ordered to charge the enemy. 

To Draw off, to retire; also to ab- 
stract or takeaway; as to draw off your 

To Draw on, to advance; also to oc- 
casion : as, to druw an enemy's fire. 

To Draw over, to persuade to revolt; 
to entice from a party. 

2b Draw out, to call the soldiers forth 
in array for action. 

To Draw up, to form in battle array. 

To Draw out a parly, to assemble 
any particular number of armed men 
for military duty. The French say, 
fairc un detachement. 

To Draw together, (assembler, Fr.) 
to bring any given number of persons 
or bodies of men into one quarter, dis- 
trict or country. 

To Draw the guns, to convey them 
from one situation to another. The 
word drag, though seemingly applicable 
from the Circumstance iff drag-ropes, is 
not technically correct, as, in the artil- 
lery, they always say draw. 

TtRAW-bridge. See Bridge. 

DRAWING, in a military sense, is 
the art of representing the appearances 
of all kinds of military objects by imi- 
tation, or copying, both with and without 
the assistance of mathematical rules. 

DRAWN, pulled out, as a drawn 
sword ; assembled, collected, as an urmy 
drawn together. 

DRA.\vs-battle, (combat igal de part 
tt d'autre, Fr.) a battle which has been 
fought and in which both sides claim the 
victory, or retire upon equal terms; 
either resuming their original positions, 
or taking fresh ground for the purpose 
of renewing the contest, or making 

DREGS, any thing by which purity is 
corrupted : also persons of the lowest 
class, as dregs of the people. 

DRESS, military. The clothing of 
the army is generally called regimentals, 
every part of which should facilitate, 
and not hinder, the various motions of 
the manual exercise. A soldier, with- 
out regard to fashion or taste (to use the 
words of a modern author) should he 
dressed in the most comfortable and 
least embarrassing manner possible; and 
the keeping h : , m warm, and leaving him 
the entire use of his limbs, are objects 
always to be had in view. See Stock. 

To Dress, in a military sense, is to 
keep the body in such a relative position, 

as to contribute to, and make a part of 
an exact continuity of line, upon what- 
ever front, or in whatever shade the bat- 
talion may be formed. Soldiers dress 
by one another in ranks, and the body 
collectively dresses by some given ob- 

To Dress the line, (dresser la ligne, 
Fr.) to arrange any given number of 
soldiers, so as to stand perfectly correct 
with regard to the several points of au 
alignement that have been taken up. 
This is done by the adjutant, or brigade- 

Dress, a word of command which is 
given when troops are arrived at any 
prescribed point of alignement, as halt, 

To Dress a wound, to cover a wound 
with medicaments. 

DRESSERS, in military dispositions, 
are those men who take up direct, or 
relative points, by which a corps is en- 
abled to preserve a regular continuity 
of front, and to exhibit a straight 
alignement. In every operation of this 
sort, the dresser must be particularly 
alert, especially when a general line is 
to be formed to give battle to the enemy. 
Under this circumstance, every thing 
will depend upon the activity, skill and 
aptitude of eye in the two cenrer dressers 
or each battalion. No line, indeed, can 
be said to be in a proper situation to 
meet, or march up to, the enemy, whilst 
there is the least interval from center to 
flanks. Solid, compact and straight 
lines in forward movements are the 
nerves and sinews of immediate conflict; 
whereas unconnected movements pro- 
duce confusion, are naturally weak, and 
always tend to give a superiority to the 

DRESSER, Fr. See To Dress. 

Dresser une batterie, Fr. to dispose 
pieces of artillery in a battery for the 
purpose of acting against an enemy. 

Dresser, Fr. to place anything up- 
right, or in a perpendicular state. 

Dresser a alignement, Fr. to erect 
or build a wall according to lineal mea- 

Dresser dc niveau, level. 

DRESSING of a battalion after the 
halt, is to bring all its relative parts in 
a line, with the point, or object, towards 
which it was directed to move. What- 
ever correction is necessary, must be 
made by advancing or retiring the 
flanks, and not by moving the center; 

D R I 

( 177 ) 

D R U 

which, having been the guide in the 
march, has properly stopped at the point 
where it has arrived. 

Dressing of a battalion when it is 
to retire, is to have some intelligent 
officer placed thirty paces in the rear, so 
as to stand perpendicular to the front 
directing Serjeant, by whom the direction 
of* the march is to be ascertained, as the 
officer will of course be in the line, or 
nearly so, of the directing Serjeants. 

To DRILL, to teach young recruits 
the first principlesof military movements 
and positions, ike. 

To be sent to Drill, to be placed 
under the command of the drill-officer, 
or nun-commissioned officer, and made 
to join the recruits in performing the ma- 
nual and platoon exercises, ike. This is 
sometimes ordered as a punishment to 
those who are perfect in their exercise, 
when a battalion, company, or individual 
has done something to merit exposure. 
The French call the drill, ccole dusoldat. 

Knapsack Drill, a punishment in- 
flicted upon soldiers for minor offences. 
On this occasion, they are inarched round 
the barrack-yard, or camp-ground, ike. 
for several hours successively, with a 6 
or 121b. shot tied to the knapsack. 

DRILLE, Fr. signified formerly a sol- 
dier ; thence it is that an old soldier who 
knows his duty is called a bon drille. 

DRINKING to excess in the army 
is at ail times highly criminal, but upon 
service it ought never to be overlooked; 
and the consequence will be a trial by a 
court-martial. It has been productive 
of almost innumerable mischiefs, and is 
a most detestable and horrid practice. 
See Drunkenness. 

Drinking of horses, immediately 
after hard riding or driving, is extremely 
dangerous; and therefore ihey should 
not be suffered to drink, until they be 
thoroughly cooled, and have eat some 

A horse after violent labour will not 
suffer by being kept half a day from 
water ; but may die by drinking an 
hour too soon. 

To DRIVE, to expel by force, as to 
drive out an enemy. 

To Drive, to guide, or regulate, a 

To Drive in, to force back; as to 
drive in the enemy's piquets, ike. 

DRIVERS, pieces of bone or wood 
made in the shape of a musket-flint are 
£0 called. 

Drivers of baggage or artillery, men 
who drive the baggage artillery and stores, 
having no other duty in the army. 

Royal Artillery Drivers. See Ar- 

Bone Drivers, a nick-name which 
was originally given to one of the batta- 
lions of Foot Guards, owing to their 
long residence in London, and absence 
from active service; alluding to the little 
use which was made of their flints, and 
the substitution of Bone Drivers. 

DROITE, Fr. the right. 

Droite d' une riviire, Fr. that side 
of a river which lies upon your right 
when you take a front view of its 

DROITS, a French term in peculiar 
use amongst us, signifying certain rights 
and advantages which are exclusively en- 
joyed by the crown, when ships, &c. are 
taken from the enemy ; hence Admiralty 

DROWNING, (noyade, Fr.) an an- 
cient military punishment; also an in- 
famous mode of destruction, which was 
resorted to under the reign of Robes- 
pierre in 1793, and 1794. 

DRUGGERMAN.alinguist; onewho 
speaks and interprets severai languages. 

DRUM is a martial musical instru- 
ment in the form of a cylinder, hollow 
within, and covered at the two ends 
with vellum, which is stretched, or 
slackened, at pleasure, by means of 
small cords and sliding leathers. This 
instrument is used both by foot and 
dragoons; which is done in several man- 
ners, either to give notice to the troops 
of what they are to do, or to demand 
liberty to make some proposal to an 
enemy. Every troop of dragoons, and 
every company of foot or artillery, has 
two or more drums, according to the 
effective strength of the party. The 
drum was first invented by Bacchus, 
who, as Polyenus reports, fighting against 
the Indians, gave the signal of battle 
with cymbals and drums; and the Sara- 
cens, who invaded Christendom, introdu- 
ced the drum into the European armies. 

The author of an old work entituled 
A Treatise of the Arms and Engines of 
War, ike. speaks of drums in the follow- 
ing manner: 

"Though drums and kettle-drums were 
not in use among the Romans, yet other 
nations, and especially the Indians, used 
them. Indi tympana suo more pulsantes. 
Curtius, lib. viii. And Suidas, Tubis 


( 178 ) 


Indi non utuntur,$ed pro iis sunt flagella, 
et tympana horribilem quendam bombum 

" The Partisans made use of them also, 
but, iu all appearance, (according to the 
description we have of them in Suidas 
and Plutarch,) the Instruments of these 
people were rather kettle-drums than 
drums, because they were made of palm- 
tree wood, hollow ami filled with little 
brazen bells, the mouth whereof was 
covered with a hull's hide. Isidorus de- 
fines the word (tympanum) in these 
terms : Tympanum est prills vel corinm 
ligno ex una parte extension. And that 
is the very shape and figure of our ket- 

"lie describes also another instrument 
which he calls symphony, which can be 
nothing else but our drums. Symphonia, 
he observes, vulgo appellatur lignum ca- 
vum ex utrdtjuc parte pelie extensa, yuam 
virguUs bine et inde musici feriunt. 
That instrument resembles the little ta- 
bors or drums which the Turks carry 
before them, and which they beat on 
both sides with sticks. However it be, 
there is no doubt but that the invention 
of drums is as ancient as that of trum- 
pets: I build not only on the authority 
of prophane history, but on the testi- 
mony of the royal prophet, who says : 
Let them praise his name with the flute ; 
let them sing praises to him icith the tim- 
brel and harp. Psal. 14-9. Praise him 
timbrel and Jiute, If c. Psal. 150." 

Drums are made of a chesnut wood, 
hollow, and covered at both ends with 
skins of parchment, which are braced 
with cords and with snares under- 
neath. The drums are sometimes made 
©f brass. Those belonging to the Blues 
are silver. 

Drums arc used when religious cere- 
monies are performed in n camp or in 
the field, one being placed on the other, 
and serving for a desk. 

The various beats areas follow: viz. 

TlieGeneral to give notice to the troops 
that they are to march. 

The Assembly, \ to order the troops to 

The Troop, S repair to the place of 
rendezvous, or to their colours. 

The March,tn command them to move, 
always with the left foot first. 

Tut-too or Tap-too, to order all to re- 
tire to their quarters. 

To Arms.' for soldiers who are dis- 
persed, in repair to them. 

The Reveil/i always beats at break of 

day, and is to warn the soldiers to rise, 
and the sentinels to forbear challenging, 
and to give leave to come out of quarters. 

I'/ic Retreat, a signal to draw off from 
the enemy. It likewise means a beat in 
both camp and garrison a little before 
sun-set, at which time the gates are shut, 
and the soldiers repair to their barracks, 

The Alarm, to give notice of sudden 
danger, that all may be in readiness for 
immediate duty. 

The Parley, ) a signal to demand 

The Chamade, $ some conference with 
the enemy. 

Long March, a beat which was for- 
merly used in England; on the sound of 
which, the men clubbed their firelocks, 
and claimed and used the liberty of talk- 
ing all kind of ribaldry. 

The Church Call, called also beating 
the bank ; a beat to summon the sol- 
diers of a regiment, or garrison, to 

The Pioneers'' Call ; known by the ap- 
pellation of Round Heads and Cuckolds ! 
come dig; this is beaten in camp to 
summon the pioneers to work. 

The Serjeants' Call, a beat for calk- 
ing the Serjeants together in the orderly- 
room, or iu camp, to the head of the 

The Drummers' Call, a beat to as- 
semble the drummers at the head of 
the colours, or in quarters at the plate 
where it is beaten. 

The Preparative, a signal to mak? 
ready for firing. 

The Warning Drum, a beat to give 
officers and soldiers time to assemble, 
for their meals in camp or quarters. 

The Roast-beef of Old England, a 
beat to call officers to dinner. 

Drum, or Diiummer, the person who 
beats the drum. 

Kettle-DRVMH are two sorts of large 
basins of copper or brass, rounded at 
the bottom and covered with vellum or 
goat-skin, which is kept fast by a circle 
of iron, and several holes, fastened to 
the body of the drum, and a like num- 
ber of screws to stretch it at pleasure. 
They are used among the horse. The 
kettlc-ih urn formerly belonging to the 
royal regiment of artillery was mounted 
on a most superb and pompous wagon, 
richly gilt and ornamented, and drawn 
by four white horses elegantly capari- 
soned, with a seat for the drum-major- 


( 1?9 ) 


B RUM-mq/'or, a person in the regi- 
Ihent who has the command over the 
otherdrums, and teaches them their duty. 
Every regiment has a drum-major. 

DRVM-major- genera/, of England. 
There was formerly in the King's house- 
hold an officer so called, without whose 
licence no one could, except the King's 
troops, beat a drum. 

T)RVM-sticks, the sticks with which 
the drummer beats his drum. 

DRUNGARIUS, a Roman captain 
tvho had the command of 1000 men. 

DRUNGE, a body of Roman troops, 
composed of from 1000 to 4000 men. 

DRUNGUS, a flying Roman camp, 
•which was composed of a particular body 
of men that kept very close to one ano- 
ther when in battle. 

DRUNKENNESS, according to Dr. 
Johnson, intoxication with strong liquor. 
The Articles of War say respecting this 
vice: Whatsoever commissioned officer 
«hall be found drunk on his guard, party, 
or other duty, under arms, shall be 
cashiered for it; any non-commissioned 
officer or soldier so offending shall suffer 
such corporal punishment as shall be in- 
flicted by the sentence of a court-mar- 
tial. Sect. xiv. Art. v. 

DUAL, a weapon used by the inhabit- 
ants of New Holland.— See Grant's 
Voyage of Discovery. 

DUC de la nation, Fr. Under the 
second race of the French kings, the ar- 
mies were headed by a duke, who was 
called Due, de la nation, as long as he 
retained the command. Thus it hap- 
pened that Robert le Fort became duke 
of the French. 

DUCHIS-BASCY, the captain of the 
Turkish founders, who is to provide all 
necessary materials. 

DUEL, (from the Italian duello, signi- 
fying a rule of duelling,) is a single com- 
bat, at a time and place appointed, in 
consequence of a cartel or challenge. 
Duelling was anciently authorized ; but 
the motive of the duellists was the good 
of their country, when one, or a small 
number of combatants was chosen to 
save the blood of a whole army, and 
decide, by victory or death, the quarrels 
of kings or nations. Thus it was with 
Goliah and David, the Horatii and Cu- 
ratii, and several others. 

Duelling was so general 'a method 
of determining differences among the 
nobles, that even ecclesiastics were not 
excused; only, to prevent their being 

stained with blood, they procured cham- 
pions to fight for them. None were ex- 
cepted from combat, but sick people, 
cripples, and such as were under twenty- 
one years of age, or above sixty. Justs 
and tournaments, doubtless, rendered 
duels more frequent 

In the seventeenth century, duelling 
was much discountenanced, as will ap- 
pear by the following extract from the 
History of Gustavus Adolphus, King of 
Sweden, surnamed the Great. 

" Duels were not extremely fashion- 
able in those days; we hardly find half 
a dozen in the space of thirty years con- 
tinued war ; every hour affording better 
proofs for valour, than such irrational 
appeals to public opinion. Nor were 
superior commanders ill thought of by 
their adherents and followers, in case 
they refused to refer themselves to such 
sort of decisions. Cratz, in the tran- 
sports of resentment, challenged Wal- 
stein when he was generalissimo and 
absolute; yet nothing resulted from the 
provocation; it was passed by with 
neglect. John de Wert killed Merode, 
but the affair was purely a rencounter. 
Young Pappenheim, it is true, lost his 
life in a real duel, but that happened 
merely because he had eluded the vigi- 
lance of his general, who had locked the 
city gates, and planted spies to watch 
the combatants. Aldringer never for- 
gave Sirot for drawing his sword in his 
presence, though he himself set the ex- 
ample, and insisted upon making his life 
the forfeiture for the offence. Greater 
cautious were still taken in the Swedish 
service: Count de Sonches challenged 
General Stalhaus, but first resigned his 
commission. Duels before this time had 
been severely prohibited in France, and 
the French King declared, with an oath, 
that he would reward such military per- 
sons as had spirit enough to refuse a 
challenge. E) Gustavus's laws all pri- 
vate quarrels were decided by the offi- 
cers of the regiment, and all challenges 
referred to a court-martial : and if an 
inferior officer allowed the common sol- 
diers to engage hand to hand, he was to 
be cashiered, ipso facto, and serve as a 
private man, being answerable also for 
the mischiefs that should be committed 
in such engagements. The best and 
most remarkable swordsman in the 
course of these wars was the Count de 
Forgatz; yet we find nothing concerning 
him in the public fujd of action. At 
3 A «2 


( 130 ) 


to the custom of seconds, I think it 
appeared as early as the year 1570." — 
See Hartc's History of Gusluvus Adol- 
plius, page 45. in the Essay on the Mili- 
tary State, ike. &c. 

No officer or soldier shall pretend to 
send a challenge to any other otlicer or 
soldier, to fight a duel: if a couiinis- 
sioned officer, on pain of being cashiered ; 
if a non-commissioned officer or sol- 
dier, of suffering corporal punishment, 
at the discretion of a court-martial. 
Articles of /far. 

For a very singular deviation from 
this article, as far as relates to officers, 
see the first volume of the Regimental 
Companion, 5th edition. 

Duelling was authorized before the 
Normans came into England, hut the 
practice was not so frequent as after the 

DUELLIST, (duelliste, Fr.) a man 
who makes it his profession to fight, 
and sometimes to insult, other persons. 
Duelling is not the true test of valour; 
for it will happen, that a man may indi- 
vidually fight well, although he he a cheat 
at play, and an arrant coward in the 
hour of battle. 

The fate of Major Campbell of the 
21st regiment of foot, who was executed 
in Ireland for the murder of his brother 
officer, Captain Boyd, ought to be a so- 
lemn warning to those intemperate men 
who act up to the first impulse of anger 
and revenge; most especially,.when the 
common forms of duelling are aban- 
doned. If this lex ultima honoris 
must be resorted to, let usage, at least, 
and the common decencies of life be 
observed. During the reign of Louis 
the XlVth, every man who fought a 
duel and killed his adversary, without 
the evidence of seconds, (or, as the 
French more properly say, timoins, wit- 
nesses,) was condemned to death. The 
Irish, who are naturally a brave and ge- 
nerous people, felt all the weight and ef- 
ficacy of this wise law, when they brought 
in their verdict at Armagh. 

DUKIGI-BACIII, the second officer 
of the Turkish artillery. 

DULEDGE, a peg of wood which 
joins the ends of the felloes, forming the 
circle of the wheel to a gun-carriage; 
and the joint is strengthened on the out- 
side of the wheel by a strong plate of 
iron, called the duledge plate. 

DUMB-BELLS, weights which are 
used in drilling the soldier, who holds 

one in each hand, winch he swings back- 
wards and forwards to open his chest, 
increase muscular strength, throw back 
his shoulders, and accustom him to that 
freedom of action in the arms, and to 
that erect position of body which are so 
essentially necessary to a soldier. 

The following method of exercising 
recruits with the dumb-bells, is extracted 
from a work entitled Military Instruc- 

The dumb-bells being placed one on 
each side of the recruit, and himself in 
an erect, steady posture — on the « 

Raise bells — he will take one ii 
hand, and by a gentle motion raise 
as high as his arm will suffer him, a 
his head ; then gradually sinking llieui 
with stretched arm, as much behind linn 
as possible, he will form a circle with 
them, making the circle complete by 
causing the backs of his hands to meet 
behind his body; this will be. repeated, 
according to his strength, 5 or b" times. 

Extend bells. — The bells being raised 
to the shoulder, they will be forced for- 
wards, keeping the same height, then 
brought back in the same manner; this 
will throw the chest forward, and force 
back the neck and shoulders: — this must 
be frequently repeated. 

Suing bells. — The top part of the bells 
to be made to meet together in front, the 
height of the breast; then forced back- 
wards with an extended arm, and be 
made to touch behind; in doing this, the 
palm of the hand must be uppermost, 
and the elbows well down : this circle 
must be repeated fourteen or fifteen 
times: Time, the circle performed in, 
two seconds. 

Ground belh. — The recruit will let 
fall the bells by his sides, and remain 
steady and firm. 

DUNES, Fr. sand hills, commonly 
called downs. As, les dunes sur la cute 
de Flandres, the downs, or sand-hills, 
along the coast of Flanders. Hence also, 
Dunkirk, from a church first built in 
the sand-hills. 

DUNGEON, } in fortification, is 

DONJON, S commonly a large 
tower or redoubt of a fortress, whither 
the garrison may retreat, in case of ne- 
cessity, and capitulate with greater ad- 
vantage. Also a place in which prisoners 
were kept. 

DUNNAGE, as used in the ordnance, 
consists of fir deals or other light tim- 
ber to raise the dead weight in the hold, 

D U T 

( 181 ) 


for the purpose of preventing a ship 
from labouring too much in a heavy sea. 
In ships coming from China, dunnage is 
used about a foot above the ceiling to 
prevent the water in a ship's hold from 
damaging teas, or other dry goods. The 
laths, ecc. which are placed in trunks 
serve also as dunnage to secure clothes 
and linen fioin rubbing together. 

DUPLE, dupla ratio, that is, double 
ratio, in architecture, is where the ante- 
cedent term is double the consequent; 
or where the exponent of the ratio is 2; 
thus 6 : 3 is in a double ratio. 

Sub-Di'PLE, or double sub-duple ratio, 
is where the consequent term is double 
the antecedent, or the exponent of the 
ratio is f; thus 3 : G is a sub-duple 

-DUPLICATION, (duplication, Fr.) 
the art or science of doubling a thing, 
or any given quantity. 

Duplication of the cube, (duplica- 
tion du cube, Fr.) a term used to express 
the invention of a number which is twice 
as great as any other proposed. 

DUTY, (devoir, Fr.) in a military 
sense, is the exercise of those functions 
that belong to a soldier; yet with this 
nice distinction, that duty is counted 
the mounting guard, &c. where no 
enemy is directly to be engaged; for 
when any body of men marches to meet 
the enemy, this is strictly called going 
upon service. 

On all duties, whether with or with- 
out arms, piquets, or courts-martial, 
the tour of duty begins with the eldest 
downwards. An officer who is upon 
duty cannot be ordered for any other 
before that duty is finished, except he 
be on the inlying piquet, as then he 
shall be relieved, and go on the duty 

Military Duties may be divided into 
two general, classes, under the heads of 
Brigade and Regimental duties. 

Brigade duties are those which one 
regiment does in common with another, 
collectively or by detachments, and of 
which the brigade-major keeps a regular 

Regimental duties are those which 
the several companies of a legiment 
perform among themselves, and of which 
the adjutant keeps a regular roster. 

Duties of Honour are, 1. the king's 
guard ; 2. those of the royal family ; 3. 
the captain-general's, or field-marshal's 
commanding the army ; 4. detachments 

of the army, or out-posts; 5. genera! 
officers' guards; 6. the ordinary guards 
in camp or garrison; 7. the piquets; U. 
general courts-martial, and duties with- 
out arms, or fatigue. 

The following general regulations are 
to be observed, respecting duties in gene- 

When field or other commissioned 
officers are given out at head-quarters, 
for one duty, they cannot be taken off 
to be put on any other duty. 

No orlicer is allowed to exchange his 
duty with another, after he has been put 
in orders for it, without leave of the 
commanding officer of his regiment. 

Guards, or detachments which have 
not matched oft' from the parade, are not 
to be reckoned as for a duly done; 
but, if they should have inarched from 
the parade, it stands for a duty done, 
though they should be dismissed imme- 

If any officer's tour of duty for the 
piquet, general court-martial, or duty of 
fatigue, happen when he is on duty, he 
shall not make good such duty when he 
comes off. 

No regiment can demand a tour of 
duty, unless it has inarched off the 
place of parade, and beyond the main 

General courts-martial that have as- 
sembled, and the members sworn in, 
shall be reckoned for a duty, though 
thev should be dismissed without trying 
any person. 

Whenever the piquets are ordered to 
inarch to any parade, it is not to be ac- 
counted a duty, unless they march oil 
that parade. 

All commands in the regular forces 
fall to the eldest officers in the same 
circumstances, whether of cavalry or 
infantry, entire, or in parties. In case 
two commissions of the same date in- 
terfere, a retrospect is to be had to for- 
mer commissions. 

Ollicers, in all duties under arms, are 
to have their swords drawn, without 
waiting for any word of command for 
that purpose. 

Duty also signifies, in amoral and no- 
ble sense of the word, not otily a reli- 
gious observance of orders, but a zealous 
and undaunted execution of them. 
Thus our immortal Nelson: England 
expects that every man will do 


D£E. See Die. 


( 182 ) 

E A S 

DYKE. See Dike. 

DYNAMICS, (dynamique, Fr.) the 
science of moving forces, or of move- 
able causes. 

DYNASTY, (dynastic, Fr.) This 
word is frequently found in the History 
of the Monarchies and Empires of the 

East; it signifies a series of princes 
who have reigned successively. When 
a new family succeeds to the throne, it 
is a new dynasty that begins. The 
house of Nassau Orange began a new 
dynasty of the Kings of England in 
1688. ' 


EAGLE. B/acfe-Eagle, an order of 
military knighthood in Prussia, in- 
stituted by "the elector of Brandenbuurg, 
in 1701, on his being crowned king of 
Prussia. The knights of this order wear 
an orange-coloured ribbon, from which 
is suspended a black eagle. 

U'/hVc-Eagi.k, a like order in Po- 
land, instituted in 1325, by Uladislaus 
V. on occasiow of the marriage of his 
ton Casimer, to the daughter of the 
great duke of Lithuania. The knights 
of this order wear a chain of gold, to 
which a silver eagle, crowned, is sus- 

Eagle, the standard of the ancient 
Romans. In a general sense, it formerly 
meant the standard of the Roman ar- 
mies; in a more limited acceptation the 
sign or flag of the several legions. 

At present it is the standard of the 
German empire. 

The difference between the Roman 
and the Imperial eagle consists in this, 
that the first were eagles of gold or sil- 
ver, fixed at the end of a pike, having 
their wings extended, and holding the 
lightning in their claws ; the second are 
eagles painted upon the colours and 
standards of the emperors. The eagle 
likewise signifies, in a figurative sense, 
fhe German empire. On the accession 
of Bonaparte to the imperial throne, 
the eagles were introduced among the 
standards of France, in imitation of the 

EARL-MARSHAL, an officer who 
lias the care and direction oi military 

solemnities. The dukes of Norfolk are," 
by hereditary right, earls-marshal of 
England ; but they must be protestants 
to exercise the functions of that high 

EARS of a horse should be small, 
narrow, straight, and the whole substance 
of them thin and delicate : they ought 
to be placed on the very top of the 
head, and their points, when styled, or 
pricked up, should be nearer than then- 

When ahorse carries his ears pointed 
forwards, he is said to have a bold, 
hardy, or brisk ear; also when a horse 
is travelling he should keep them firm, 
and not (like a hog) mark every step by 
the flapping of his ears. 

EARTH-fcags. See Bags. 

EASE, in a military sense, signifies a 
prescribed relaxation of the frame, from 
the erect and firm position which every 
well dressed soldier should observe. 

To statid at Ease, in a technical ac* 
ceptation of the term, is to draw the 
right foot back about six inches, and to 
bring the greatest part of the weight of 
the body upon it. The left knee must 
be a little bent, and the hands brought 
together before the body, the right hand 
in front. But the shoulders must inva- 
riably be kept back and square, the head 
to the front, and the whole carriage of 
the person be unconstrained. 

In cold weather, when standing at 
ease, the men are permitted, by command, 
to move their limbs without quitting 
their ground. 


( 183 ) 

E C H 

Stand at Ease, (from the support.) On 
this command, the soldier retires his 
right foot six inches, hends his left knee, 
and carrying the right hand smartly 
.across the body, seizes the firelock by 
the small of the butt, and raises it suffi- 
ciently to slope it over his left shoulder, 
and relieve the left arm from the pres- 
sure of the cock. In some regiments, 
instead of seizing the small of the butt 
with the right hand, they only place 
the hollow of the hand below the left 

Ease arms, a word of command given 
immediately after the order to handle, 
arms, by which the soldier is directed 
to drop his right hand to the full extent 
of the arm, from the top of the ramrod, 
on the front of the sling, with his fingers 

spread along it. 

EAU, Fr. water, is a principal object 
to be considered, whenever an army 
advances, retreats, or encamps. It is 
the quarter-master-general's business, 
through his subordinate deputies, to se- 
cure this indispensable necessary of life. 
Small running rivulets are preferable to 
large rivers, because the latter cannot 
be so easily turned for the convenience 
of the army ; whereas the former may 
be always stopped, or diverted from 
their natural course. 

Wells are never resorted to but in 
cases of absolute necessity. Stagnant 
or pond water is in general unwhole- 
some, and never limpid or clear. 

Buvage <TEau, Fr. a punishment 
in the French service, corresponding 
with our bread and water system. — 
Drunken soldiers were treated in this 
manner. This chastisement is also 
much practised in our corps in India, 
where it is called congee, signifying rice 
and water. 

Eaux Meres, on A me res, Fr. the 
water which remains after the first boil- 
ing of saltpetre. It has a bitter salt 
taste, and is used to fill the tubs a second 

Petites Eaux, Fr. the water which 
remains after the saltpetre has been 
boiled to a certain degree. See Salt- 

EBAUCHE, Fr. the first sketch, or 
outline of a plan. 

EBAUCHER, Fr. to prepare any 
'thing in the rough so that it may be 
shaped or made smooth. 

EBOULEMRNT, Fr. the crumbling 

of a wall or rampart, which is occa- 
sioned either by violence, or by waste of 
time. It also means the rubbish, &c. 
that is caused by the explosion of a 

EBOULIS, Fr. rubbish, 

EBRANLER, Fr. to shake. 

Ebranler une troupe ennemie, Fr. 
to cause a hostile body of men to give 
way, or become unsteady, by the fre- 
quent and well directed discharge of can- 
non, or musketry. 

S' ebranler, Fr. to make a first 
movement towards an enemy, for the 
purpose of bringing him to battle; to 
prepare to mount an assault. It also 
signifies to retire in order to avoid the 

EBRILLADE, Fr.z. sudden jerk with 
the bridle. 

EBUARD, Fr. a wooden wedge. 

ECARTER I'ennemi, Fr. to oblige an 

enemy to abandon his position and to 
give up some premeditated plan. This 
is done by intercepting his convoys, by 
harassing engagements, and by keeping 
him in continual alarm. 

ECHAFAUD, Fr. a scaffold. 
ECHAFAUDAGE, Fr. the different 
planks and poles, &c. which are used to 
erect a scaffold. 

ECHALIER, Fr. a fence. 
ECHANCRURE, Fr. a slope. 
ECH ANGER, Fr. to exchange, tt» 

ECHANSON, Fr. a cup-bearer. 
ECHANSONNERIE, Fr. the king's 
wine cellar. 

ECHANTILLON, Fr. means literally 
a pattern or model. In a military sense, 
it signifies a plank, which is covered on 
one side with iron, and serves to finish 
the mouldings, &c. of a piece of ord- 

ECIIAPPEE de me, Fr. a vista. 
ECHAPPER, Fr. toescape. S' echap- 
per belle, to escape a thing narrowly, 

ECIIAPPES, Fr. the breed of a 

ECIIARDE, Fr. a splinter. 
ECHARPE, Fr. a scarf; a sling for 
the arm ; in mechanics, a pulley. It 
also signifies a particular mark of dis- 
tinction which lias been worn by mili- 
tary men to denote different nations or 
parties. It is sometimes thrown across 
die body, and at others round the waist. 
The French wear white silk; the Spa- 
niards red. 

E C H 

c m ) 




length of stones are 

d' Echarpe, Fr. to cl 
sides; to be a turn-coat. 

En Eciiarve, in the military art. To 
batter en itharpe, is to fire obliquely, or 
sideways. S< e H.\ n iky. 

feCHARPfi, Fr.n person that has been 
severely wounded with a sabre or cut- 
lass. It is said of a regiment that it 
lias lit i n < (//((//k, hy which is meant thai 
it has lost nearly all its men, or been 
cut to pieces. 

ECHARPER, Fr. to cut across with 
a sabre. 

iVlI A R$,( I Yw/.<,Fr.) shifting winds. 

KCHASSKS, Fr. stilts; poles. This 
word also means wooden rulers by which 
the hreadth am. 


S'ECIIAUDER, Fr. to burn one's 
fingers bv ill success in some affair. 

ECHAUFFOURIE, Fr. This word 
is become obsolete. It meant formerly 
the unexpected meeting of two bodies 
of troops that engaged immediately. 

ECIIAUGFTTE, a watch-tower, or 
kind of sentry-box built in the walls of 
fortified places. 

ECHAUFOUREE, Fr. a rash under- 
taking; a wild scheme. 

ECHEC, Fr. a check; a repulse; 
such as is experienced by an army, or 
body of armed men, who are either 
driven back when they advance, or are 
prevented from so doing by a superior 
force, or by military skill. 

EdlELIER, <>u rinu/icr, Fr. a long 
piece of timber which is crossed by a 
number of steps, and which is placed 
perpendicularly for the purpose of going 
down into quarries, Ike. 

ECHELLE, Fr. scale, in a mathe- 
matical sense, is a Straight line drawn 
double, which is divided into a certain 
number of parts, each part containing 
as many toises or yards, etc. as the size 
of the chart or paper will admit, which 
are again reduced into feet. 

Ecuelle, Fr. ladder; in civil and 
military architecture, means a machine, 
which is made of two side pieces or 
arms, that receive a certain number of 
small steps, at equal distances from one 
another. These ■ ichelles, or ladders, are 
of two kinds: lai'iie and small. The 
small ladders are used to descend into 
the ditches of fortified places, and the 
large ones for scaling the walls, txc. 
See Scaling Ladders. 

Echelle, Fr. any spot or place of 

trade in the Mediterranean, is so called 
by the French. 

' EJCHELLES, Fr. President Fauchet 
in his Book 11, de In tnilicc et des armies, 
tells us, that by this word were meant 
several troops of horse. Each ichelle 
had a particular standard with the motto 
and armorials of its captain. 

EUIEIJ.FTTE, Fr. a small ladder. 

ECHELON, from iehelon, Fr. the 
Step of a ladder. A position in military 
tactics, where each division follows the 
preceding one, like the steps of a ladder; 
and is convenient for removing from a 
direct to an oblique, or diagonal line. 
When troops advance in echelon, they 
almost invariably adopt the ordinary 
lime. Hence to march in iehelon, may 
not improperly be said to approach to- 
wards any given object by a gradual 

Echelon movements and positions are 
not only necessary and applicable to the 
immediate attacks and retreats of great 
bodies, but also to the previous oblique 
or direct changes of situation, which a 
battalion, or a more considerable corps 
already formed in line, may be obliged 
to make to the front or rear, or on a 
particular fixed division of the line. 

The oblique changes are produced by 
the wheel less than the quarter circle of 
divisions from line which places them 
in the echelon situation. The direct 
changes are produced by the perpendi- 
cular and successive march of divisions 
from line to front, or rear. See Infan- 
try Regulation!*, p. 105. 
"j-J/t KCHIQUIER, Fr. alternately. 

Fdire la retraite en Echiquier, Fr. 
to retreat by alternate companies, &c 

ECIIOUER, Fr. to fail in an under- 
taking, or enterprize. 

ECLAIRCIlL Fr. to thin. Hence to 
thin the ranks by cannon-shot, or mus- 

Eclaircjr des armeSy Fr. to polish 
arms, or make them bright. 

tion ; explanation. 

Ofjicier a Eclaircissement, Fr. a 
quarrelsome officer. 

ECLAIRER, Fr. according to the 
translator of the French military tac- 
tics, signifies to keep an eye on, to 
natch, to observe. It literally means to 

Eclaieee vne marche, Fr. to detach, 

E C L 

( 185 ) 


xn front of an army, small or large de- 
tachments of troops, who are preceded 
by sharp-shooters or light infantry, for 
the purpose of ascertaining the position 
of the enemy, &c. 

Eclairer ce que font des assicges, Fr. 
to throw inflammable halls or pots filled 
with combustibles into the works of a 
fortified place, for the purpose of know- 
ins; the strength of a garrison, &c. 

Eclairer une truncate, Fr. to throw 
balls of fire, &c. towards the trenches of 

an enemy, in order to discover what the i let put of a sluice or dam. 
operations of the besiegers are during! ECLUSES, Fr. See Sluices. 
the night. ECOLES a" artillerie, Fr. military 

ECLAIREUR, Fr. according to the schools, where the pupils are taught every 
translator of the French military tactics/ thing that relates to the profession of 
a trooper, a flanker. arms: whether they be officers, cadets, 

ECLAIREURS, Fr. a corps of gre- or private soldiers, 
nadiers raised by Bonaparte, when chief; Ecoles du genie, Fr. military schools 
consul of France, for the immediate pro- for the education of engineers. Before 
tection of Paris. I an officer can be admitted he must have 

ECLAT, IV. shew; gorgeous appear- [attended the several lectures, and have 

fosse of a fortified place or town; par 
ticularly so when a river may happen to 
run close under the glacis. This is the 
case at Gravelines, where there is a pro- 
visional sluice in the covert- way, op- 
posite to the royal bastion, by which any 
quantity of water can be brought into 
the ditch from the river Aa. 

Ecltjse quarree, Fr. a dam, or sluice, 
which has one floodgate, whose doors 
shut squarewise. 

ECLUSEE, Fr. the water which is 


Eclat de bois, Fr. a shiver of wood. 

Eclat de pierre, Fr. a shard of stone. 

Eclat d'annes, Fr. clang of arms. 

ECLOPPES, a French military term, 
to express those soldiers who, though 
invalided, are yet well enough to follow 
the army. Among these may be classed 
dragoons, or horsemen, whose horses get 
suddenly lame, and cannot keep up with 
the troop or squadron. They always 
march in the rear of a column. 

ECLUSE a tambour, Fr. a dam, or 
sluice, which fills and empties jtself by 
means of two arched drains. 

Ecluse d, vannes, Fr. a dam, or sluice, 
which fills and empties itself by means 
of floodgates. 

Ecluse en eperons, Fr. a dam, or 
sluice, whose double floodgates join each 

Ecluse de chcisse et de fuite, Fr. two 
sluices by means of which water is 
brought in and carried out of fortified 
places from the sea. When the water 
runs in, it flows through what is called 
the ecluse de chasse, and when it runs 
out, it does so from the ecluse de t'uite. 
Sluices of this kind run under the town 
of Calais, from the sea-side to the out- 
ward ditch. 

Ecluse de decharge, Fr. a dam, or 
sluice, where the back-water is kept, or 
let oat, for the purpose of filling, or 
emptying any ditch or fosse, &c 

Ecluse provisionnelle, Fr. a sluice 
which serves to inundate, or fill up, the 

undergone a general examination upon 
mathematics, the art of drawing, tracing 
plans of military architecture, of defence, 
attack, &c. &c. See School. 

ECOLIER, Fr. a student; a scholar. 
The French say figuratively, Ce general 
a fait une faute d' ecolier, that general 
has acted with great incapacity; literally 
like a school-boy. 

ECONOMY, in a military sense, im- 
plies the minutiae, or interior regulations 
of a regiment, troop, or company. Hence 
regimental economy. 

ECORCER, Fr. to impose upon. 

ECORE, Fr. steep shore. Cote en 
ecore signifies a very steep descent. 

ECORNIFLEUR, Fr. a sponger. 

ECOT, Fr. scot; club; company; 
reckoning. The French say, Vuyer bien 
son ecot, to be a lively companion, to 
make a society merry. 

ECOUER, Fr. to crop; to dock; to 
cut short. 

ECOUE, Fr. crop-tailed. 

ECOUPE, Fr. a broom, such as is 
used by pioneers. It is also called Balui. 

ECOUTE, Fr- a private place for 
listening; such as is generally found at- 
tached to public offices where persons 
are examined. 

Etre mix ECOUTES, Fr. to he on 
itie watch. 

Ecoutes, Fr. small galleries made at 
equal distances in front of the glacis, 
of the fortifications of a place, the whole 
of which correspond with a gallery pa- 
rallel to the covei t-wav : they serve to 
2 B 


annoy the enemy's miners and to inter- 
rupt them in their work. 

ECOUVETTE, Fr. a brush. 

ECOUVILLON, Fr. a manikin or 
drag; the spungc marie use of to clean 
and to cool the inside of a cannon, w hen 
it has been discharged. 

ECOUVJLLONER, Fr. to dean, or 

cool a piece of" ordnance. 

ECRETER, Fr. CO batter or fire at 
the top of a wall, redoubt, epaulement, 
&c. so as to dislodge or drive away the 
men that may be stationed behind it, in 
order to render the approach more easy. 
fScriter /cs point es des palissadeS, to blunt 
the sharp ends of the palisades. This 
ought always to be done before you attack 
the covert-way, which is generally fenced 
by them. 

ECRIN, Fr. a jewel-box. 
ECRIRE en chiffrcs, Fr. a particular 
method of writing in certain figures, 
marks, &c. upon interesting matters 
which must be kept secret. The present 
telegraph is a kind of writing in figures, 
and was much in use amongst the Per- 
sians, Greeks, Egyptians, Tyrians, and 

ECROU, Fr. the nut of a screw. It 
likewise signifies the jailor's book. Hence 
the, term ccrouc. 

ECROUE, (soldat, Fr.) a soldier that 
was confined and reported as such dur- 
ing the old French monarchy. When this 
happened by the command of his officer 
he could not be removed to another 
place of confinement in consequence of 
any sentence of a civil court. With us 
Jill military regulations are subordinate 
to civil law. 

ECROULEMENT, Fr. the decay or 
Fall of the earth, or mason-work, belong- 
ing to a rampart, which is occasioned 
by the waste of time, or by the force of 

ECU, Fr. a large shield which was 
used by the ancients, and carried on 
their left arms, to ward olF the blows of 
a sword or sabre. This instrument of 
defence was originally invented by the 
Samnites. The Moors had ecus or shields, 
sufficiently large to cover the whole of 
their bodies. The clipei of the Romans, 
only differ from the ecu in shape; the 
former being entirely round, and the 
latter oval. 

Ecu de campagne, Fr. a certain sum 
of money which is given to the cavalry 
during one hundred and fifty days that 
the troops are in winter-quarters. 

( 186 ) EDU 

EDGE, the thin, or cutting part, of* 
sword or sabre. 

EDICT. See Proclamation. 
EDUCATION, in a military sense, 
implies the training up of youth to the 
art of war. The first object to be con- 
sidered is, whether nature has given the 
voung man the talents necessary for the 
profession, or not ; for here sense, parts, 
courage, and judgment, are required in 
a very eminent degree. The natural 
qualities of an officer are, a robust con- 
stitution, a noble open countenance, a 
martial genius, fire to produce activity, 
phlegm to moderate his transports, and 
patience to support the toils and fatigues 
of war, almost without seeming to feel 
them. Acquired qualities of an officer 
consist in moral virtues and sciences; by 
the first is meant a regular good con- 
duct, economy, prudence, and a serious 
application to what regards the service. 
Military sciences indispensably demand 
the reading of ancient and modern hii- 
torians; a good knowledge of military 
mathematics, and the study of the chief 
languages of Europe. 

It is in ancient authors we find all 
that is excellent, either in politics or war: 
the make and form of arms are changed 
since the invention of gunpowder; but 
the science of war is always the same. 
On one side, history instructs us by ex- 
amples, and furnishes us with proofs, of 
the beautiful maxims of virtue and wis- 
dom, which morality has taught us: it 
gives us a kind of experience, before- 
hand, of what we are to do in the world ; 
it teaches us to regulate our life, and to 
conduct ourselves with wisdom; to dis- 
trust mankind; ever to conduct ourselves 
with integrity and probity, never to do a 
mean action : and to measure grandeur 
with the level of reason, that we may 
despise it, when it becomes dangerous, 
or ridiculous. 

On the other band, history serves to 
give us a knowledge of the universe, 
and the different nations which inhabit 
it; their religions, their governments, 
their interests, their commerce, their 
politics, and the law of nations. It shews 
us the origin of the illustrious houses 
who have reigned in the world, and given 
birth to those who still subsist. 

The knowledge of military mathema- 
tics regards the operations of war in 
general; every thing there consists in 
proportion, measure and motion : it 
treats of marches, encampments, battles, 

E F F 

( 187 ) 

E L M 

-Artillery, fortification, lines, sieges, mines, 
ammunition, provisions, fleets, and every 
thing which relates to war; but no just 
notion can be acquired without geometry, 
natural philosophy, mechanics, military 
architecture, and the art of drawing. 

The study of languages is most useful 
to an officer, and he feels the necessity 
of it, in proportion as he rises to higher 
employments. Thus the Latin, German, 
and French languages are very necessary 
for an English oflicer; as are the English, 
French, and Italian, for a German. 

EEL-backed hor'scs, such as have black 
lists along their backs. 

EFFAUTAGE, Fr. refuseship-timber. 

EFFECTIONS (in geometry) some- 
times signify geometrical constructions, 
sometimes problems, so far as they are 
reducible from general propositions. 

EFFECTS, the goods of a merchant, or 
tradesman. Also the goods and property 
belonging to a deceased officer, or soldier. 

EFFECTIVE, (effectif, Fr.) fit for 
service; as an army of 30,000 effective 
(fighting) men. 

Effective, a word used in military 
returns, signifying the actual and bond 
fide presence of an officer, or soldier. 

Homme EFFECTIF, Fr. a man of his 

EFFEMINATE, (efimin'e, Fr.) ad- 
dicted to excessive pleasure, sloth and 
luxury, all of which are detrimental to 
military courage. Such were the real 
causes of the decay and fall of the Ro- 
mans: the relaxation was universal among 
the civil, the military and the body poli- 
tic : discipline had raised them to the 
highest pitch of glory and splendour, 
whilst riches became their ruin. The 
Roman soldiers with their eagles, their 
bracelets, clasps of solid gold, &c. were 
less great than the former adventurers, 
the soldiers of Romulus, carrying a bundle 
of hay on their pikes. 

EFFORT du canon, Fr. the effect or 
impression made by a piece of ordnance. 

EFFRON ORE, >'r. burst open ; thrust 
through, &c. 

Chemin ErFRONDRfe, Fr. a way full of 
holes, or miry sloughs, ike. 

EFFRONDRER une parte, Fr. to 
burst open a door. 

EFFRONTERY, boldness, impudence, 
malapertness, sanciness; the opposite to 
teal digiiiried courage and intrepidity, 
which are modest and unassuming, with- 
out descending to meanness, or pusillani- 

EGORGER, Fr. to cut the throat; 
to slaughter. 

EGOUT, Fr. a drain ; a sewer. It 
also signifies the spout at the gable end, 
from which the water runs oft' the roofs 
of houses. 

EGRFGII, persons among the ancient 
Romans, who, by military exploits, ob- 
tained the government of a province. 

EGUILLETTES, shoulder-knots. See 
Nceuds d'epaules,S)-c. 

ELANCE, Fr. thin; lank. 

Cherval Elance, Fr. a horse back- 

To ELANCE, to throw darts, &c. 

S'ELANCER, Fr. to dart, to rush 
forward; to go with violence. S'ilancer 
parmi lea ennemis, to rush into the thick- 
est of the enemy. 

ELDER battalion. A battalion is 
counted elder than another, by the time 
since it was raised. See Seniority. 

Elder officer, he whose commission 
bears the oldest date. See Seniority. 

ELEMKNTS, (ilanens, Fr.) the first 
rudiments of an art, or a science. 

ELEPHANTS, (iliphans, Fr.) ani- 
mals well known among Eastern nations 
who employ them in their armies. 

ELEVATION, (elevation, Fr.) in gun- 
nery, that comprehended between the 
horizon and the line of direction of either 
cannon, or mortar; or it is that which 
the chace of a piece, or the axis of its 
hollow cylinder, makes with the plane of 
the horizon. 

Elkvation, (elevation, Fr.) In a mili- 
tary sense, with regard to plans, or draw- 
ings, of fortification, elevation signifies 
the representation of a work when com- 

ELF- allows, flint stones sharpened 
and jagged, like arrow heads, used iu 
war by the ancient Britons. 

ELITE de tronpes,Er. the chosen troop 
of an army. We have adopted the term. 

ELLIPSIS, an oval figure made by 
the section of a cone, by a plane, divid- 
ing both sides of a cone: and though 
not parallel to the base, yet meeting with 
the base when produced; a defect; a 

ELM is of peculiar use in water 
works, nulls, ladles, and soles of wheel 
pipes, aqueducts, pales, and ship planks 
beneath the water-line. Some of this 
wood, which has been found in bogs, hag 
turned like the most polished and the 
haidest ebony. 

Elm is of great use to wheel-wrights. 
g B2 

E M B 

( 188 ) 


It serves to make handles for single 
saws; the knotty parts for naves and 
nubbs; the straight and smooth for axle- 
trees; and the very roots for curiously 
dappled works, kerbs of coppers, feather- 
edge, and weather-board*, trunks, cof- 
fins, and shovel board tables. The 
tenor of the grain makes it also fit for 
all kinds of carved work, and for most 
ornaments belonging to architecture. 

Vitruvius particularly recommends it 
for tenons ami mortoises. 

ELOIGNEMENT permu «u soldat, 
Fr. the bounds, or limits, within which a 
soldier is allowed to walk for hi* amuse- 

ELOIGNER I'ennemi, Fr. to oblige 
an enemy to quit his position, by giving 
him battle, aud thus forcing him to re- 

EMANCIPATION, (emancipation, 
Fr.) the act of setting free. 

.S'EMANCIPER, Fr. to emancipate 
one's- ?elf, or to regain what has been 
unjustly taken from us ; figuratively, to 
take too much liberty. 

EMARGEMENT, Fr. the act of 
putting any thing down upon the margin 
of a paper; the casting up of a balance. 

EMARGER, Fr. to put down upon 
the margin. 

EMBARGO, a prohibition for any 
ships to leave a port: generally enforced 
on the rupture of any two or more na- 

EMBARKATION, the act of putting 
troops on board of ship, when destined 
to be conveyed on an expedition. 

In arranging and proportioning the 
ordnance carriages, with all their appro- 
priate stores and ammunition, great 
judgment and experience are requisite, 
not only for the purpose of embarking 
the stores systematically, but also that 
the transports may be loaded and put in 
proper trim for sea, aud especially when 
heavy guns, shot and shells are on board. 
More than ordinary care is then neces- 
sary in raising the dead weight by means 
of dunnage to a height sufficient to pre- 
vent the vessel from being stranded or 
labouring at sea in bad weather. 

EMBARRAS, Fr. embarrassment; 
trouble; perplexity; a cheval de frise. 

Vent rf'EMBAS, Fr. the western wind. 
■ EMBASEMENT, Fr. a continued 
basis, or bottom laid at the foot of a 

EMBASER, Fr. to give a basis, or 
hottoro to any thing. 

into battalions, as is the case when the 
grenadiers, or light companies, are taken 
from their respective regiments and cast 
into separate battalions. 

I'M HATER, -Fr. to put on a pack- 

EMBATONNE, Fr. armed with 
cudgels, as mobs generally are. 

EM BATTAG E, Fr. the covering of 
the streaks, or fellies of a wheel. 

EMBATTIS, Ft. the easterly winds, 
which generally prevail about the dog 

EMBATTLE. See BATihz-array. 

EMBATTRE, Fr. to cover the fellies 
of a wheel with bars of iron. 

Embattrb les bandages des roues, Fr. 
to nail or fasten the streaks unto wheels* 

EMBAUCHAGE, Fr. the act of se- 
ducing away from any thing; as a soldier 
from the regiment, &c. 

EM B AUCHER, Fr. to persuade young 
men to enlist. 

EMBAUCIIEUR, Fr. a term which 
corresponds w ith crimp ; what we vul- 
garly term a decoy. 

EM BEZZLIN G, \ the act of ap- 

EMBEZZLEMENT, S propriating,bj 
breach of trust; which, with respect to 
military stores, is punishable by the 
A rticles of War, but not at the discretion 
of a general court-martial, as the offender 
must be sentenced to be casfiiered. 

EMBLEE, Fr. a prompt, sudden, and 
vigorous attack made against the covert- 
way and out-works of a fortified place. 
This military operation is executed by 
means of a rapid march, and an unex- 
pected appearance before a town, fol- 
lowed by an instantaneous assault upon 
the out-posts of the enemy; who is there- 
by thrown into so much confusion, that 
the assailants force their way at the same 
time, and endeavour to get possession of 
the town. 

Insulter t/'EMBL^E, Fr. to insult a 
place with promptitude and vigour. 

EMBOITEMENT, Fr. the closing up 
of a number of men, in order to secure 
the front rank from any injury they might 
sustain by the firing of the rear. 

EMBOITER, Fr. to lock up, to joint, 
to let in. It is used in the artillery to 
signify the fastening of a piece of ord- 

EMBOITURE, Fr. an iron box 
scresved over the nave of the wheels, 
and which go vers the axle-tree; also a 

E M E 

( 189 ) 

E M P 

EMBOLON, Fr. a military disposi- 
tion of troops, which was used among 
the ancients, for the purpose of present- 
ing a narrow front. The shape was that 
of a salient angle on the center. 

EMBOUCHER, Fr. to bit a horse. 

S'Emboucher, Fr. to discharge, as a 
river does. 

EMBOUCHOIR, Fr. a boot-tree; 
boot last. 

EMBOUCHURE, Fr. the mouth of 
a river; a horse's bit; mouth piece; 
socket. ( 

Embouchure du canon, Fr. the muzzle 
of a cannon. According to Belidor this 
word is improperly applied to the mouth 
of a cannon. It should be bouche du 

EMBRANCHEMENS, Fr. pieces of 
timber belonging to the roof of a house. 

EMBRASER, Fr. to set fire to. 

EMBRASSER, Fr. to comprehend; 
to embrace; to encompass. 

EMBRASSURE, Fr. a piece of iron, 
which grasps the trunnions of a piece of 
ordnance, when it is raised upon the 
boring machine, to widen its calibre. 

EMBRASURE, in fortification, an 
opening, hole, or aperture in a parapet, 
through which cannon is pointed to fire 
at the enemy. Embrasures are gene- 
rally made from 10 to 12 feet distant 
from one another, every one of them 
being from 6 to 9 feet wide without, 
and 2 or c 2\ within : their height above 
the platform is 1\ or 3 feet towards the 
town, and 1^ foot on the other side to- 
wards the held, so that the muzzle of 
the piece may be sunk occasionally, and 
brought to fire low. See Battery. 

EMBRIGADER, Fr. to brigade. See 

EMBROCHER, Fr. a vulgar term 
Hsed among French soldiers, to signify 
the act of running a man through the 
body — literally, to spit him. 


S'EMBUSQUER, Fr. to lie in am- 

EMERILLON, Fr. a merlin, or small 
piece of brass, or cast iron, which does 
not exceed a pound weight. 

EMERY, a ground iron ore : each 
British soldier is allowed a certain quan- 
tity for cleaning his arms. 

Emery, oil, and brickdust or crocus, 
articles used by soldiers to keep their 
firelocks in constant good order; and for 
which a limited half yearly allowance, 
not exceeding 2s. 9d. per annum, is paid 

through the ordnance to the captains of 
troops and companies. 

EMEUTE, Mr. insurrection. 

who have quitted their native country, 
either from cowardice, or from civil and 
religious persecution. 

EMILLES, Fr. stones and shards 
rough hewn and squared only, to fill up 
the massy parts of a wall. 

EMINENCE, high or rising ground, 
which overlooks and commands the low 
places about it. Such places, within 
cannon-shot of any fortified place, are a 
great disadvantage ; for if the besiegers 
become masters of them, they can thence 
fire into the place. 

EMIR, a title or surname which the 
Mahometaus give to all persons who are 
presumed to be the immediate, or colla- 
teral, descendants of Mahomet. This 
title is very much respected by the in- 
habitants of that part of the world, and 
authorizes the bearer to wear the green 
turban. When emir is connected with 
another term, it becomes an official one, 
and signifies, among the Turks, a com- 

EMIRALEM, (gonfalonier, Fr.) the 
general of the Turks, or keeper of all 
their colours; he marches immediately 
before the Grand Signor. 

EMISSARY, (emissaire, Fr.) a person 
sent by any power that is at war with 
another, for the purpose of creating dis- 
affection among the subjects of the latter, 
of obtaining intelligence, &c. in other 
words, a spy. 

EMMAGASINER, Fr. to store; to 
lay up. 

EMMANCHEUR, Fr. a hafter. 

EMMORTAISER, Fr. to mortoise. 

EMOUCHETTE, Fr. a horse-cloth, 
or net, to keep off flies. 

EMOLUMENTS, (imolumens, Fr.) 
perquisites ; fair profits. Every general, 
and other public officer, if men of ho- 
nour, ought to be satisfied with the emolu- 
ments allowed them. Whatsoever they 
get beyond, is injurious to the state and 
to the nation. 

EMOUSSER, IV. to blunt, to dull. 
In a military sense, it signifies to take off 
the four corners of a battalion, which 
has formed a square, and to give it, by 
those means, an octagon figure; from 
the different obtuse angles of which it 
may fire in all directions. 

EMPAILLER, Fr. to pack up i» 

E M P 

( 190 ) 

E N C 

EMPALE. See Fortify. 

lb Empale, (empaler, Fr.) to put to 
death by spitting on a stake fixed up- 

EMPANACHER, Fr. to plume; to 
adorn with feathers ; as empanacher une 

EMPANONS, Fr. See Chevrons du 

S'EMPARER, Fr. to take possession. 
Semparer d'unc eminence, to take pos- 
session of a height. 

EMPASTING, in painting, the act of 
laying on colours thick and bold ; or of 
applying several lays of colours, to the 
end that they may appear thick. 

EMPATT EMENT, in fortification. 
See Talus. 

EMPATURE, Fr. joining together. 

EMPEIGNE, Fr. the upper leather 
of a shoe; the vamp. 

EMPEROR, (empcreur, Fr.) a title 
given to the Sovereigns of Germany. It 
is derived from the Latin imperator, and 
signifies the chief in command. The 
term is, however, variously used ; for 
although empire means a certain extent 

EMPLACEMENT, Fr. the spot 
upon which a body of armed men is 

EMPLOIS militaires, Fr v military em- 
ployments, such as commissions, &c. in 
the armv. jT 

EMPLOYES, Fr. peflbns employed 
in the service, to supply the .necessary 
subsistence, ike. for an army. Of this 
description are commissaries, purvey- 
ors, &c. 

Petty EMPTIONARY, a contract 
term used by the Board of Ordnance, 
signifying the purchase of small stores. 

EMPRISE. See Expedition. 

EMULATION, a noble jealousy, with- 
out the slightest tincture of envy, where- 
bv gentlemen endeavour to surpass each 
other in the acquisition of military know- 

EN AMBUSH. See Ambush. 

ENCAMPMENT, the pitching of a 
cam p. See Camp. 

In the Regulations published by Au- 
thority, are particularly enjoined the fol- 
lowing points: 

Attentions relative to Encampments. 

of country, which comprehends several On the arrival of a brigade or a bat 
provinces, and many different states, and talion, on the ground destined for its 
ahould consequently give the honorary 
title of emperor to its principal chief, 
there are instances in which the person 
SO invested is only called king. Hence 
the British empire is under the chief 
magistracy of George the Third, King, 
&c. It is, in fact, more suitable to a 
military government, than to one, whose 
vital formation consists of a happy mix- 
ture of King, Lords and Commons. 

EMPIETER, Fr, to take advantage of. 

Empieter sur I' enncmi, Fr. to take 
advantage of the enemy. 

EMPLLEMENT, Fr. from emptier, 
to pile up; the act of disposing balls, 
grenades, and shells, in the most secure 
and convenient manner. This generally 
occurs in arsenals and citadels. 

EMPIUANCE, Fr. deficiency of coin. 

EMPIRE, (empire,Fr.) imperial power; 
supreme dominion; sovereign command; 
also command over any thing. The 
French say, avee empire, imperiously. 

L'Empire des lettres, Fr. the com- 
monwealth of the learned, or the em- 
pire which the only valuable aristocracy 
(that of talents) is supposed to possess 
over mankind; and which seldom exists, 
except in the posthumous works of neg- 
lected worth and genius. 

camp, the quarter and rear guards of 
the respective regiments will immedi- 
ately mount; and when circumstances 
require them, the advanced piquets will 
be posted. The grand guards of ca- 
valry will be formed, and the horses 
picketed. The men's tents will then 
be pitched, and till this duty is com- 
pleted, the officers are on no account to 
quit their troops, or companies, or to 
employ any soldier for their own accom- 

Privies are to be made in the most 
convenient situations, and the utmost 
attention is required in this, and every 
other particular, to the cleanliness of the 

If circumstances will allow the ground 
on which a regiment is to encamp to b« 
previously ascertained, the pioneers 
should make these and other essential 
conveniences, before the corps arrives at 
its encampment. 

Whenever a regiment remains more 
than one night in a camp, regular kitch- 
ens are to be constructed. 

No tents, or huts, are to be allowed in 
front of, or between, the intervals of the 
battalions. A spot of ground for this 
purpose should be marked by the quar- 


( 191 ) 


ter-master, with the approbation of the 
commanding officer. 

On arriving in a camp which is inter- 
sected by hedges, and ditches, unequal or 
boggy ground, regiments will immedi- 
ately make openings of communication, 
of 60 feet in width. 

The ground in front of the encamp- 
ment is to be cleared, and every obstacle 
to the movement of the artillery and 
troops is to be removed. 

Commanding officers of regiments 
must take care, that their communication 
with the nearest grand route be open, and 
free from any impediments. 

ENCAST* ELE, Fr. hoof-bound. 

ENC ASTELURE, Fr. the being hoof- 

ENCASTRER, Fr. to interlace one 
stone within another. 

ENCEINTE, in fortification, is the 
interior wall or rarnpart which surrounds 
a place, sometimes composed of bastions 
or curtains, either faced or lined with 
brick or stone, or only made of earth. 
The enceinte is sometimes only flanked 
by round, or square, towers, which is 
called a Roman wall. 

ENCHEVAUCHURE, Fr. the junc- 
tion of one thing with another, as of 
tiles or slate in covering houses. 

ENCLAVE. Fr. bound, or boundary; 

ENCLAVER, Fr. in carpentry, to 
mortoise, or set one thing within another; 
as the ends of beams and rafters are in a 

Enclaver, Fr. also generally to en- 

ENCLOS, Fr. any wall which sur- 
rounds a magazine, or garden, is so 

ENCLOSURE. This word is used 
in epistolary correspondence and official 
communications to signify any paper 
which is enclosed in another. The 
French use the word sous-enveloppe, i. e. 
under cover. 

ENCLOUER k canon, Fr. to spike 
the cannon. See To Nail. 

ENCLOUEURE, Fr. this term is used 
in the artillery, to signify the actual 
state and condition of any thing that has 
been spiked. 

Encloueure, Fr. a prick in a horse's 

ENCLUME, Fr. an anvil. 

ENCOIGNURE, Fr. the gable ends 
of a building. 

ENCOLURE, Fr. the chest of a horse. 

ENCOMBRER, Fr. in fortification, 
to fill up any hollow space, such as a 
stagnant lake, &c. with rubbish. 

thing built beyond the wall, as a buttress. 

ENCOUNTERS, in military affairs, 
are combats, or fight*, between two 
persons only. Battles, or attacks bj 
iarge or small armies are figuratively so 
called. The Marquis de Feuquieres men- 
tions four instances of particular en- 
counters brought on by entire armies, 
with a design to create a general en- 

ENCOURAGE. See Animate. 

ENCOURAGEMENT, (encourage- 
ment, Fr.) excitement to action, &c. 

ENCROACHMENT, the advance- 
ment of the troops of one nation on the 
rights or limits of another. 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA, (encyclopedic, 
Fr.) the whole circle of sciences ; also 
a title given to some elaborate works, 
such as tli* Encycloptdie Methodique in 
France, and Encyclopaedia in England 
and Scotland ; to which works we refer 
our readers for a fuller detail of many 
scientific articles that are slightly touched 
upon in this compilation. 

ENDECAGON, a plain figure of 11 
sides and 11 angles. 

ENDORMI, Fr. asleep. Soldat en- 
dormi, a soldier asleep on guard. See 
the Articles of War, which direct that 
any sentinel who is found asleep during 
the period of his duty, shall be punished 
with death. 

ENDUIT, Fr. a composition which 
is made of plaster, lime, or sand, or of 
lime and cement to cover the outside of 

ENDURCI, Fr. hardened ; enured. 

Endurci, ou fait a la fatigue, Fr. 
hardy; enured to hardships. 

ENEMY, (ennemi, Fr.) In a compre- 
hensive meaning, this term signifies any 
power, or potentate, with whom we are 
at war, together with his subjects, by 
sea and land ; it also includes his allies, 
all persons adhering to and favouring 
his cause and undertaking; his troops, 
the inhabitants of his cities and tillages. 
It more particularly applies to armed 
bodies of men that are acting against 
each other. 

ENFANS perdus, Fr. forlorn hope, 
which consists of soldiers detached from 
several regiments, or otherwise appointed 
to give the first onset in battle, or in an 
attack upon the counterscarp, or the 

E N F 

( 19* ) 

E N G 

breach of a place besieged; so called 
(by the French) because of the imminent 
danger to which they are exposed. 

S'ENFERRER, Fi . to run upon an 
adversary's sword. 

ENFILADE, in fortification, is used 
in speaking of trenches, or other places, 
which may be scoured by the enemy's 
shot alon<? their whole length. In con- 
ducting the approaches at a siege, care 
must be taken that the trenches be not 
enfiladed from any work of the place. 
See Trenches. 

To Enfilade, is to sweep the whole 
length of any work, or line of troous, 
with the shot of artillery or small arms. 

ENFILER, IV. t» enfilade; to batter 
and sweep with cannon-shot, the whole 
extent of a straight line. 

tfENFILER, Fr. to expose yourself 
to the enemy's fire by being posted with- 
in reach of his point blank shot; or by 
getting into narrow passes, whence you 
can with difficulty retreat, after having 
sustained a galling discharge of musketry. 

ENFORCEMENT, Fr. the depth of 
the foundations of any building or struc- 

ENFONCER, Fr. to break ; to throw 
into disorder by piercing the ranks ot a 
battalion, &c. 

Enfoncer, Fr. to break open; to 
thrust in ; to sink ; to rout. 

Enfoncer un butuit/on, Fr. to throw 
a battalion into disorder by forcibly 
breaking through its ranks. 

Enfoncer un escadron, Fr. to break 
through a squadron. 

Enfoncer les rungs, Fr. to break the 
line, or to throw the ranks of an armed 
bodv into confusion. 

■yENFONCER, IV. to rush into ; to push 
forward with impetuosity. 

Enfoncer une parte ouverte, Fr. a 
figurative expression, signifying to make 
much of nothing. 

ENFONCEUR de partes ouvertes, Fr. 
a great talker; a vaunter; a boaster of 
feats which are inconsiderable. 

ENFONCER les ennemis, Fr. to 
plunge into the thickest of a body of 
armed men, who are combating against 

EXFOLTR, IV. to hide, or bury in 
the ground; as 

Enfouir ses talens, Fr. to hide one's 
talents, not to exert them. 

ENFOURCHEMENT, Fr. the first 
declivities of the angles in Gothic vaults, 
whose voussoirs are diagonalvvise. 

ENGAGEMENT, Fr. See Enlist- 

ENGAGEMENT. See Battle. 

ENGAGER une affaire, Fr. to bring 
the enemy to a general engagement, by 
having previously attacked him in a va- 
riety of ways. 

Engager le combat, Fr. to bring to 
action ; to force another to fight. 

Engager un soldat, Fr. to enlist a 

^'Engager, Fr. to enlist one's-self; 
also to promise, to pass one's word ; also 
to be security. 

^Engager dans un parti, Fr. to join 
or side with any particular party, or fac- 

To ENGARRISON, to protect any 
place by a garrison. 

ENGERBER, Fr. to place barrels of 
gunpowder in a magazine in rows, one 
over the other. 

ENGINE, (engin, Fr.) a machine 
which is used for lifting up stones or 
beams in building houses. 

Engines, in military mechanics, are 
compound machines, made of one or 
more mechanical powers, as levers, pul- 
lies, screws, &c. in order to raise, pro- 
ject, or sustain, any weight, or produce 
any effect which could not be easily ef- 
fected otherwise. 

Engine to drive fuzes consists of a 
wheel with a handle to it, to raise a cer- 
tain weight, and to let it fall upon the 
driver, by which the strokes become 
more equal. 

Engine to draw fuses has a screw 
fixed upon a three-legged stand, the bot- 
tom of which has a ring to place it upon 
the shell; and at the end of the screw 
is fixed a hand-screw, by means of a col- 
lar, which being screwed on the fuze, by 
turning the upper screw, draws out or 
raises the fuze. 

Engin a verge, also called in ancient 
time, engin a verge et bombardes, a pro- 
jectile machine which was served with 
cannon, and which remained in use after 
several other warlike machines had been 
laid aside. 

ENGINEER, commonly applied to 
an officer who is appointed to inspect 
and contrive any attacks, defences, ccc. 
of a fortified place, or to build or repair 
them, 6cc. 

The art of fortification is an art which 
stands in need of so many others, and 
whose object is so extensive, and its ope- 
rations accompanied with so many vari- 

E N G 

( 19S ) 

E N G 

<*us circumstances, that it is almost im- 
possible for a man to make himself mas- 
ter of it by experience alone; even sup- 
posing him born with all the advantages 
of genius and disposition possible for the 
knowledge and practice of that import- 
ant art. We do not pretend to deny 
that experience is of greater efficacy 
than all the precepts in the world; but 
it has likewise its inconveniences as well 
as its advantages; its fruits are of slow 
growth; and whoever is content with 
pursuing only that method of instruc- 
tion, seldom knows how to act upon 
emergencies of all kinds, because old 
age incapacitates him from exercising 
his employment. Experience teaches 
us, through the means of the errors we 
commit ourselves, what theory points 
out at the expense of others. The life 
of man being short, and opportunities 
of practice seldom happening, it is cer- 
tain nothing less than a happy genius, a 
great share of theory and intent appli- 
cation joined to experience, can make 
an engineer one day shine in his profes- 
sion. Whence it follows, that less than 
the three first of the four necessary qua- 
lities, should not be a recommendation 
for the reception of a young gentleman 
into the corps of engineers. 

The fundamental sciences, and those 
absolutely necessary, are arithmetic, ge- 
ometry, mechanics, hydraulics, and draw- 
ing. Without arithmetic it is impossible 
to make a calculation of the extent, and 
to keep an account of the disbursements 
made, or to be made; nor without ii 
can an exact computation be made upon 
any occasion whatsoever. 

Without geometry, it is impossible to 
lay down a plan, or map, with truth and 
exactness, or settle a draught of a forti- 
fication, or calculate the lines and angles, 
so as to make a just estimation, in or- 
der to trace them on the ground, and to 
measure the surface and solidity of their 

Mechanics teach us the proportions 
of the machines in use, and how to in- 
crease, or diminish, their powers as oc- 
casion may require; and likewise to 

ourselves in speaking,or writing, we can 
never give so perfect an idea as by an 
exact drawing; and often in fortification 
both are wanted ; for which reason the 
art of drawing is indispensably necessary 
for engineers. 

To the qualities above mentioned, 
must be added activity and vigilance, 
both which are absolutely necessary in 
all operations of war, but especially in 
the attack of such places as are in ex- 
pectation of succours. The besieged 
must have no time allowed them for 
consideration; one hour lost at such a 
juncture often proves irreparable. It is 
by their activity and vigilance, that en- 
gineers often bring the besieged to capi- 
tulate, much sooner than they wuuld have 
done, if those engineers had not pushed 
on the attack with firmness and resolu- 
tion. Want of vigilance and activity 
often proceed from irresolution, and that 
from weakness of capacity. 

As the office of an engineer requires 
great natural qualifications, much know- 
ledge, study, and application, it is but 
reasonable, that the pay should be pro- 
portioned to that merit which is to be 
the qualification of the person employed. 
It ought always to be remembered that 
he must be at an extraordinary expense 
in his education, and afterwards for 
books and instruments for his instruc- 
tion and improvement, as well as for 
many other things; and that he may 
be at liberty to pursue his studies with 
application, he must not be put to shifts 
for necessaries. It should likewise be 
considered, that if an engineer do his 
duty, be his station what it will, his fa- 
tigue must be very great; and, to dedi- 
cate himself wholly to that duty, he 
should be divested of all other cares. 

Amongst us the word engineer is of 
modern date, and was first used about 
the year 1650, when one Capt. Thomas 
Rudd had the title of chief engineer to 
the king. In 1600 the title given to en- 
gineers was trench-master; aud in 1622, 
Sir William Pelham, and after him Sir 
Francis Vere, acted as trench-masters 
in Flanders. In the year 1634, an engi- 

judge whether those which our own ima- neer was called camp-master-general, 
gination suggests to us, will answer in and sometimes engine-master; being al- 


Hydraulics teach us how to conduct 
-waters from one place to another, to 
keep them at a certain height, or to raise 
them higher. 

How fluently soever we may express 

ways subordinate to the master-general 
of the ordnance. 

At present the corps of lioyal Engi- 
neers in England, consists of 1 colonel 
in chief, 1 colonel en second, 3 colonels 
commandant, 6 colonels, 12 lieutenant- 


E N 11 

C 191 ) 


colonel 8 , 30 captains, 30 second cap- 
tains, 60 first, lieutenants, 30 second 
lieutenants, and 1 brigade major. 

The establishment of the corps of In- 
valid Engineer* comprises a colonel, 
2 lieutenant-colonels, 4 captains, 1 se- 
cond captain, first lieutenant and second 

The corps of Royal "Engineers in Ire- 
land consists of B director, colonel, lieu- 
tenant-colonel, major, captain, captain- 
lieutenant and captain, and two first lieu- 

ENGINERY, the act of managing 
artillery; also engim s of war. 

ENGORGEMENT, Fr. the stop- 
page of auv communication. 

ENG0R6ER, Fr. to fill up with 
combustible materials. This term is ap- 
plied to artificial fire-works. 

ENGUARD. See Guard. 

ENHARDIR, Fr. to embolden; to 
encourage ; as enkardir les soldats, to en- 
courage the soldiers. 

EN-JOUE, Fr. a word of command 
among the French, which corresponds 
with present in platoon firings. It lite- 
r.illv means to your cheek, 

ENLARGEMENT, the act of going, 
of" being allowed to go, beyond prescribed 
limits; as the extending the boundaries 
of an arrest, when the officer is said to 
be enlarged, or under arrest at large. 

ENLEV I'Alwiconvoi, un detachement, 
Fr. to take a convoy or detachment, by 
surprize, and in spite of any resistance 
which might be made. 

ENLIER, Fr. to fit; to fasten to- 

ENLISTMENT, the act of taking 
a bountv and enlisting for a soldier, on 
limited or unlimited service. 

I'NNEAGON, (enneagone, Fr.) in 
geometry or fortification, is a figure con- 
sisting of nine angles, and as many sides, 
capable of being fortified with the same 
number of bastions. 

ENRANK, to place in orderly or re- 
gular rows. 

ENRAYER, Fr. to put the spokes to 
awheel; to trig a wheel; to make the 
first furrow. 

ENRAYOIR, Fr. a trigger. 

ENRAYl/RE, Fr. the"first furrow. 
Fbr gun-trigger, see Detente. 

ENREGIMENTER, Fr. to enrol; to 
form several companies into a regiment. 

ENROCIIEMENT, Fr. the making 
marshy eronnd solid. 

ENROLLMENT, Fr. enrolment. 

This term, according to the military ac- 
ceptation of it in the French service, 
differs from the words engagement, en- 
listment, inasmuch as in some instances, 
the officer enrols or enli6ts a soldier 
without His-, consent ; whereas in others 
the soldier is enrolled, -after having de- 
clared that he voluntarily enlisted. 

Enrolement par urgent, Fr. the act 
of recruiting soldiers by means of boun- 


ENROLMENT, \ ee 1klist ed. 

ENROULEMENT, Fr. This term 
is applied to every thing which is made 
H ii h a spnal inclination. 

ENSANGLANTER, Fr. to make 
bloody; to imbrue; to bedrench in 


ENS( 'ONCE, to cover as with a fort. 

ENSEIGNE, ou porte enseigne, Fr. 
the colours, originally derived from the 
Latin word insignire. The French de- 
signate all warlike symbols under the 
term enseigne ; but they again distin- 
guish that word by the appellations of 
drapeaux, colours, and ctendui'ds, stand- 
ards. Drapeaux, or colours, are parti- 
cularly characteristic of the infantry; 
itendards, or standards, belong to the ca- 
valry. We make the same distinctions 
in our service. See Colours. 

Porte-ENSEIGNE, ou Porte-drapeau, 
Fr. This term is also used among the 
French, to signify the soldier who is en- 
trusted with the standard or colours, 
for the purpose of relieving the officer 

Enseigne de vaisseau, Fr. the low- 
est commissioned officer in the French 

ENSEMBLE, Fr. together; the exact 
execution of the same movements, per- 
formed in the same manner, and by the 
same motions; it is the union of all the 
men who compose a battalion, or se- 
veral battalions or troops of cavalry, 
who are to act as if put in motion by the 
same spring, both wings as well as the 
center. Upon the strict observation of 
this ensemble every success depends, but 
it is not to be acquired except by con- 
stant practice. 

Tout Ensemble fin architecture) of a 
building, the whole work and composi- 
tion considered together, and not in parts. 

ENSHIELD, to cover from the en- 

ExNSIFORM, having the shape of a 


( 195 ) 


ENSIGN, in the military art, a ban- 
ner, under which the soldiers are ranged 
according to the different regiments they 
belong to. See Colours. 

Ensign, or ensign- bearer, is an officer 
who carries the colours, being the lowest 
commissioned officer in a company of 
foot subordinate to the captain and lieu- 
tenant. The word ensign is very an- 
cient, being used both by the Greeks 
and Romans, and amongst both foot 
and horse. Ensigns belonging to the 
foot were either the common ones ot the 
whole legion, or the particular ones of 
the tuanipuli. The common ensign of the 
whole legion was an eagle of gold or 
silver, fixed on the top of a spear, hold- 
ing a thunderbolt in his talons, as ready 
to deliver it. That this was not pecu- 
liar to the Romans, is evident from the 
testimony of Xenophon, who informs 
us, that the royal ensign of Cyrus was 
a golden eagle spread over a shield, and 
fastened on a spear, and that the same 
was still used by the Persian kings. In 
the rustic age of Rome, the ensign was 
nothing more than a wisp of hay carried 
on a pole, as the word manipulus proper- 
ly signifies. The ensign of the horse was 
not solid, as the others, but consisted of 
a cloth, somewhat like our colours, dis- 
tended on a staff"; on which the names 
of the emperors were generally inscribed. 
The religious care the soldiers took of 
their ensigns was extraordinary : they 
worshipped them, swore by them, (as at 
present severalEuropenn powers do,) and 
incurred certain death if they lost them. 
The Turks and Tartars make use of 
horses tails for their ensigns, whose num- 
ber distinguishes the rank of their com- 
manders : for the sultan has 7, and the 
grand vizier only 3, &c. 

ENTABLATURE, (entablement, Fr.) 
a term used in civil architecture. It is 
that part which is supported by the co- 
lumn and the capital. The entablature 
is composed of three chief members, the 
architrave, the frize, and the cornice. 

ENTAME, Fr This word is applied 
to a person who has suffered any impu- 
tation, as Un officier entam'c, an officer 
upon whose character some imputation 

Se laisser Entamer, Fr. to bear a slur. 

ENTAMER une troupe, une armee, 
un ouvrage, Fr. to rout a body of armed 
men, to overthrow an army. It also 
means to destroy a work by blowing it 
up, or by battering it with cannon. 

Entamer des operations de guerre, 
Fr. to commence warlike operations. 

Entamer la pair, Fr. to make propo- 
sals of peace. 

ENTAMURE, Fr. the first cut. 

Entamures decarriercs, Fr. the rough 
pieces of stone which are taken out of a 
quarry, when first discovered. 

ENTASSER, Fr. to heap up. Fa- 
tasser les morts sur le champ de bataitle, 
to collect the dead on the field of bat- 
tle, previous to their being committed to 
the earth. 

ENTENDU, Fr. knowing; well per- 
formed ; skilful; ordered. 

ENTERPRISE, in military history, 
an undertaking attended with some ha- 
zard and danger. 

ENTERPRISER, an officer who un- 
dertakes or engages in any important 
and hazardous design. This kind of ser- 
vice frequently happens to the light in- 
fantry, light horse, and hussars. 

To ENTERTAIN, to receive for the 
purpose of taking into consideration; 
as to entertain a memorial. 

ENTERTAINMENT, an obsolete 
word signifying the state of being in pay, 
as soldiers or servants, &c. 

ENTHUSIASM, heat of imagination ; 
violence of passion; confidence of opi- 

Military Enthusiast, one of elevated 
fancy, or exalted ideas, who despises all 
domestic comfort, and sacrifices life either 
for a reputation in the breath of others, 
or from pure devotion to his king and 
country, as was the case of many of our 
bravest officers at the battle of Water- 

ENTIRE, (entier, Fr.) whole ; not 

Entire, or 7-ank Entire, a line of 
men side by side. When behind each 
other they are said to be in file. See In- 
dian files. 

ENTOISER, Fr. to collect raw, or 
coarse, materials together, such as shards, 
rubbish, &c. and to square them, so that 
they may be measured by the foot and 

ENTONNOIR,JV. the cavity, or hole, 
which remains alter the explosion of a 
mine. It likewise means the tin-case, or 
port-feu, which is used to convey the 
priming-powder into the touch-hole of a 
cannon. It also signifies a funnel. 

ENTORSE, Fr. a wrench ; a sprain. 

ENTOURS, Fr. the adjacent parts. 

ENTOURER, Fr. to surround; as 

2 C 2 

ENT ( 106 

Entourer Pennant, to surround the 

STENTR'ACCUSER, Fr. to accuse 
one another; to recriminate. 

S'ENTR'AIDER, Fr. to assist one 

ENTRAIN EH, Fr. to drag. The 
French say figuratively, 

Entrain er let souffruges du pcuple, 
Fr. to carry the votes of the people. 

Entuainer les cirurs, Fr. to gain over 
the hearts, or affections. 
ENTRAVER, Fr. to shackle. 
ENTRAVES, Fr. shackles; fetters; 
restraints; also obstacles; difficulties 
thrown in the way of any thing. 

ENTREE d'honneur des gouvemeurs, 
4" lieutenans generaux des provinces, Fr. 
the solemn entry of governors, general 
officers, &c. into the towns, citadels, 
castles and forts, within the district of 
which thev have the command. 
ENTREPAS, Fr a half-canter. 
ENTREPOTS, Fr. magazines and 
places appropriated in garrison towns, 
for the reception of stores, &c In 
mercantile sense it means an intermedi- 
ate public ware-house, where goods are 
deposited, and whence they may be for- 
warded to different quarters within or 
beyond the immediate confines of a 

ENTREPRENDRE, Fr. to under- 
take any thing from one's own mind, or 
in consequence of a superior order. 

Entreprendre une guerre, un siege, 
line bataille ; to put the armed strength 
of a country in action by marching dif- 
ferent bodies of troops against fortified 
places, by embarking them for foreign 
*ervice, or by rendering them subservient 
to military purposes in any other way. 

Entreprendre sur des quarliers, Fr. 
to appear in force against an enemy's 
quarters, with the intention of driving 
him from them. 


ENTREPRISE, Fr. See Enterprise. 
quarrel together; to disagree. 

ENTRETENIR une armie, Fr. to 
provide the necessary clothing, pay, and 
subsistence of an army. 

Entretenir la pui.v, Fr. to keep up 
the bonds of national amity, by a strict 
observance of treaties, &c. 

Entretenir la guerre, Fr. to make 
the best use of military resources, for 
the support of national glory, &c. 


E N V 

maintenance ; 
a cross quarter 

Entretenir des liaisons secretes chez 
Vennemi, Fr. to keep up, by means of 
corruption and bribery, a secret commu- 
nication with one or more persons in the 
service of an enemy. 

keeping in repair. 

of timber. 

Entretoise de couchc, Fr. the piece 
of wood which is placed between the 
cheeks of a gun-carriage, and upon which 
its breech rests. 

Entretoise de lunette, Fr. a piece of 
wood which is placed between the cheeks, 
and under the lower end, of a gun-car- 
riage. It has a hole in the middle for 
the purpose of receiving an won pin, 
which is used in advancing the cannon. 

Entretoise de mire, Fr. a piece of 
wood which is placed between the cheek* 
of a gun-carriage; that which is directly 
underneath the breech. 

Entretoise de voice, Fr. a piece of 
wood which is placed at the upper end 
of a cannon, between the two cheeks of 
its carriage. 

ENTREVOUX, Fr. space between 
two joists, or two posts. 

ENTREVUE, Fr. interview. 
First ENTRY, a record, or first writ- 
ten notice, which is taken of a transac- 
tion ; particularly in money concerns. 
Paymasters of regiments, and other pub- 
lic accountants, cannot be too circum- 
spect on this head ; for if a first entry be 
wrong, all the accomptants in Christen- 
dom could not make the statement cor- 

ENVELOPE, in fortification, a work 
of earth, sometimes in form of a single 
parapet, and at others like a small ram- 
part : it is raised sometimes in the ditch, 
and sometimes beyond it. Envelopes 
are sometimes en zig zag, to enclose a 
weak ground where that is practicable, 
with single lines, to save the great charge 
of horn-works, crown-works, and te- 
nailles, or where room is wanting for such 
large works. These sort of works are to 
be seen at Besancon, Douay, Luxem- 
burg, &c. Envelopes in a ditch are 
sometimes called sillons, contre-gardes, 
conserves, lunettes, &c. which worda 

ENVELOPPER, Fr. to surround. 
Envelopper une armie, Fr. to sur- 
round an army. 

ENVOYE, Fr. The French use this 
terra to signify an officer or trumpet , 

E P E 

( ^97 ) 

E P I 

fcho is sent from one army to another, 
either to settle an exchange of prisoners, 
or to make a communication of any kind. 

To ENVIRON, to surround in a hos- 
tile manner; to hem in; to besiege. 

EPANCHOIR, Fr. a machine made 
of planks put together, and enclosed 
round, to assist the draining out of water 
from a foundation. 

EPARGNE, Fr. the royal, or public, 

EPAULE, in fortification, denotes the 
shoulder of a bastion, or the place where 
its face and flank meet, and form the 
angle, called the angle of the shoulder. 
See Fortification. 

EPAULEMENT, in fortification, is a 
kind of breastwork to cover the troops 
in front, and sometimes in flank. In a 
siege, the besiegers generally raise an 
epaulcment of 8 or 10 feet high, near 
the entrance of the approaches to cover 
the cavalry, which is placed there to 
support the guard of the trenches 
These works are sometimes made of 
filled gabions, or fascines and earth. 
This term is frequently used for any 
work thrown up to defend the flank of a 
post, or any other place. It is sometimes 
taken for a demi-bastion, and at other 
times for a square orillon to cover the 
cannon of the casemate. See Fortifi- 

EPAULER, Fr. to support. 

Epauler une batterie, un travail, une 
tranche, une troupe, Fr. to raise a para- 
pet, or any other high fence for the se- 
curity of a battery, a work, trench, or 
troop, &c. This parapet,or fence, must 
be so constructed, that the view of the 
object is cut off from the enemy, and 
protected against an enfilade. 

EPAULETTES, military marks of 
distinction, which are worn upon the 
shoulders of commissioned and warrant 
officers. Those for the Serjeants and rank 
and file are of the colour of the facing, 
with a narrow yellow or white tape 
round it, and worsted fringe; those for 
the officers are made of gold or silver 
lace, with rich fringe and bullion. They 
are badges of distinction, worn on one, 
or both shoulders. When a serjeant or 
corporal is publicly reduced, the shoulder- 
knot is cut off by the drum-major in the 
front, or circle, of the battalion. 

EPEE, Fr. a sword. 

Mourir d'une belle Epee, Fr. to 
lie defeated by a man of superior ta- 
lents, &c. 

Traineur <?Epee, Fr. a bully ; also an 
officer of inferior capacity; a creature 
thar. wears a sword, but does not know 
how to use it. 

Avoir /'Epee trop courte, Fr. a figura- 
tive phrase, signifying not to have suffi- 
cient interest to carry a point. 

Etre /'Epee de clievet a. quelqu 'un, Fr. 
to be at the command of another. 

Faire tout blanc de son Epee, Fr. to 
boast of great interest. 

Presser un homme /'Epee dans les 
reins, Yr. to press a man hard ; or to put 
home questions. 

Faire un beau coup d' Epee, Fr. to 
make a fine job. 

Passer aujil de /'Epee, Fr. to put to 
the sword. 

EPERON, ou contre-fort, Fr. a sort 
of buttress, which is built agninst a wall 
in order to support it : or the better to 
enable it to bear a weight of earth ; 
iperon also means a spur. 

EPERONNER, Fr. to spur. 

EPERONNIER, Fr. a spurrer. 

EPERONNIERE, Fr. a spur-leather. 

EPHATIS, a purple glove, which, 
among the Romans, was always worn by 
their warriors, or by their comedians on 
the stage, when they performed the part 
of a warrior. 

EPIBATiE, Roman seamen, who 
sometimes did soldiers' duty. 

EPICU, Fr. a weapon in the shape of 
a halbert, with a sharp pointed iron. The 
shaft was four or five feet long. 

EPICYCLOID, a curve formed by 
the revolution of the periphery of a cir- 
cle along the convex, or concave, part of 
another circle. 

EPIER, Fr. to watch; to observe. 

Epier I'ennemi, Fr. to obtain intel- 
ligence relative to the movements, &c. 
of an enemy. A French author very 
properly observes, that able generals can 
always obtain information concerning the 
designs of their adversaries, without en- 
trusting the source, or sources, of that 
information to a third person: he con- 
cludes by saying, Happy is that chief 
who writes more himself, than he has oc- 
casion to dictate to his secretary ! 

EPIGNARE, Fr. a small piece of 
ordnance which does not exceed one 
pound in caliber. 

EPIGRAPH, (epigraphe, Fr.) inscrip- 
tions mentioning when, and by whom a 
building has been erected, are so called. 

EPINGLETTE, Fr. an iron needle 
with which the cartridge of any large 


C 103 ) 

E Q U 

\ of ordnance is pierced before it is lation between two, or more, tilings of 


EPIS, Fr. jetties made of fascine 

the same magnitude, quantity or quality. 
Equal circles are those whose diame- 

work and stones along the banks of a I ters are equal. 

river to prevent the current from weal- 
ing tliem away. Tliese jetties are also 
thrown out along the sea-shore, as is the 
case at Ostend and Calais. Tliev are 
sometimes made of mason-work, as at 
Dover, on the S. E. side. 

EPIZYGES, two bars of iron, which 
were used in the catapulta. 

EPONGE, Fr. a sponge. 

ffEPOUFFER, Fr. to steal away ; to 
so ilk. 

EPOUVANTE, Fr. a sudden panic 
with which troops are seized, and by 
which they are induced to retreat with- 
out any actual necessity for so doing. 

Doimer /'Epouvante, Fr. to force an 
enemy to retreat precipitately, leaving 
his baggage, &c. behind. This is effected 
by means of a sudden march, by surprize, 
and by some ingenious manoeuvre. 

Prt ndre /'Epouvante, Fr. to be seized 
with a sudden panic ; to retreat in dis- 

EPREUVE, Fr. proof; trial, bee 


Homme a toute Epueuve, tr. a man 
who may be trusted and depended upon. 

EPROUVETTE, a machine to prove 
the strength of gunpowder. There are 
different sorts of eprouvettes, according 
to the fancy of different nations who use 
them. Some raise a weight, and others 
throw a shot, to certain heights and dis- 
tances. Among the French, for gunpow- 
der to pass proof, it was required that it 
should carry a shot sixty pounds weight 
to the distance of fifty toises. 

EPTAGON. See Heptagon. 

EPUISES volantes,Yr. milis of a sim- 
ple construction, which serve to raise, or 
drain, the water, so as to make a solid 
foundation for such works as are to be 
erected on a marshy soil. 

EPUL/E militares, military banquets. 
It was customary amongst the Romans, 
when a general was saluted imperutor, 
or when an officer was promoted to the 
generalship, to give a feast to the sol- 
diers, in order to gain their support. 
The generals would do the same before 
a battle to encourage the men, and after 
the action to refresh them. This is not 
the practice of modern generals. 

EPURE, Fr. the large plan of a build- 

EQUAL, (egaf, Fr.) is a term of re- 


Equal angles are those whose sides 
are inclined alike to each other, or that 
are measured by similar parts of their 

ILqvai figures are those whose areas 
are equal, whether the figures be similar, 
or not. 

Equal solids zre such as comprehend, 
or contain, each as much as the other, or 
whose solidities and capacities are equal. 

Equal geometrical ratios, are those 
whose least terms are similar aliquot, or 
aliquant parts, of the greater. 

Equal arithmetical ratios are t 
wherein the difference of the two 
terms is equal to the difference of 
two greater. 

EQUALITY, (egu!itt;Vr.) emblema- 
tically has been represented by a lady 
lighting two torches at once; and prac- 
tically, by a mob seizing both torches 
and setting fire to every species of pro- 
perty, under a wild conception, that all 
men are equal, and have consequently a 
right to one another's goods and chattels. 
This was the case in France at the com- 
mencement of her revolution. 

To EQUALIZE, in a military sense, to 
render the distribution of any number of 
men equal as to the component parts. 

To EQUALIZE a battalion, to tell off 
a certain number of companies in such a 
manner, that the several component parts 
shall consist of the same number of men. 
In this case the grenadier and light in- 
fantry companies are squared with the 
rest of the battalion. 

EQUANGULAR, having equal an- 

EQUARRER, Fr. to make a piece of 
stone, or wood, perfectly square. 

EQUATION, an expression of the 
same quantity in two dissimilar terms, 
but of equal value. See AlgehKA. 

EQUELE, Fr, a word generally ap- 
plied to any piece of ordnance, or mus- 
ketry, but chiefly to the former, when, 
by frequt nt use, its mouth lias been 
widened, and the direction of the ball, or 
buljet, is consequently affected. 

EQUERRE, Fr. an instrument made 
of wood, or metal, which serves to trace 
and measure right angles, and to obtain 
a perpendicular line upon an horizontal 
one. This instrument is absolutely ne- 
cessary to miners. 

e a u 

( 199 ) 


EQUERRY, the master of the horse, j as to any particular department, or corn- 
It likewise means any person who is ap- ponent part, of an army, viz. equipages 

ointed to attend the King, or Prince of 

ales, in that capacity. 

EQUESTRIAN statue, the inani- 
mate resemblance, in bronze, stone, or 
marble, of any person mounted on horse- 

Equestrian order, among the Ro- 
mans, signified their knights or equites; 
as also their troopers, or horsemen, in the 
field; the first of which orders stood in 
contradistinction to the senators, as the 
last did to the foot; each of these dis- 
tinctions was introduced into the state 
by Romulus. 

EQUIANGLE, in geometry, any two 
figures whose angles are equal. Similar 
triangles, for instance, are equiangles, 
and have their sides proportionate to 
each other. 

EQUICRURAL triangle,an isosceles, 
or a triangle having equal legs. 

EQUIDISTANT, in geometry, is a 
term of relation between two things 
which are, every where, at one equal, or 
the same, distance from each other: thus 
parallel lines are said to be equidista?it, 
as they neither approach nor recede ; 
and parallel walls are equidistant from 
each other. 

EQUILATERAL, (equilalre, Fr.) in 
geometry, equally sided, or whose sides 
are all equal. Thus an equilateral trian- 
gle, is one whose sides are all of an equal 
length. All regular polygons and regular 
bodies are equilateral. 

EQUILIBRIUM, equality of weight, 
or power. 

EQUINOMES, Fr. in geometry. This 
term is applied to the angles and sides 
of two figures which follow each other 
in the same order. 

To EQUIP, (equiper, Fr.) to furnish 
an individual, a corps, or an army, with 
every thing that is requisite for military 
service; such as arms, accoutrements, 
uniforms, &c. &c. 

EQUIPAGE, in a military sense, is 
all kinds of furniture made use of by the 
army; such as 

C«w/)-Equifage, ) tents, kitchen-fur- 

Field-EaviPACE. S niture, saddle- 
horses, baggage- wagons, bat -horses, 

EQUIPAGES, ou bagages (Tune 
armie, Fr. Under this term are compre- 
hended military stores, camp equipage, 
utensils, &c. with which an army is 
usually furnished. This word is used 

a" artillerie, stores, ammunition, turn hrels, 
cannon-ball, &c. for the use of the artil- 

Equipages d'un regiment, aVune 
troupe, Fr. arms, accoutrements, &c. 
belonging to a regiment, or armed body. 

Gros Equipages, Fr. four-wheeled 
wagons, caissons, &c. 

Menus Equipages, Fr. Under this 
term are comprehended led horses, 
mules, and other beasts of burthen; 
carriages with two wheels, &c. 

L'EQUIPEMENT des soldats, Fr. the 
equipment or complete dress, including 
accoutrements and arms, ecc. of soldiers. 

Petit Equipement, Fr. half-mount- 

EQU IPM ENT, the act of getting com- 
pletely equipped, or supplied with every 
requisite for military service. 

EQUITATION, the art of manag- 
ing horses. According to Diodorus Sici- 
lianus, the Thessalians were the first who 
trained horses and rendered them fit for 
human service. The Athenians and 
Greeks, who paid great attention to equi- 
tation, were indebted to them for their 
first notions of that art. The latter 
especially made great progress in it, not 
only with regard to the training, &c. but 
they also discovered remedies for their 
several diseases. 

EQUITES, an order of equestrian 
knights introduced among the Romans 
by Romulus. 

Equites singulares, a particular corps 
of cavalry raised by order of Augustus, 
for his body guard. They were called 
equites singulares, on account of their 
beins selected from other corps. 

EQUI TRIUMPH ALES, four white 
horses abreast that drew the triumphal 
car, when a general made his entry into 

ERIGER, Fr. to raise; to build. 

S'Eriger, Vr. to invest one's-self with 
any particular authority, as S'erigcr en 
juge, to assume the tone and character 
of a judge. 

ESC AD RON, Fr. squadron. This 
term is derived from the Italian scara or 
scadra, corrupted from the Latin qua- 
drum. Froissart was the first French 
writer that made use of the word esca- 
dron to signify a troop of horse drawn 
out in order of battle. The term esca- 
dran is more ancient than bataillon. See 

£ s c 

( 200 ) 


ESCADRONNER, Fr. to form squa- 

ES( 'A LADE, Fr. See Scalade. 

Escalade d'un sohiat was used in the 
old French service to express the act of 
a soldier who got into a town, camp, or 
quarters, l>v scaling the ramparts, &c. 
When discovered in the act or so doing, 
the sentinels had orders to (ire at him ; 
and if apprehended, lie was tried and 
condemned n. death. 

ESCALADER, Fr. to scale a place. 

ESC ALE, Fr. a machine used to ap- 
ply the petard. 

ESCAPADE, Fr, irregular motion of 
a horse. 

ESCARMOIL'HE, Fr. See Skir- 

ESCARPE, Fr. the outward slope, or 
talus, of the rampart. 

ESCARPER, Fr. in cutting a rock or 
any natural soil, to give as little slope as 

ESCARPMENT. See Declivity. 

ESCARPOLETTE, Fr. a swing. 

ESCAUPILLE, Fr. a kind of quilted 
blanket, cut in the shape of a cassock, 
or long gown. This armour was sug- 
gested by necessity, when the Spaniards 
under Fernaud Cortez invaded Mexico. 
They had no wire to make coats of mail 
with, to protect themselves against the 
arrows of the Indians; but they were 
taught, by experience, that a wadding 
"between two pieces of cloth, well quilted, 
was a better safeguard than knitted brass 

ESCHARPE, (more correct/yEciiARPE, 
Fr.) a scarf. In ancient times, a military 
mark to distinguish officers and soldiers 
from the rest of the people. Before a 
regular clothing was adopted among the 
nations in Europe, officers and soldiers 
appeared with two scarfs of different 
colours, which crossed each other before 
and behind, in order to point out the 
country and the corps to which the 
wearer of them belonged. The scarf was 
preserved among the French, as late 
down as the reign of Louis the XlVth. It 
consisted of a piece of white silk. Scarfs, 
however, were continued much later 
among other nations, particularly among 
the Germans, who wear them to this 
day across their uniforms. 

ESCLISSES, Fr. splents bound about 
a broken leg. 

ESCOMPTE, Fr. discount; deduc- 
tion made from a principal sum of money. 

ESCOPECHES; Fr. large pieces of 

wood, or rafters, which are used in scaf- 

ESCOPERCIIE, Fr. an engine which 
serves to raise weights. 

BSCOPETTE, Fr. a kind of pike 
three feet and a half long, formerly used 
by the carabiniers. There is also a tire- 
arm called escopette which resembles a 
small rifle piece; it carries five hundred 
paces. The French cavalry had esco- 
pettes so late as under Lewis XIII. 

ESCOPETTERIE, Fr. a volley. 

ESCORE, Fr. a steep rock or coast. 

ESCORT, (cscorte, Fr.) safe-guard. 
See Convoy. 

Escort of deserters consists in genera] 
of a corporal and three rank and file, 
unless the number exceed four, or five. 
Deserters are conducted by them a cer- 
tain distance, and either delivered over 
to the next military station, or lodged 
in some county gaol. 

ESCOUADE, Fr. in the old French 
service, generally meant the third part 
of a company of foot, or a detachment. 
Companies were divided in this manner 
for the purpose of more conveniently 
keeping the tour of duty among the men. 

ESCOUT. See Spy. 

ESCRIME, Fr. the art of fencing; 
t i 1 1 i ii »z. 

ESCRIMEUR, Fr. a fencer; one who 
understands the sword. 

ESCUAGE, an ancient feudal tenure, 
by which the tenant was,bound to fol- 
low his lord to war, or to defend Ins 

ESKY-BAS, the Turkish soldier who 
carries the colours: in general he is the 
senior man in the company. 

ESPACES, Fr. regulated intervals 
between the battalions, the companies, 
and the tents in a camp, between the 
ranks in a manoeuvre, on a march, or in 

ESPADON, in old military books, a 
kind of two-handed sword, having two 
edges, of great length and breadth ; for- 
merly used by the Dutch. 

ESPADONNER, Fr. to fight with 
the back-sword. 

ESPEC ES, Fr. coin. Hence payer en 
especes sonnantes, to pay in cash, or 
ready money. 

ESPION, Fr. a spy. 

ESPIONNAGE, Fr. the act of ob- 
taining and giving intelligence; which is 
as dangerous to the employer as it is to 
the person who undertakes it. 

Double Espionnage, Fr. the art of 


( 201 ) 


obtaining intelligence from both sides, 
and of betraying both. A sound govern- 
ment has no occasion for either, especi- 
ally under a free constitution like that of 
England. It may suit the rottenness of 
foreign courts, and agree with Machiavt'T 
lian duplicity. A wise general must, 
however, sometimes run the hazard of 
being betrayed by making use of such 
detestable means. Fspiounage, even 
among the French, is called, Un metier 
in fame, an infamous trade. 

ESPLAMADE, in fortification, the 
sloping of the parapet of the covert-way 
towards the field, and is therefore the 
same as the glacis of the counterscarp; 
but begins to be antiquated in that sense, 
find is now only taken for the empty 
space between the glacis of a citadel, 
and the first houses of the town. 

ESPONTON, Fr. a sort of half pike. 

ESPRINGAL, in the ancient art of 
war, a machine for throwing large darts, 
general I v called muchetta. 

ESPRINGARDE, not Espringale, 
Fr. a machine for throwing stones. In 
the Dictionnairede CAcad'cmie Francaise, 
it is written Espriagale, and by some 
Espringolde; but Monstrelet, Fauchet, 
and Froissart have it as above. 

ESPRIT, Fr. mind; genius; sense, &c. 

Esprit de corps, Fr. This term is ge- 
nerally used among all military men in 
Europe. It may not improperly be de- 
fined a laudable spirit of ambition which 
produces a peculiar attachment to any 
particular corps, company, or service. 
Officers, without descending to mean 
and pitiful sensations of selfish envy, 
under the influence of a true esprit de 
corps, rise into an emulous thirst after 
military glory. The good are excited 
to peculiar feats of valour by the senti- 
ments it engenders, and the bad are de- 
terred from ever hazarding a disgrace- 
ful action through a secret conscious- 
ness of the duties it prescribes. Grena- 
diers and light infantry men are pecu- 
liarly susceptible of this impression. 
What a common battalion man might 
do with impunity, would entail disho- 
nour and reproach upon either of the 
flanks. The same observation holds 
good with respect to regiments. There 
are some corps in the British army 
whose uniform good conduct and beha- 
viour before the enemy have, from the 
first ot their establishment, secured to 
them an enviable reputation; the con- 
sequence of which is, that every young 

man who gets a commission in a corps 
of this cast, naturally feels anxious, not 
only to. support, but to add, if possible, 
to the fame it possesses. Such a senti- 
ment creates an esprit de corps. The 
Highland regiments, and the Fusileer 
corps, and also the Guards, possess this 
feeling to a high degree. 

ESQUADE. See Squad. 

S'ESQUICHER, Fr. to avoid coming 
to blows. 

ESQUILLE, Fr. splinter of a broken 

ESQUINE, Fr. literally, a horse's 
back. Un chevalfort d'esquine, a horse 
strong in the loins. Un cheval foible 
d'esquine, a horse weak in the loins. 

ESQUIRE, (ccuyer, Fr.) in the ge- 
neral acceptation of the term, a gentle- 
man who bears arms, a degree of gentry 
next below a knight. In the British 
service the rank of captain, whether in 
the line, militia, or volunteers, entitles 
the person to be called esquire; that of 
lieutenant, cornet, or ensign, makes the 
individual a gentleman, i. e. the king's 
sign manual or the signature of the lord 
lieutenant authorizes him to be so dis- 

Esquires of the king's body, certain 
officers belonging to the court. See 

S'ESQUIVER, Fr. to steal away : to 
go off" as a thief does. It is not always 
used in a bad sense. 

ESQUISSE, Fr. the first sketch or 
outlines of a drawing; it is also called 

ESS A I des amies a feu, de la poudre 
a tirer, Fr. the act of proving fire-arms, 
and of ascertaining whether gun-powder 
be fit for service. 

ILSSAY-hatch, among miners a term 
for a little trench, or hole, which they dig 
to search for ore. 

ESSEDAIRES, Fr. a kind of warriors 
in old times, who were conveyed in 
wagons, but fought on foot, and when 
pressed, retired again to their wagons. 

ESSES, in the train of artillery, are 
fixed to draught-chains, and made in the 
form of an S; one end of which is fast- 
ened to the chain, and the other hooks 
to the horses harness, or to a staple: 
they serve likewise to lengthen, and piece, 
chains together. 

ESS1EU, Fr. a piece of solid timber 

which runs across the carriage, enters 

the wheel at both ends, and is fastened 

by means of an S. The word is some- 



( 202 ) 


times written aissieu, and signifies lite- 
rally an axle-tree. 

ESSUYER le feu, Fr. to remain ex- 
posed to the fire of cannon, or mus- 

Essuyer le premier feu, Fr. to receive 
the enemy's fire without attempting to 
fire first. 

Essuvez la pierre, Fr. a word of com- 
mand in the platoon exercise, which 
signifies to try the flint. 

ESTABLAGE, Fr. the harness which 
is between the two shafts of a cart, and 
serves to support them. 

ESTItAC, Fr. an old word used in 
the manage to signify a narrow chested 
lank horse; at present the French say — 
Un chcvul 'droit. 

To ESTABLISH, to fix, to settle. It 
is likewise a technical phrase, to express 
the quartering of any considerable body 
of troops in a country. Thus it is com- 
mon to say, the army took up a posi- 
tion in the neighbourhood of , anc 

established its head-quarters at . 

ESTABLISHMENT, in the military 
sense, implies the quota of oflicers and 
men in an army, regiment, troop, or 

Pertce-EsTABLisiiMENT is the reduc- 
tion of corps to a certain number, by 
which the aggregate force of a country 
is diminished, and its expenditure les- 

Winr-EsTABLisHMENT is the augmen- 
tation of regiments to a certain number, 
by which the whole army of a country is 
considerably increased. 

ili//iVar?/-EsTABi J isiiMENT, an esta- 
blishment so called in India, compre- 
hending the allowances for tent, camels 
and drivers, which must always be kept 
in readiness, as no olficer knows when 
and where he may be ordered to march, 
at a minute's notice. Serious disturb- 
ances were occasioned in that part of 
the British empire by a retrenchment of 
some of these allowances. 

ESTABLISSEMENT, Fr. an advan- 
tageous position, in which a body of 
troops, well supplied with provisions, 
will make a successful stand. 

ESTACADE, Fr. a dyke constructed 
with piles, in the sea,a river, or morass, 
to oppose the entry of troops, or of suc- 

ESTAFETTE, a military courier, sent 
express from one part of an army to 

ESTAFFE, Fr. contribution money. 

ESTAFILADE, Fr. a cut across the 

The three ESTATES (of the realm) 
are three orders of the kingdom of Eng- 
land, viz. the lords spiritual, the lords 
temporal, constituting the peers or Up- 
per House, and the Commons who make 
the Lower House. The Mutiny Bill is an- 
nually discussed in the latter, and, with 
the consent of the lords, passes into a 
code of laws for the government of the 
army; subject, nevertheless, to the king's 

ESTERLING. See Sterling. 

ESTIMATE, computation; calcula- 
tion. Army estimates are the com- 
putation of expenses to be incurred 
in the support of an army for a given 

ESTOC, Fr. the point of a sword or 
sabre, or of any other weapon. 

D Estoc et tie Taille, Fr. to push 
and thrust vigorously at one's antagonist, 
in every direction. 

ESTOCADE, Fr. a long rapier, (cal- 
led, in derision, brette, or Jlamberge,) 
used by duellists. 

ESTOILE. See Etoile. 

ES IRA I) E, Fr. a road, or way. This 
word is derived from the Italian strada, 
which signifies road, street, or way. 
Some writers take its etymology from 
Estradiotes, a class of men on horse- 
back, who were employed in scouring 
the roads, and in procuring intelligence 
respecting the movements of an army. 
See Battel - r d'estrade. 

Estrade, ou retraite, Fr. the retro-t 
grade movement which an armed body 
makes in order to avoid an engagement, 
or to secure a retreat after haviug been 

ESTRADIOTES, Fr. brave warriors, 
who, like the Turks and Arabs, are very 
expert in managing their horses. They 
formerly made themselves extremely 
formidable in that part of Italy which is 
called the Apcnnine mountains; for, be- 
ing more hardy than the Turks, they 
could keep the field the whole year 
round. Their favourite weapon was the 

fiSTRAMACON, Fr. a kind of sword 
or sabre, formerly in use. It also means 
the edge of a sabre. 

Estramacon, Fr. a cut over the head. 

ESTRAMA CONNER, Fr. to play, or 
fight with a sabre. 

ESTRAN, Fr. a beach ; a flat sandy 



( 203 ) 



ESTRAPADE, Jr. strappado. See 

ESTRAPADER, Jr. to give the 
strappado; to put to the rack. 

ESTRAPASSER, Fr. to ride a horse 
beyond his strength. 

ESTRAPONTIN, Fr. a cricket, or 
loose seat for the tore-part of a carriage. 
ESTROPlE, Fr. manned; lame. 
Cervelle ESTROPIEE, Fr. a crack- 
brained person. 

ESTUARY, any ditch or pit where 
the tide comes, or is overflowed by the 
sea, at high water. 

ETA 8LIES, Fr. companies,squadrons, 
or battalions of soldiers : so called in 
old times, because they were appointed 
together to certain places or stand- 
ings, which they were to hold or make 
good. The term garrison has since been 

ETABLIR, Fr. to establish. 
ETAGE, Fr. See Floor. 
Etage soulerrain, Fr. the under- 
ground floor. 

Etage uu rez-dc-chausse, Fr. the 
ground floor. 

Etage quarre, Fr. an even floor which 
has no slope, ccc. 

Etage en galetas, Fr. a garret. 
ETAGES de batteries, Fr. the different 
stages, or small eminences/ forming some- 
times a species of amphitheatre,) upon 
which batteries are erected, as at the 
flanks of bastions, ccc. or in other quar- 
ters. Their use, or object, is to protect 
every thing in front by a considerable 
range of artillery. The battery which 
is least elevated on a bastion is called 
butierie inferieure, oujianc bas, lower 
battery, or under flank. The next is 
termed seconde batterie, second battery, 
whether it consists of two or more 
pieces; and the highest is named batte- 
rie superieure, superior, or upper battery. 
Advantage is often taken of the ground 
upon which a fortress is erected, in 
order to dispose artillery in this man- 
ner; and the declivitv of a mountain is 
equally useful towards covering an army 
in the day of battle. 

Etages defourneuux, ou de mines, Fr. 
the various chambers, or excavations, 
which are made, one over the other, for 
the defence, or attack, of fortified places. 
ETAIMor ETAIN, Fr. tin; a white 
metal of a consistency less hard than 
silver, but firmer than lead. It is used 
in the casting of cannon. The beat qua- 
lity is found in Cornwall. 

ETALON, Fr. a stallion ; a horse used 
for covering mares. 

Etalon, Fr. the regulated weight, or 
measure, of things that are sold; as the 
assize of bread, ccc. 

ETALONNER, Fr. to take the just 
quantity, scantling, pattern, or size of 
things; to assize measures; to adjust 
weights, ccc. 

ETAMPER, Fr. a term used in far- 
riery to signify the act of piercing a 
horse shoe in eight places. 

Met Ire en ETANCHE, Fr. to dry up ; 
in sluices to draw off the waters, in 
order to examine the bottom. 

Etanche, Fr. This word is also used 
with respect to flood-gates: signifying 
that they do not let the water out. 

ETANCONNER, Fr. In mining, and 
in other works of fortification, to put up 
stays, ike. 

ETAN^ONS, Fr. stays, supporteri; 
large pieces of wood fixed vertically in 
the cavities of mines, for the purpose 
of sustaining the weight of earth that is 
laid upon the galleries. 

fiTANG, Fr. a pond; a lake; also a 
reservoir for water; hence probably our 
word tank. 

ETANT, Jr. standing; arbresen itunt, 
standing trees. 

ETA PE, Fr. subsistence, or a soldier's 
daily allowance; a storehouse. 
Etape also signifies halting day. 
ETA PIERS, Fr. military purveyors, 
who accompany the French armies, or 
are stationed in particular places to sup- 
ply the troops on their march. 

ET AT, Fr. state; condition; roll, or 
list of names, ccc. such as a muster-roll. 
Etat likewise means the pay list. It is 
also called, etat nominatif. 

ETAT-Major, Fr. staff'. Etat-major 
in the French service is a more compre- 
hensive term than staff appears to be, 
in our acceptation of the word. As we 
have in some degree adopted the term, 
it cannot be superfluous to give a short 
account of its origin, ccc. Among the 
French, according to the author of the 
Recueil Alphabclique de tons les termes 
proprts ci I'art de la guerre, etat-major 
signifies a specific number of officers who 
are distinguished from others belonging 
to the same corps. It did not follow, 
that every regiment was to have its staff, 
as the king had the power of appointing, 
or suppressing, staff officers at pleasure. 
The etat-major general de I'infanterie, 
or the general staff of the infantry, was 
•2D 2 


( 204 ) 

E T E 

created under Francis I. in 1525. That 
of the light cavalry under Charles IX. 
in 1565. That of the dragoons under 
Louis XIV. in 1669. 

The etat-major of an infantry regi- 
ment was composed of the colonel, the 
major, the aid-major, quarter-master, the 
chaplain, the provost-marshal, the sur- 
geon, and the attendant commissary, 
who was called le commiasairc a la con- 
duit e. To these were added the lieute- 
nant of the provostsbip, the person who 
kept the regimental register, or the gref- 
fler, the drum-major, six archers, and 
the executioner. By this establishment 
it is presupposed, that a provostsbip was 
allowed in the regiment, which was not a 
general regulation, hut depended upon 
the king's pleasure. 

The 'etat-major, or staff of an old 
French regiment of cavalry, according 
to the Ortlonnancc, or military regula- 
tion, which was issued on the4thbf No- 
vember, in 1651, consisted of the mestre 
de camp, or colonel of the horse, the 
major and the aid-major. It is therein 
particularly stated, that the etat-major 
of a cavalry regiment shall not have a 
provostsbip, a chaplain, a surgeon, nor 
any other subordinate officer under that 

Every fortified town or place had like- 
wise its appropriate etat-n-iajor, consist- 
ing of a certain number of officers, who 
were subject to specific and distinct re- 

By an order dated the 1st of August, 
1733, the officers belonging to the etat- 
major of a garrison town, or citadel, 
were strictly forbidden to absent them- 
selves-more than four days from their 
places of residence, without especial 
leave from the kin<:, not even for four 
days, unjess they obtained permission 
from the governor, or commandant, of 
the town, or citadel. See Staff-corps. 

Etat de la guerre, Fr. the necessary 
dispositions and arrangements agreed 
upon between a government, the com- 
mander in chief, and such officers as the 
latter may think proper to consult, in 
order to carry on a campaign with ad- 
vantage. Properly speaking, it is the 
plan which is to be followed relative to 
the nature and number of the troops 
that are to be employed. 

Faire Etat, Fr. to presume; to think; 
suppose. Je fais etat qxiil y a la vingt 
mille hommes, I presume there may be 
twenty thousand men in that place. Faire 

i lat a" une chose, to be certain of a thing 
to depend upon having it. 

/,( x ETA IS, Fr. the Dutch Provinces 
were formerly so called; as les etats de 
Hollande, the States of Holland. 

ETENDARD, Fr. standard. This 
word derives its name from the circum- 
stance of its application; being constant- 
ly stretched out, (ctendu,) or displayed. 
Etendard is more particularly applied 
to the standards of cavalry. It signifies, 
in a general sense, any mark under 
which men rally; also, j figuratively, to 
take a decided part, as lever t'eten- 

ETENDRE unc armec, Fr. to extend 
the front, or advanced posts, of an army, 
for the purpose of appearing formidable 
to the enemy, or of outflanking him. 
This is a most ciitical manoeuvre, and 
requires the nicest judgment. The battle 
of Marengo would probably never have 
been lost by the Austrians, had not their 
general, Melas, weakened bis center, by 
the extension of his Hanks. This ill- 
judged movement gave the opening 
which was so dexterously seized upon 
by General Uessaix ; to whom the French 
were chiefly indebted for the victory. 

Etkndrf. unc tranchie, Fr. to prolong 
the parallels, or places of arnis,either on 
one side only, or to the right and left of 
a trench. 

Etendre an homme snr le carreau, Fr. 
to kill a man; literally to lay him flat 
upon the ground. 

ETEN'DUE, Fr. in geometry, extent, 
space, size, that is, the .ength, breadth, 
and depth, or thickness, of any body or 
surface whatsoet ei*. 

ETERCILLON, ou arcboutant, Fr. 
buttress; a piece of wood which is 
placed transverse, or horizontally in the 
galleries of a mine, in order to sustain 
the earth on both sides; but most espe- 
cially to keep the chamber well closed, 
and to support the corners of the gal- 
lery. See Etuesii.lux. 

ETERNITY, (ctcrnite, Fr.) infinite 
duration ; a gulph that lies beyond that 
bourn from which (to use the expression 
of our immortal poet) no traveller re- 
turns, but into which the soldier plunges 
with undaunted mind. I am aware that 
the insertion of this article will be liable 
to the pert observation of unthinking 
coxcombs, or to the gloomy censure of 
unprincipled deists. It is not addressed 
to either of these characters; and the 
following anecdote will rescue it from 

E T O 

( 205 ) 

E T R 

the imputation of not being of a mili- 
tary cast. 

On the eve of the battle of Roucou 
near Liege, it was found expedient by 
the celebrated Marshal Saxe to give out 
in orders, that a body of Forlorn Hope 
should be ready to attack a particular 
battery which had been erected on a 
neighbouring height by the Dutch. The 
gentleman to whose turn of duty the 
forlorn hope fell, being sensible of the 
irregularities of his life, applied to Co- 
lonel Fenelon, a descendantof the Arch- 
bishop, and a person remarkable for 
piety and good order, to exchange du- 
ties; observing, that as he must be pre- 
pared for eternity, he could not have any 
objection to the proposal. The colonel 
cheerfully assented; the exchange of du- 
ties was allowed, and in the morning, 
Fenelon led the forlorn hope up to the 
battery, which was instantly carried by 
bis followers; having himself been kill- 
ed by the first discharge of the enemy's 
artillery. See Religion. 

Cheval ETIQUE, Fr. a raw bone 

ETIQUETER, Fr. to write, or put a 
note, or title to; to ticket. 

ETIQUETTE, a French term, prima- 
rily denoting a ticket or title affixed to 
a bag or bundle of papers, expressing 
its contents. It is also used, when ap- 
plied to the Spanish and some other 
courts, to signify a particular account of 
what is to be done daily in the king's 
household. See Docket. 

Etiquette, from the French, a rule 
of conduct which is to be observed 
among the privileged orders of mankind, 
particularly at courts and at head-quar- 
ters ; hence military etiquette. 

ETOFFE bigarree, Fr. plaid ; such as 
is worn by the Scotch, and by Highland 

ETOILE, Fr. a small and bright arti- 
ficial (ire-work which is sometimes at- 
tached to sky-rockets. When it explode? 
it is called etoile a pet. 

ETOILES, Fr. small star redoubts, 
which are constructed by means of an- 
gles rentrant and angles sortant, and have 
from five to eight salient points. Each 
one of their sides, or faces, may contain 
from 12 to 25 toises. This species of 
fortification has fallen into disuse, not 
only because etoiles do not possess the 
advantage of having their angle rentrant 
effectually flanked, but because they 
have been superseded by square re- 

doubts, which are sooner built, and are 
applicable to the same purposes of de- 

ETOUPE, Fr .in pyrotechnv, a thread, 
or match, which is prepared in a parti- 
cular wav, in order to light fire-works; 
principally such as are destined not to 
take fire until a given lapse of time. 

ETOUPILLE; Fr. an inflammable 
match, composed of three threads of 
very fine cotton, which is well steeped in 
brandy mixed with the best priming gun- 

ETRANGERS, Fr. strangers. 

Reglemens milituires relatifs uux 
EritANGERs^ui arrivent aux porles d'une 
ville de guerre, Fr. rules and regulations 
to be observed in all garrison towns with 
respect to strangers. It is customary in 
all garrison towns abroad, not to suffer 
a stranger to enter the place without 
being asked, at the outward gate, his 
name, the place he comes from, whither 
he is going, and at what inn, or private 
house, he intends to alight. He next is 
brought to the officer of the guard, who 
has him conducted before the governor 
or commandant, who suffers him to pro- 
ceed, if his papers are correct; if not, 
he is put under arrest. The inhabitants 
and inn-keepers are obliged to send in, 
within twenty-four hours* the names of 
their lodgers. It were to be wished that 
more circumspection could be observed 
in our own sea-ports on this head. 

ETRANGLER, Fr. to strangle. This 
word is used among artificers in France, 
and signifies to tighten, or bind fast, the 
head, or orifice, of a cartouch, or fuse. 

ETRAPADF, Fr. a sort of crane 
with a pulley. This machine was for- 
merly used among the French to pu- 
nish military delinquents; it was hence 
called Citrapdde. The unfortunate 
wretch had his hands tied behind his 
back, with ropes fastened to them; he 
was then hauled up, and suddenly let 
down within one foot of the ground ; so 
that by means of the jerk, and through 
the weight of his body, every limb must 
instantly be dislocated. This barbarous 
and inhuman mode of torturing the hu- 
man frame was repeated more than once, 
according to the degree of guilt with 
which the culprit stood accused or con- 
victed. This punishment was formerly 
in use at Rome, for the purpose of cor- 
recting disorderly conduct at the opera, 
" ETRESILLONS, Fr. in mining, 

E V E 

( 206' ) 

E V O 

Piece*; of timber which are laid cross- 
wise, or horizontally, in the galleries of 
mines in order to support the earth on 
each side, particularly to close up the 
chamber of a mine, ccc. 

ETRIER, Fr. stirrup; also an iron 

ETRILLE, Fr. a curry comb; also a 
spunging house. 

ETRIYIERES, uu courroics, Fr. stir- 
rup, leathers. 

ETUI mathimatique, Fr. a case for 
holding mathematical instruments. 

To EVACUATE, (ivacucr, Fr.) in 
military history, a term made use of in 
the articles of capitulation granted to 
the besieged at the time they surrender 
to the besiegers, and signifying to quit. 

EVACUATION, (evacuation, Fr.) the 
evacuation of a town, or post, in conse- 
quence of a treaty between the belli- 
gerent or neutral powers, in pursuance 
of superior orders, or from obvious ne- 

To EVADE, to escape; to shift off. 

S'EVADER, Fr. to go off clandes- 
tinely ; to retreat in the night, or under 
anv other cover. 

EVAGINATION, an unsheathing, or 
drawing out, from a sheath, or scabbard. 

EVASEMENT, JV. width, extent. 
Evasement d'une embrasure, Fr. that 
part of an embrasure that is facing the 

EVASION, (evasion, Fr.) clandestine 
retreat; an escape; also a shift or trick. 
A quality (never of an amiable sort) 
which, like chicanery, is current among 
politicians and lawyers, but is always be- 
neath the dignified and open character of 
a soldier. 

EVASIVE, crafty, deceitful. It is 
always spoken in a bad sense. 

EVEILLER, Fr. to awake; to rouse. 
The French say figuratively ezcil/cr le lion 
qui dort, to rouse, or to wake, the sleeping 
lion, i. e. to disturb, or provoke, a person 
who has another in his power. 

EVENS, Fr. in fortification, ventila- 
tors, or holes that are made in the prin- 
cipal gallery of a counter-mine, for the 
circulation of air. 

EVENT, Fr. vent. This word is par- 
ticularly applicable to the vent or cavity 
which is left in cannon, or other fire- 
arms, after they have been proved and 
found defective. The vent is sometimes 
round and sometimes Jong. Vents are 
frequently so exiguous, that they appear 
like lines of a small fibre, through which 

water will ooze and smoke evaporate. 
Ihese pieces, whether of ordnance, or of 
musketry, are of course rejected. 

EVERSION, Fr. the ruin, the over- 
throw of a state, occasioned by a long 
war, or by continual internal disturb- 
ances and seditions. 

EVIDENCE, a declaration made vivi 
voce of what any person knows of his 
own knowledge relative to the matter in 
question. Military men are obliged to 
attend and give evidence before courts- 
martial, without any expense to the pro- 
secutor or prisoner. 

Hem sat/ Evidence, the declaration of 
what one has heard from others. As in 
all other courts of British judicature, 
this species of evidence is not admissible 
in courts-martial. 

EVOCATI were a class of soldiers 
among the Romans, who, after having 
served their full time in the army, entered 
as volunteers to accompany some fa- 
vourite general. Hence they were like- 
wise called emeriti ami bentficiarii. 

EVOCATION, a religious ceremony 
which was always observed among the 
Romans at the commencement of a siege, 
wherein they solemnly called upon the 
g©ds and goddesses of the place to for- 
sake it, and come over to them. When 
any place surrendered, they always took 
it for granted that their prayer had been 
heard, and that the Dii Penates, or the 
household gods of the place, had come 
over to them. 

EVOLUTION, from the Latin evoivo, 
I roll out; I unravel. In the art of war, 
the motion made by a body of troops, 
when they aie obliged to change their 
form and disposition, in order to pre- 
serve a post, occupy another, to attack 
an enemy with moie advantage, or to be 
in a condition of defending themselves 
the beiter. That evolution is best, which, 
with a given number of men, may be ex- 
ecuted in the least space, and conse- 
quently in the hast time possible. 

Evolution of the. moderns is a change 
of position, which has always for its 
object either offence or defence. The 
essentials in the performance of an evo- 
lution are, order, directness, and the 
greatest possible rapidity. 

Evolutions may be divided into two 
classes, the simple and the compound ; 
simple evolutions are those which consist 
in simple movements, which do not alter 
the shape or figure of the battalion, but 
merely afford a more or less extended 

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front or depth; keep it more or less 
closed to its flank, or center, turn its as- 
pect to flank or rear, or break it into di- 
visions, sub-divisions, sections or files, in 
order that it may unfold itself, or defile 
and resume its proper front, or order of 
battle. All the various ways of defiling, 
forming line, opening to right and left, 
closing, or deploying, doubling the ranks 
or files, or changing front upon either of 
the flanks by conversion, are called sim- 
ple evolutions. 

Compound evolutions are those which 
change the shape and figure of batta- 
lions, break them into divisions or com- 
panies, separate the companies from the 
main body, and again replace, or rejoin 
them ; in a word, which afford the 
means of presenting a front at every di- 

Compound evolutions are practised 
either by repeating the same simple evo- 
lution several times, or by going through 
several simple evolutions, which ulti- 
mately tend to the same object. 

The Evolutions of the ancients were 
formed and executed with uncommon 
good sense and ability. Considering the 
depth and size of the Grecian phalanx, 
it is astonishing how the different parts 
could be rendered susceptible of the most 
intricate and varied evolutions. The 
Roman legion, though more favourable 
to such changes and conversions, from 
being more loose and detached, did not 
execute them upon sounder, or better 
principles. ' 

Evolution (in geometry). The equal 
evolution of the periphery of a circle, or 
any other curve, is such a gradual ap- 
proach of the circumference to rectitude, 
as that all its parts meet together, 
and equally evolve, or unbend.: so that 
the same line becomes successively a less 
arch of a reciprocally greater circle, till 
at last they turn into a straight line. 

Evolution of pozecrs (in algebra), 
extracting of roots from any given power, 
being the reverse of involution. 

EVUIDER, Fr. to gutter; to groove; 
to cut in small hollows: a term used 
among locksmiths. 

EXAGON. See Hexagon. 
EXAMILIAN, a famous wall two 
leagues long, which one of the Grecian 
Emperors caused to be erected on the 
isthmus of Corinth. Amu rat II. ordered 
it to be demolished, but the Venetians 
had it erected again in 1463, in a fort- 
night's time. 

EXAMINER, one who scrutinizes* 
Examiner of the army accounts, a 
person in office, under whose inspection 
all claims made by the regimental agents 
fall ; to whose office they are transmitted 
of course, in virtue of a general delega- 
tion of that duty to him by the secretary 
at war. After his examination and re- 
port, the secretary at war, in many in- 
stances, orders partial issues of money 
by letter to the pay-master general. No 
final payment is made, except under the 
authority of a warrant countersigned by 
the secretary at war, and in most in- 
stances by three lords of the treasury. 
The regimental agents account finally to 
the secretary at war. 

EXAMPLE, (exemple, Fr.) any act, of 
word which disposes to imitation — The 
example of a superior officer has con- 
siderable influence over the mind of an 
inferior; but in no one instance does it 
appear more important than in the good, 
or bad, behaviour of a non-commissioned 
officer or corporal. These characters, 
therefore, should be particularly correct 
in their duties, tenacious of every prin- 
ciple of military honour, and remarkable 
for honesty. Old soldiers should like- 
wise direct their attention to the strict 
observance of rules and regulations, as 
young recruits always look up to them 
for example. 

EXAMINATION, a scrutiny, or in- 
vestigation of abilities, conduct, &c. All 
officers of artillery and engineers are ob- 
liged to undergo an examination in ma- 
thematiqs, fortification, and gunnery, 
prior to their having commissions. Sur- 
geons and assistant surgeons are exa- 
mined before the medical board. 

EXARCH, (exarque, Fr.) an officer 
formerly under the Roman emperors of 
Constantinople, who managed the af- 
fairs of Italy; a viceroy. The Exarchs 
of Ravenna possessed great powers; so 
much so, that Italy was balanced between 
them, the Lombards, and the Popes. 

EXAUCTORATIO, in the Roman 
military discipline, differed from the mis- 
sio, which was a full discharge, and took 
place after the soldiers had served in the 
army twenty years; whereas the e.rauc- 
toratio was only a partial discharge : 
they lost their pay indeed, but still kept 
under their colours or vexilla, though 
not under the aquila or eagle, which was 
the standard of the legion; whence, in- 
stead of legionarii, they were called sub- 

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tigriani, and were retained till they had 
either served their full time, or had lands 
assigned to them. The exuuctoratio 
took place after they had served seven- 
teen years. 

EXCAVATION, the act of cutting, 
or otherwise making hollows; also the 
cavity formed. In military matters, it 
is general I v applied to the place from 
which the earth, or other substance, has 
been taken Ivy mining. 

EXCELLENCY, a title anciently 
given to kings and emperors, but now 
chiefly confined to ambassadors, generals, 
and other persons who are not entitled 
to that of highness, and yet are to be 
elevated above the other inferior dig- 

It is likewise applicable to persons in 
high command ; as his Excellency the 
Commander in Chief, &c. 

EXCHANGE, in a military sense, 
implies the removal of an officer from 
one regiment to another, or from full to 
half-pay, and vice versa. It is usual on 
these occasions for individuals